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Medical Dictionary


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radiculitis (ra-dik-u-li′tis)
SYN: radiculopathy. [radicul- + G. -itis, inflammation] acute brachial r. SYN: neuralgic amyotrophy.

radiculo-, radicul-
Radicle; radicular. [L. radicula, radicle, dim. of radix, root]

radiculoganglionitis (ra-dik′u-lo-gang′gle-o-ni′tis)
Involvement of roots and ganglia.

radiculomeningomyelitis (ra-dik′u-lo-me-ning′go-mi-e-li′tis)
SYN: rhizomeningomyelitis.

radiculomyelopathy (ra-dik′u-lo-mi′e-lop′a-the)
SYN: myeloradiculopathy.

radiculoneuropathy (ra-dik′u-lo-noo-rop′a-the)
Disease of the spinal nerve roots and nerves.

radiculopathy (ra-dik′u-lop′a-the)
Disorder of the spinal nerve roots. SYN: radiculitis. [radiculo- + G. pathos, suffering] diabetic thoracic r. a type of diabetic neuropathy that affects primarily elderly patients with diabetes mellitus; clinically characterized by thoracic or abdominal pain, mainly anterior, but sometimes with radiation around the trunk from the midline; usually unilateral; may extend over several segments; probably due to ischemic injury of two or more contiguous roots; one type of diabetic polyradiculopathy.

radiectomy (ra-de-ek′to-me)
SYN: root amputation. [L. radix, root, + G. ektome, excision]

radiferous (ra-dif′er-us)
Containing radium.

radii (ra′de-i)
Plural of radius. [L.]

radio-
1. Radiation, chiefly (in medicine) gamma or x-ray. 2. SYN: radioactive. 3. SYN: radius. [L. radius, ray]

radioactive (ra′de-o-ak′tiv)
Possessing radioactivity. SYN: radio- (2) .

radioactive cow
Colloquialism for radionuclide generator. SEE ALSO: cow.

radioactivity (ra′de-o-ak-tiv′i-te)
The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (α and β rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in disintegrations per second (dps). One dps is equal to 1 becquerel, and 3.7 × 1010 dps equals 1 curie. artificial r. the r. of isotopes created by the bombardment of naturally occurring isotopes by subatomic particles, or high levels of x- or gamma radiation. SYN: induced r.. induced r. SYN: artificial r..

radioautogram (ra′de-o-aw′to-gram)
Older term for autoradiograph.

radioautography (ra′de-o-aw-tog′ra-fe)
SYN: autoradiography.

radiobicipital (ra′de-o-bi-sip′i-tal)
Relating to the radius and the biceps muscle.

radiobiology (ra′de-o-bi-ol′o-je)
The study of the biologic effects of ionizing radiation upon living tissue. Cf. radiopathology.

radiocalcium (ra′de-o-kal′se-um)
A radioisotope of calcium, particularly calcium-45.

radiocarbon (ra′de-o-kar′bon)
A radioactive isotope of carbon; e.g., 14C.

radiocardiogram (ra′de-o-kar′de-o-gram)
A graphic record of the concentration of injected radioisotope within the cardiac chambers.

radiocardiography (ra′de-o-kar-de-og′ra-fe)
The technique of recording or interpreting radiocardiograms.

radiocarpal (ra′de-o-kar′pal)
1. Relating to the radius and the bones of the carpus. 2. On the radial or lateral side of the carpus.

radiocephalpelvimetry (ra′de-o-sef-al-pel-vim′e-tre)
SYN: pelvimetry. [radio- + cephal- + pelvimetry]

radiochemistry (ra′de-o-kem′is-tre)
1. The science of using radionuclides to synthesize labeled compounds for biochemical or biologic research, or radiopharmaceuticals for clinical diagnostic studies. 2. The study of methods of labeling compounds with radionuclides. 3. The science concerned with the effects of ionizing or nuclear radiation on chemical reactions or materials.

radiochlorine (ra′de-o-klor′en)
A radioactive isotope of chlorine, e.g., 36Cl.

radiocholangiography (ra′de-o-ko-lan-je-og′ra-fe)
Cholangiography obtained by the intravenous administration of an excreted radiopharmaceutical. [radio- + cholangiography]

radiocholecystography (ra′de-o-ko-le-sis-tog′ra-fe)
Visualization of the gallbladder by scintigraphic means using a radiopharmaceutical such as technetium-99m–labeled iminodiacetic acid derivative. [radio- + cholecysoghraphy]

radiocineangiocardiography (ra′de-o-sin′e-an′je-o-kar-de-og′ra-fe)
Scintigraphic motion picture of the passage of a radiopharmaceutical through the heart and great vessels. [radio- + cineangiography]

radiocineangiography (ra′de-o-sin′e-an′je-og′ra-fe)
Scintigraphic motion pictures of the passage of a radiopharmaceutical through blood vessels.

radiocinematography (ra′de-o-si-ne-ma-tog′ra-fe)
Taking a motion picture of the movements of organs or other structures as revealed by x-ray fluoroscopic examination. [radio- + G. kinema, motion, + grapho, to write]

radiocobalt (ra′de-o-ko′balt)
A radioactive isotope of cobalt; e.g., 60Co.

radiocurable (ra′de-o-kur′a-bl)
Curable by irradiation therapy.

radiodense (ra′de-o-dens)
SYN: radiopaque.

radiodensity (ra′de-o-den′si-te)
SYN: radiopacity.

radiodermatitis (ra′de-o-der-ma-ti′tis)
Dermatitis due to exposure to x-rays or gamma rays causing ionization of tissue water with acute changes resembling thermal injury.

radiodiagnosis (ra′de-o-di-ag-no′sis)
Diagnosis using x-rays; or, more broadly, diagnostic imaging, including radiology, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance.

radiodigital (ra′de-o-dij′i-tal)
Relating to the fingers on the radial or lateral side of the hand.

radioelectrophysiologram (ra′de-o-e-lek′tro-fiz-e-ol′o-gram)
The record obtained by means of the radioelectrophysiolograph.

radioelectrophysiolograph (ra′de-o-e-lek′tro-fiz-e-ol′o-graf)
Formerly, an apparatus carried by a mobile individual by means of which changes in electrical potential from the brain or heart can be picked up and radio-transmitted to an electroencephalograph or an electrocardiograph. See telemeter.

radioelectrophysiolography (ra′de-o-e-lek′tro-fiz′e-o-log′ra-fe)
Formerly, recording the changes in the electrical potential of the brain or heart by means of the radioelectrophysiolograph. See telemetry.

radioelement (ra′de-o-el′e-ment)
Any element possessing radioactivity.

radioepithelitis (ra′de-o-ep′i-the-li′tis)
Destructive changes in epithelium produced by ionizing radiation.

radiofrequency (ra′de-o-fre′kwen-se)
1. Radiant energy of a certain frequency range; e.g., radio and television employ radiant energy having a frequency between 105–1011 Hz, while diagnostic x-rays have a frequency in the range of 3 × 1018 Hz. 2. In magnetic resonance imaging, the energy applied to switch or create a gradient in the magnetic field.

radiogallium (ra′de-o-gal′e-um)
Gallium that is radioactive. See gallium-67, gallium-68.

radiogenesis (ra′de-o-jen′e-sis)
The formation or production of radioactivity resulting from radioactive transformation or disintegration of radioactive substances. [radio- + G. genesis, production]

radiogenic (ra′de-o-jen′ik)
1. Producing rays of any sort, especially electromagnetic rays. 2. Caused by x- or gamma rays.

radiogenics (ra′de-o-jen′iks)
The science of radiation.

radiogold colloid (ra′de-o-gold kol′oyd)
A radioactive isotope of gold emitting negative beta particles and gamma radiation, with a half-life of 2.7 days; formerly used for irradiation of closed serous cavities in the palliative treatment of ascites and pleural effusion due to metastatic malignancies, and for liver scans. SYN: 198Au colloid, colloidal radioactive gold.

radiogram (ra′de-o-gram)
Obsolete term for radiograph. [radio- + G. gramma, something written]

radiograph (ra′de-o-graf)
A negative image on photographic film made by exposure to x-rays or gamma rays that have passed through matter or tissue. SYN: roentgenogram, roentgenograph, x-ray (3) . [radio- + G. grapho, to write] bitewing r. intraoral dental film adapted to show the coronal portion and cervical third of the root of the teeth in near occlusion; especially useful in detecting interproximal caries and determining alveolar septal height. cephalometric r. a radiographic view of the jaws and skull permitting measurement. SYN: cephalogram. decubitus r. a r. of a recumbent subject on his side, made in the frontal projection with a horizontal x-ray beam. SYN: lateral decubitus r.. lateral decubitus r. SYN: decubitus r.. lateral oblique r. a radiographic view of the mandible, revealing one side of the mandible from symphysis to condyle by displacing the other side upwards. lateral ramus r. a radiographic view of the mandibular ramus and condyle. lateral skull r. a true lateral projection r. of facial bones and calvarium, showing bone structures and air-containing passages. maxillary sinus r. a radiographic frontal view of the maxillary sinuses, orbits, nasal structures and zygomas; permits direct comparison of the sides. SYN: Waters view r.. occlusal r. intraoral section film positioned on the occlusal plane and used in visualizing entire sections of the jaw; especially useful in exploring calcifications of the sublingual salivary glands. panoramic r. a radiographic view of the maxillae and mandible extending from the left to the right glenoid fossae. periapical r. a r. demonstrating tooth apices and surrounding structures in a particular intraoral area. scout r. SYN: scout film. submental vertex r. SYN: submentovertex r.. submentovertex r. a radiographic projection showing the base of the skull, positions of the mandibular condyles, and zygomatic arches. SYN: base view, submental vertex r.. Towne projection r. See Towne projection. transcranial r. a radiographic view of the temporomandibular articulation. Trendelenburg r. r. of a subject tilted head downwards, usually in the decubitus position; used to detect small pleural effusions. Waters view r. SYN: maxillary sinus r..

radiographer (ra-de-og′ra-fer)
A technician trained to position patients and take radiographs or perform other radiodiagnostic procedures.

radiography (ra′de-og′ra-fe)
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of x-rays with the record of the findings usually impressed upon a photographic film. SYN: roentgenography. advanced multiple-beam equalization r. (AMBER) a variant of scanning equalization r. using several x-ray beams. air-gap r. chest r. with a space (at least 10 inches) between the subject and film. Instead of using a grid, this method uses the geometry and x-ray absorption by the air to remove scattered radiation. bedside r. SYN: portable r.. computed r. (CR) converting transmitted x-rays into light, using a solid-state imaging device such as a photostimulable phosphor plate, and recovering and processing the image using a digital computer; the image may then be printed on film or displayed on a computer screen. digital r. (DR) direct conversion of transmitted x-rays into a digital image using an array of solid-state detectors such as amorphous selenium or silicon, with computer processing and display of the image. See DSA. electron r. radiographic imaging in which x-radiation incident on the receptor is converted to a latent charge image and subsequently recovered by a special printing process; advantages include wider latitude of exposure and greater sensitivity than conventional film-screen combinations. See xeroradiography, phosphor plate. filmless r. electronic acquisition and distribution of radiographic images, eliminating the handling and storage of film. SEE ALSO: PACS. magnification r. r. using a microfocal x-ray tube and increased subject-film distance to provide geometric magnification of the subject without unacceptable loss of sharpness and resolution. mucosal relief r. radiographic technique showing fine detail of gastrointestinal mucosa after coating it with a barium suspension and distending the organ with air or gas released from an ingested powder. portable r. making a radiographic film of a patient confined to bed by taking a movable x-ray machine to the room. SYN: bedside r.. scanning equalization r. an electronically enhanced method of r. in which a narrow x-ray beam is scanned over the patient while its attenuation is measured, providing feedback to modulate beam intensity in order to equalize regional x-ray film exposure. sectional r. SYN: tomography. serial r. making several x-ray exposures of a single region over a period of time, as in angiography. spot-film r. an x-ray of a localized region, usually under study by fluoroscopy.

radiohumeral (ra′de-o-hu′mer-al)
Relating to the radius and the humerus; denoting the articulation between them.

radioimmunity (ra′de-o-i-mu′ni-te)
Lessened sensitivity to radiation.

radioimmunoassay (RIA) (ra′de-o-im′u-no-as′sa)
An immunologic (immunochemical) procedure that uses the competition between radioisotope-labeled antigen or other substance and unlabeled antigen for antiserums, resulting in quantitation of the unlabeled antigen; any method for detecting or quantitating antigens or antibodies using radiolabeled reactants. Minute quantities of enzymes, hormones, or other substances can be assayed.

radioimmunodiffusion (ra′de-o-im′u-no-di-fu′zhun)
A method for the study of antigen-antibody reactions by gel diffusion using radioisotope-labeled antigen or antibody.

radioimmunoelectrophoresis (ra′de-o-im′u-no-e-lek′tro-fo-re′sis)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which the antigen or antibody is labeled with a radioisotope; e.g., in testing for insulin-binding antibodies by treating the test serum with radioactive iodine-labeled insulin, subjecting the mixture (antigen) to electrophoresis, precipitating the separated immunoglobulins with immunoglobulin-specific antiserum, and, then, with radiosensitive film (autoradiography), testing for bound insulin in the precipitates.

radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) (ra′de-o-im′u-no-pre-sip-i-ta′shun)
Immunoprecipitation utilizing a radioisotope-labeled antibody or antigen.

radioiodinated (ra′de-o-i′o-din-a-ted)
Treated or combined with radioiodine.

radioiodine (ra′de-o-i′o-din)
A radioactive isotope of iodine; e.g., 123I.

radioiron (ra′de-o-i′ern)
A radioactive isotope of iron; e.g., 59Fe.

radioisotope (ra′de-o-i′so-top)
An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation.

radiolabeled (ra′de-o-la′bld)
See tag (1) .

radiolead (ra′de-o-led′)
A radioactive isotope of lead, usually 210 Pb. See lead.

radiolesion (ra′de-o-le′zhun)
A lesion produced by ionizing radiation.

radioligand (ra′de-o-lig′and)
A molecule with a radionuclide tracer attached; usually used for radioimmunoassay procedures. [radio- + L. ligandus, that which is to be bound, fr. ligo, to bind]

radiologic, radiological (ra-de-o-log′ik, -loj′i-kal)
Pertaining to radiology.

radiologist (ra-de-ol′o-jist)
A physician trained in the diagnostic and/or therapeutic use of x-rays and radionuclides, radiation physics and biology; a diagnostic r. would also be trained in diagnostic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and applicable physics.




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