Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


recirculation (re-ser-ku-la′shun)
Circular movement of the mucus blanket in a paranasal sinus due to the presence of an accessory ostium or failure to include the natural ostium in sinusotomy.

Friedrich D. von, German histologist and pathologist, 1833–1910. See R. disease of bone, von R. disease.

reclination (rek-li-na′shun)
Turning the cataractous lens over into the vitreous to displace it from the line of vision; distinguished from couching, in which the lens is simply depressed into the vitreous. [L. reclino, pp. -atus, to bend back]

recollection (re-ko-lek′shun)
In renal physiology, a technique in which a known fluid is infused into a renal tubule lumen at one point and collected for analysis by a second micropipette further downstream. [re- + L. collectus, pp. of colligo, to collect]

recombinant (re-kom′bi-nant)
1. A cell or organism that has received genes from different parental strains. 2. Pertaining to or denoting such organisms. 3. In linkage analysis, the change of coupling phase at two loci during meiosis. If two syntenic, nonallelic genes are inherited from the same parent, they must be in coupling. An offspring that inherits only one of them is r. and indicates an odd number of cross-overs between the loci; an offspring that inherits neither or both is nonrecombinant and may indicate an even number of cross-overs or none.

recombination (re-kom-bi-na′shun)
1. The process of reuniting of parts that had become separated. 2. The reversal of coupling phase in meiosis as gauged by the resulting phenotype. SEE ALSO: recombinant. 3. The formation of new combinations of genes. genetic r. 1. the presence in progeny of combinations of genotypes and perhaps phenotypes, not present in either parent, resulting from crossing-over; 2. in microbial genetics, the inclusion of a chromosomal part or extrachromosomal element of one microbial strain in the chromosome of another; the interchange of chromosomal parts or genes between different microbial strains. homologous r. the exchange of corresponding stretches of DNA between two sister chromosomes. site-specific r. integration of foreign DNA into a particular site in the host genome.

recon (re′kon)
Obsolete term for the smallest unit (corresponding to a single DNA nucleotide) of recombination or crossing-over between two homologous chromosomes.

reconstitution (re′kon-sti-too′shun)
1. The restitution or return to an original state of a substance, or combination of parts to make a whole. 2. In the case of a lower organism, the restoration of a part of the body by regeneration.

reconstruction (re-con-struk′shun)
The computerized synthesis of one or more two-dimensional images from a series of x-ray projections in computed tomography, or from a large number of measurements in magnetic resonance imaging; several methods are used; the earliest was back-projection, and the most common is 2D Fourier transformation. ossicular r. generic term denoting a number of surgical techniques to restore the continuity of the ossicular chain from the tympanic membrane to the oval window for sound pressure transmission and, thereby, improved hearing.

record (rek′erd)
1. In medicine, a chronologic written account that includes a patient's initial complaint(s) and medical history, physical findings, results of diagnostic tests and procedures, any therapeutic medicines and/or procedures, and subsequent developments during the course of the illness. 2. In dentistry, a registration of desired jaw relations in a plastic material or on a device to permit these relationships to be transferred to an articulator. [M.E. recorden, fr. O.Fr. recorder, fr. L. recordor, to remember, fr. re-, back, again, + cor, heart] anesthesia r. a written or electronic account of drugs administered, procedures undertaken, and physiologic responses during the course of surgical or obstetric anesthesia. face-bow r. a registration utilizing a face-bow of the position of the hinge axis and/or the condyles; the face-bow r. is used to orient the maxillary cast to the opening and closing axis of the articulator. functional chew-in r. a r. of the natural chewing movements of the mandible made on an occlusion rim by teeth or scribing studs. hospital r. the medical r. generated during a period of hospitalization, usually including written accounts of consultants' opinions, physicians' and nurses' observations, treatments, and the results of all tests and/or procedures performed. interocclusal r. a r. of the positional relationship of the teeth or jaws to each other, recorded by placing a plastic material that hardens (such as plaster of Paris or wax) between the occlusal surfaces of the rims or teeth; the hardened material serves as the r.; it may be registered in centric or eccentric positions, as centric interocclusal r., a r. of centric jaw relation; eccentric interocclusal r., a r. of jaw position in other than centric relation; lateral interocclusal r., a r. of a lateral eccentric jaw position; and protrusive interocclusal r., a r. of a protruded eccentric jaw position. SYN: checkbite. maxillomandibular r. 1. a r. of the relation of the mandible to the maxillae; 2. the act of recording the relation of the mandible to the maxillae. SYN: biscuit bite, maxillomandibular registration. medical r. r. (1) . occluding centric relation r. a registration of centric relation made at the established occlusal vertical dimension. preextraction r. SYN: preoperative r.. preoperative r. in dentistry, any r. made for the purpose of study or treatment planning. SEE ALSO: diagnostic cast. SYN: preextraction r.. problem-oriented r. (POR) a system of r. keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading; especially useful for outpatient records of patients with multiple problems who are followed for long periods. profile r. a registration or r. of the profile of a patient. protrusive r. a registration of a forward position of the mandible with reference to the maxillae. terminal jaw relation r. a r. of the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae made at the vertical relation of occlusion and at the centric position. three-dimensional r. a maxillomandibular r. made at the occluding relation.

recording (re-kord′ing)
Preserving the results of a study. clinical r. SYN: charting. depth r. study of subcortical cerebral electrical activity after placing electrodes in these areas.

recovery (re-kov′er-e)
1. A getting back or regaining; recuperation. 2. Emergence from general anesthesia. 3. In nuclear magnetic resonance, refers to relaxation. [M.E., fr. O.Fr. recoverer, fr. L. recupero, to recover, get back, fr. re-, again, + capio, to take] creep r. the time-dependent portion of the decrease in strain in a material or object following removal of the stress that has deformed it. inversion r. a magnetic resonance pulse sequence in which a series of 180° magnetic field inversions is followed by a spin echo sequence for signal detection; of note, during r., the longitudinal magnetization vector passes through zero. short TI inversion r. (STIR) an inversion r. sequence that uses a short inversion time, about 100 ms, between 180° pulses; by proper selection of TI, the signal from water or fat can be suppressed. spontaneous r. the return of the conditioned response, after apparent extinction, in the presence of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus also being present. See classical conditioning. ultrasonic egg r. obtaining an egg for in vitro fertilization by means of an ultrasonically guided needle aspiration of ovarian follicles; may be performed transvesically or via the cul-de-sac.

recovery room
A hospital facility with special equipment and personnel for the immediate postoperative care of patients as they recover from anesthesia and/or surgery.

recrudescence (re-kroo-des′ens)
Resumption of a morbid process or its symptoms after a period of remission. [L. re-crudesco, to become raw again, break out afresh, fr. crudus, raw, harsh]

recrudescent (re-kroo-des′ent)
Becoming active again, relating to a recrudescence.

recruitment (re-kroot′ment)
1. In the testing of hearing, the abnormally greater increase in loudness in response to increments in intensity of the acoustic stimulus in an ear with a sensory hearing loss compared with a normal ear. 2. In neurophysiology, the activation of additional neurons (spatial r.) or an increase in their firing rate (temporal r.). SYN: recruiting response. SEE ALSO: irradiation. 3. The adding of parallel channels of flow in any system. [Fr. recrutement, fr. L. re-cresco, pp. -cretus, to grow again]

See recto-.

rectal (rek′tal)
Relating to the rectum.

rectalgia (rek-tal′je-a)
SYN: proctalgia.

rectectomy (rek-tek′to-me)
SYN: proctectomy.

rectifier (rek′ti-fi-er)
An electronic device for converting alternating to direct voltage, part of the circuit of an x-ray machine. [Mediev. L. rectifico, to make right, fr. rectus, right + facio to make]

rectify (rek′ti-fi)
1. To correct. 2. To purify or refine by distillation; usually implies repeated distillations. [L. rectus, right, straight]

rectitis (rek-ti′tis)
SYN: proctitis.

recto-, rect-
The rectum. SEE ALSO: procto-. [L. rectum, fr. rectus, straight]

rectoabdominal (rek′to-ab-dom′i-nal)
Relating to the rectum and the abdomen; denoting a bimanual method of examination with one hand on the abdominal wall and a finger of the other hand in the rectum.

rectocele (rek′to-sel)
SYN: proctocele. [recto- + G. kele, tumor, hernia]

rectoclysis (rek-tok′li-sis)
SYN: proctoclysis.

rectococcygeal (rek-to-kok-sij′e-al)
Relating to the rectum and the coccyx.

rectococcypexy (rek-to-kok′si-pek-se)
SYN: proctococcypexy.

rectocolitis (rek′to-ko-li′tis)
SYN: coloproctitis.

rectoperineal (rek′to-per-i-ne′al)
Relating to the rectum and perineum.

rectoperineorrhaphy (rek′to-per-i-ne-or′a-fe)
SYN: proctoperineoplasty. [recto- + perineo- + G. rhaphe, a sewing]

rectopexy (rek′to-pek-se)
SYN: proctopexy.

rectophobia (rek-to-fo′be-a)
SYN: proctophobia. [recto- + G. phobos, fear]

rectoplasty (rek′to-plas-te)
SYN: proctoplasty.

rectorrhaphy (rek-tor′a-fe)
SYN: proctorrhaphy.

rectoscope (rek′to-skop)
SYN: proctoscope.

rectoscopy (rek-tos′ko-pe)
SYN: proctoscopy.

rectosigmoid (rek′to-sig′moyd)
The rectum and sigmoid colon considered as a unit; the term is also applied to the junction of the sigmoid colon and rectum.

rectostenosis (rek′to-ste-no′sis)
SYN: proctostenosis.

rectostomy (rek-tos′to-me)
SYN: proctostomy.

rectotome (rek′to-tom)
SYN: proctotome.

rectotomy (rek-tot′o-me)
SYN: proctotomy.

rectourethral (rek-to-u-re′thral)
Relating to the rectum and the urethra.

rectouterine (rek-to-u′ter-in)
Relating to the rectum and the uterus.

rectovaginal (rek-to-vaj′i-nal)
Relating to the rectum and the vagina.

rectovesical (rek-to-ves′i-kal)
Relating to the rectum and the bladder.

rectovestibular (rek′to-ves-tib′u-lar)
Relating to the rectum and the vestibule of the vagina.

rectum, pl .rectumsrecta (rek′tum, rek′ta)
The terminal portion of the digestive tube, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anal canal. (Perineal flexure). [L. rectus, straight, pp. of rego, to make straight]

recumbent (re-kum′bent)
Leaning; reclining; lying down. [L. recumbo, to lie back, recline, fr. re-, back, + cubo, to lie]

recuperate (re-koo′per-at)
To undergo recuperation. [L. recupero (or recip-), pp. -atus, to take again, recover]

recuperation (re-koo-per-a′shun)
Recovery of or restoration to the normal state of health and function. [L. recuperatio (see recuperate)]

recurrence (re-kur′ens)
1. A return of the symptoms, occurring as a phenomenon in the natural history of the disease, as seen in recurrent fever. 2. SYN: relapse. 3. Appearance of a genetic trait in a genetic relative of a proband. [L. re-curro, to run back, recur]

recurrent (re-kur′ent)
1. In anatomy, turning back on itself. 2. Denoting symptoms or lesions reappearing after an intermission or remission.

recurvation (re-ker-va′shun)
A backward bending or flexure. [L. re-curvus, bent back]

One of the primary colors, occupying the lower extremity of the spectrum at the other end from violet. For individual r. dyes, see specific name. [A.S. reád]

Red Cross
A red Geneva cross on a white background, an international sign to identify medical and other personnel caring for the sick and wounded and facilities devoted to their care in times of war, also the emblem of the American R..

redia, pl .rediae (re′de-a, -de-e)
Intramolluscan development stage of a digenetic trematode, following the primary sporocyst stage, which forms after penetration of the snail tissues by the miracidium. Rediae are produced from cells within the sporocyst, are liberated from the latter, and develop in the tissues of the host snail as elongated, saclike, muscular organisms with a mouth and gut. The rediae may produce one or a number of additional generations in the snail, but they ultimately produce the final development stage, the cercaria. SEE ALSO: sporocyst (1) , miracidium. [F. Redi, Italian physician, 1626–1697]

redifferentiation (re-dif′er-en′she-a′shun)
The return to a fully specialized condition for the performance of a particular function after a period of nonspecific activity.

redintegration (re′din-te-gra′shun)
1. The restoration of lost or injured parts. 2. Restoration to health. 3. The recalling of a whole experience on the basis only of some item or portion of the original stimulus or circumstances of the experience. [L. red-integro, pp. -atus, to make whole again, renew, fr. integer, untouched, entire]

Emil, Austrian neurologist, 1866–1930. See Obersteiner-R. line, Obersteiner-R. zone.

redox (red′oks)
Contraction of oxidation-reduction. See oxidation-reduction potential.

redressement forcé (re-dres-mon′ for-sa′)
Obsolete term for straightening by force of a deformed part, as of knock-knee. [Fr.]

redressment (re-dres′ment)
1. Obsolete term for correction of a deformity; putting a part straight. 2. A renewed dressing of a wound.

reduce (re-doos′)
1. To place back into a preferred position; to perform reduction (1). 2. In chemistry, to initiate reduction (2). [L. re-duco, to lead back, restore, r.]

reducible (re-doos′i-bl)
Capable of being reduced.

reductant (re-duk′tant)
The substance that is oxidized in the course of reduction.

reductase (re-duk′tas)
An enzyme that catalyzes a reduction; since all enzymes catalyze reactions in either direction, any r. can, under the proper conditions, behave as an oxidase and vice versa, hence the term oxidoreductase. For individual reductases, see the specific names. SYN: reducing enzyme.

reductic acid (re-duk′tik)
A strong reducing product (antioxidant) formed in hot alkaline sugar solutions.

reduction (re-duk′shun)
1. The restoration, by surgical or manipulative procedures, of a part to its normal anatomic relation. SYN: repositioning (2) . 2. In chemistry, a reaction involving a gain of one or more electrons by a substance, such as when iron passes from the ferric (3+) to the ferrous (2+) state, or when hydrogen is added to the double bond of an organic compound, or when an aldehyde is converted to an alcohol. [L. reductio, fr. re-duco, pp. ductus, to lead back] r. of chromosomes the process during meiosis whereby one member of each homologous pair of chromosomes is distributed to a sperm or ovum; the diploid set of chromosomes (46 in humans) is thus reduced to the haploid set in each gamete; union of the sperm and ovum then restores the diploid or somatic number in the one-cell zygote. closed r. of fractures r. by manipulation of bone, without incision in the skin. r. en masse r. of hernial sac and contents, so that intestinal obstruction is still present. open r. of fractures r. by manipulation of bone, after surgical exposure of the site of the fracture. selective r. a technique for intrauterine termination of one or more fetuses while leaving one or more fetuses undisturbed, usually in pregnancies with fetal anomalies or with multiple gestations. SYN: selective termination. tuberosity r. the surgical excision of excessive fibrous or bony tissue in the area of the maxillary tuberosity prior to the construction of prosthetic appliances.


. . . Feedback