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Medical Dictionary


renicardiac (ren′i-kar′de-ak)
SYN: cardiorenal. [reni- + G. kardia, heart]

reniculus, pl .reniculi (re-nik′u-lus, -li)
1. SYN: cortical lobules of kidney, under lobule. 2. A lobe of the human fetal kidney and that of some lower animals in which fibrous septa subdivide the organ. SYN: renculus (2) , renunculus (2) . [L. dim. of ren, kidney]

reniform (ren′i-form)
SYN: nephroid.

renin (re′nin)
A term originally used for a pressor substance obtained from rabbits' kidneys, now an enzyme that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. SYN: angiotensinogenase.

reniportal (ren′i-por′tal)
1. Relating to the hilum of the kidney. 2. Relating to the portal, or venous capillary circulation in the kidney. [reni- + L. porta, gate]

rennase (ren′as)
SYN: chymosin.

rennet (ren′et)
SYN: chymosin.

rennin (ren′in)
SYN: chymosin.

renninogen, rennogen (re-nin′o-jen, ren′o-jen)
SYN: prochymosin. [rennin + G. -gen, producing]

reno-, reni-
The kidney. SEE ALSO: nephro-. [L. ren]

renocutaneous (re′no-ku-ta′ne-us)
Relating to the kidneys and the skin. [reno- + L. cutis, skin]

renogastric (re′no-gas′trik)
Relating to the kidneys and the stomach. [reno- + G. gaster, stomach]

renogenic (re-no-jen′ik)
Originating in or from the kidney.

renogram (re′no-gram)
The assessment of renal function by external radiation detectors after the administration of a radiopharmaceutical that is filtered and excreted by the kidney. [reno- + G. gramma, something written]

renography (re-nog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the kidney.

renointestinal (re′no-in-tes′ti-nal)
Relating to the kidneys and the intestine.

renomegaly (re′no-meg′a-le)
Enlargement of the kidney.

renopathy (re-nop′a-the)
A rarely used term for nephropathy.

renoprival (re-no-pri′val)
Relating to, characterized by, or resulting from total loss of kidney function or from removal of all functioning renal tissue. [reno- + L. privus, deprived of]

renopulmonary (re′no-pul′mo-nar-e)
Relating to the kidneys and the lungs.

renotrophic (re-no-trof′ik)
Relating to any agent influencing the growth or nutrition of the kidney or to the action of such an agent. SYN: nephrotrophic, nephrotropic, renotropic. [reno- + G. trophe, nourishment]

renotrophin (re-no-tro′fin)
An agent affecting the growth or nutrition of the kidney. SYN: renotropin.

renotropic (re-no-trop′ik)
SYN: renotrophic. [reno- + G. trope, a turning]

renotropin (re-no-tro′pin)
SYN: renotrophin.

renovascular (re-no-vas′ku-ler)
Pertaining to the blood vessels of the kidney, denoting especially disease of these vessels.

H., 20th century Canadian physician. See R. syndrome.

ren. sem.
Abbreviation for [L.] renovetur semel, shall be renewed (only) once.

B., 20th century U.S. neurophysiologist. See R. cells, under cell.

renunculus (re-nung′ku-lus)
1. SYN: cortical lobules of kidney, under lobule. 2. SYN: reniculus (2) . [L. dim. of ren]

Reoviridae (re-o-vir′i-de)
A family of double-stranded RNA viruses, some of which (Reovirus) previously were included with ECHO viruses, and others (Orbivirus), with arboviruses. Virions are 60–80 nm in diameter, usually naked, and ether-resistant; genomes contain double-stranded, segmented RNA (MW 10–16 × 106); capsids are of icosohedral symmetry with two layers of capsomeres. The family comprises nine genera: Orthoreovirus, Orbivirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, Aquareovirus, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus group (Cypovirus), and three plant reovirus groups (Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, and Oryzavirus). [Respiratory Enteric Orphan + viridae]

Reovirus (re′o-vi′rus)
A genus of viruses currently called Orthoreovirus (family Reoviridae) that are 80 nm in diameter, with distinct double layers of capsomeres, and have vertebrates as hosts; they have been recovered from children with upper respiratory tract infections, mild fever, and sometimes diarrhea, and from children with no apparent infection; from chimpanzees with coryza; monkeys and mice; and cattle feces. There are three antigenically distinct human types related by a common complement-fixing antigen and at least 12 avian orthoreoviruses.

repair (re-par′)
Restoration of diseased or damaged tissues naturally by healing processes or artificially, as by surgical means. [M.E., fr. O.Fr., fr. L. re-paro, fr. re-, back, again, + paro, prepare, put in order] chemical r. conversion of a free radical to a stable molecule. error-prone r. SYN: SOS r.. excision r. the use of a complementary DNA strand as a template to replace a damaged segment of DNA. mismatch r. replacement of mismatched base pairs by removal of the incorrect base and replacement with the correct base by DNA polymerase. recombinatorial r. the incorporation of corresponding DNA of a DNA segment from an identical DNA molecule for the purpose of replacing a damaged segment of DNA. SOS r. a system that repairs severely damaged bases in DNA by base excision and replacement, even if there is no template to guide base selection. This process is a last resort for r. and is often the cause of mutations. SYN: error-prone r..

repand (re-pand′)
Denoting a bacterial colony with edges marked by a series of slightly concave segments with angular projections at their points of union. [L. repandus, bent or turned back, fr. re-, back, + pandus, curved]

repellent (re-pel′ent)
1. Capable of driving off or repelling; repulsive. 2. An agent that drives away or prevents annoyance or irritation by insect pests. 3. An astringent or other agent that reduces swelling. [L. re-pello, pp. -pulsus, to drive back]

repetition-compulsion (rep-e-tish′un-kom-pul′shun)
In psychoanalysis, the tendency to repeat earlier experiences or actions, in an unconscious effort to achieve belated mastery over them; a morbid need to repeat a particular behavior such as handwashing or repeated checking to see if the door is locked.

replacement (re-plas′ment)
1. Restoration. 2. Substitution. cephalic r. in cases of shoulder dystocia when vaginal delivery cannot be effected, the fetal head is flexed and reinserted into the vagina to re-establish umbilical cord blood flow and delivery performed through cesarean section. SYN: Zavanelli maneuver.

replant (re′plant)
1. To perform replantation. 2. A part or organ so replaced or about to be so replaced.

replantation (re-plan-ta′shun)
Replacement of an organ or part in its original site and reestablishing its circulation. SYN: reimplantation. [L. re-, again, + planto, pp. -atus, to plant, fr. planta, a sprout, slip] intentional r. elective extraction of a tooth, obturation of the root canal(s), and replacement of the tooth into the alveolus.

repletion (re-ple′shun)
SYN: hypervolemia. [L. repletio, fr. re-pleo, pp. -pletus, to fill up]

replica (rep′li-ka)
A specimen for electron microscopic examination obtained by coating a crystalline array or other virus material with carbon; the mold (the r.) obtained after the viral material has been dissolved provides details of structure and arrangement. [It., fr. L.L. re-plico, to fold back]

replicase (rep′li-kas)
1. Descriptive term for RNA-directed RNA polymerase associated with replication of RNA viruses. 2. An enzyme that replicates nucleic acids.

replicate (rep′li-kat)
1. One of several identical processes or observations. 2. To repeat; to produce an exact copy.

replication (rep-li-ka′shun)
1. The execution of an experiment or study more than once so as to confirm the original findings, increase precision, and obtain a closer estimate of sampling error. 2. Autoreproduction or duplication, as in mitosis or cellular biology. See autoreproduction. 3. DNA-directed DNA synthesis. [L. replicatio, a reply, fr. replico, pp. -atus, to fold back] bidirectional r. a situation in which DNA r. proceeds with two r. forks moving in opposite directions around a circle or D-loop-type structure. conservative r. a hypothetical form of r. in which a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) produces two daughter dsDNAs, one of which consists of the two original strands while the other daughter DNA consists of two newly synthesized chains. semiconservative r. r. in which a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) produces two daughter dsDNAs, each of which contains one of the original chains and one newly synthesized strand. unidirectional r. r. in which there is movement by a single r. fork.

replicator (rep′li-ka-ter)
The specific site of a bacterial genome (chromosome) at which replication begins.

replicon (rep′li-kon)
1. A segment of a chromosome (or of the DNA of a chromosome or similar entity) that can replicate, with its own initiation and termination codons, independently of the chromosome in which it may be located. 2. The replication unit; several are found per DNA in eukaryotic systems. [replication + -on]

repolarization (re′po-lar-i-za′shun)
The process whereby the membrane, cell, or fiber, after depolarization, is polarized again, with positive charges on the outer and negative charges on the inner surface.

SYN: reposition.

Movement returning palm and fingers from opposed position; opposite of opposition. SYN: repositio.

repositioning (re′po-zish′un-ing)
1. To place in another position as during an operation. 2. SYN: reduction (1) . gingival r. surgical relocation of the attached gingiva to eliminate pathosis or to establish more acceptable form and function. jaw r. the changing of any relative position of the mandible to the maxillae, by altering the occlusion of the natural or artificial teeth or by surgical means. muscle r. the surgical replacement of a muscle attachment into a more functional position.

repositor (re-poz′i-ter, -tor)
An instrument used to reposition a displaced organ.


repressed (re-prest′)
Subjected to repression.

repression (re-presh′un)
1. In psychotherapy, the active process or defense mechanism of keeping out and ejecting and banishing from consciousness those ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to the ego or superego. 2. Decreased expression of some gene product. [L. re-primo, pp. -pressus, to press back, repress] catabolite r. the decreased expression of an operon because of elevated levels of a catabolite of a biochemical pathway. end product r. catabolite r. in which the catabolite is an end product of a particular pathway. enzyme r. inhibition of enzyme synthesis by some metabolite. primal r. r. of material never in conscious thought.

repressor (re-pres′er)
The product of a regulator or r. gene. active r. a r. that combines directly with an operator gene to repress the operator and its structural genes, thus repressing protein synthesis; an active r. may be repressed by an inducer, with resulting protein synthesis; a homeostatic mechanism for regulation of inducible enzyme systems. inactive r. a r. that cannot combine with an operator gene until it has combined with a corepressor (usually a product of a protein pathway); after activation, the r. arrests production of the proteins controlled by the operator gene; a homeostatic mechanism for regulation of repressible enzyme systems.

reproducibility (re-pro-dus′i-bil′i-te)
1. Ability to cause to exist again or to present again. 2. Ability to duplicate measurements over long periods of time by different laboratories.

reproduction (re-pro-duk′shun)
1. The total process by which organisms produce offspring. SYN: generation (1) , procreation. 2. The recall and presentation in the mind of the elements of a former impression. [L. re-, again, + pro-duco, pp. -ductus, to lead forth, produce] asexual r. r. other than by union of male and female sex cells. SYN: agamogenesis, agamogony. cytogenic r. r. by means of unicellular germ cells; includes both sexual r. and asexual r. by means of spores. sexual r. r. by union of male and female gametes to form a zygote. SYN: gamogenesis, syngenesis. somatic r. asexual r. by fission or budding of somatic cells. vegetative r. See asexual r..

reproductive (re′pro-duk′tiv)
Relating to reproduction.

reptilase (rep′til-as)
An enzyme found in the venom of Bothrops atrox that clots fibrinogen by splitting off its fibrinopeptide. [reptile + -ase]

Reptilia (rep-til′e-a)
A class of vertebrates comprising the alligators, crocodiles, lizards, turtles, tortoises, and snakes. [L. reptilis, ntr. -e, creeping; ntr. as n., reptile]

repullulation (re-pul-u-la′shun)
Renewed germination; return of a morbid process or growth. [L. re-, again, + pullulo, pp. -atus, to sprout]

repulsion (re-pul′shun)
1. The act of repelling or driving apart, in contrast to attraction. 2. Strong dislike; aversion; repugnance. 3. Coupling phase of genes at linked loci that are borne on opposite chromosomes. See coupling phase. [L. re-pello, pp. -pulsus, to drive back]

requirement (re-kwir′ment)
1. Something needed. 2. A condition. minimum protein r. the age-dependent amount of protein required daily in the diet. quantum r. the number of quanta of light absorbed required for the transformation of one molecule; the inverse of the quantum yield.

Abbreviation for reticuloendothelial system.

resazurin (re-saz′u-rin)
A blue compound used as a redox indicator in the reductase test of milk and also as a pH indicator (orange at 3.8, violet at 6.5).

rescinnamine (re-sin′a-men, -min)
3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamic acid ester of methyl reserpate; a purified ester alkaloid of the alseroxylon fraction of species of Rauwolfia; chemically and pharmacologically related to reserpine, with similar uses.

research (re-surch′, re′surch)
1. (n) The organized quest for new knowledge and better understanding, e.g., of the natural world, determinants of health and disease. Several types of r. are recognized: observational (empiric); analytic; experimental; theoretical; applied. 2. (v) To conduct such scientific inquiry. [O.Fr. re-cerche, fr. cerchier, to search, fr. L. circare, to go around, fr. circus, circle]

resect (re-sekt′)
1. To cut off or remove, especially to cut off the articular ends of one or both bones forming a joint. 2. To excise a segment of a part. [L. re-seco, pp. sectus, to cut off]

resectable (re-sek′ta-bl)
Amenable to resection.

resection (re-sek′shun)
1. A procedure performed for the specific purpose of removal, as in removal of articular ends of one or both bones forming a joint. 2. To remove a part. 3. SYN: excision (1) . abdominoperineal r. (APR) a surgical cancer treatment involving r. of the lower sigmoid colon, rectum, anus, and surrounding skin, and formation of a sigmoid colostomy; performed as a synchronous or sequential transabdominal and perineal procedure. gum r. SYN: gingivectomy. loop r. SYN: loop excision. muscle r. shortening of the tendon of the ocular muscle in strabismus. root r. SYN: apicoectomy. scleral r. shortening of the outer coat of the eye in retinal separation. transurethral r. endoscopic removal of the prostate gland or bladder lesions, usually for relief of prostatic obstruction or treatment of bladder malignancies. wedge r. removal of a wedge-shaped portion of the ovary; used in the treatment of virilizing disorders of ovarian origin, such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome.

resectoscope (re-sek′to-skop)
A special endoscopic instrument for the transurethral electrosurgical removal of lesions involving the bladder, prostate gland, or urethra.


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