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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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rhinolithiasis (ri′no-li-thi′a-sis)
The presence of a nasal calculus. [rhinolith + G. -iasis, condition]

rhinologic (ri-no-loj′ik)
Relating to rhinology.

rhinologist (ri-nol′o-jist)
A specialist in diseases of the nose.

rhinology (ri-nol′o-je)
The branch of medical science concerned with the nose and paranasal sinuses and their diseases. [rhino- + G. logos, study]

rhinomanometer (ri′no-ma-nom′e-ter)
A manometer used to determine the presence and amount of nasal obstruction, and the nasal air pressure and flow relationships. SYN: rhinoanemometer. [rhino- + manometer]

rhinomanometry (ri′no-ma-nom′e-tre)
1. The use of a rhinomanometer. 2. The study and measurement of nasal air flow and pressures.

rhinonecrosis (ri′no-ne-kro′sis)
Necrosis of the bones of the nose. [rhino- + necrosis]

rhinopathy (ri-nop′a-the)
Disease of the nose. [rhino- + G. pathos, suffering]

rhinopharyngeal (ri′no-fa-rin′je-al)
1. SYN: nasopharyngeal. 2. Relating to the rhinopharynx.

rhinopharyngolith (ri′no-fa-ring′go-lith)
A concretion in the nasopharynx. [rhinopharynx + G. lithos, stone]

rhinopharynx (ri′no-far′ingks)
SYN: nasopharynx. [rhino- + pharynx]

rhinophonia (ri′no-fo′ne-a)
SYN: rhinolalia. [rhino- + G. phone, voice]

rhinophyma (ri′no-fi′ma)
Hypertrophy of the nose with follicular dilation, resulting from hyperplasia of sebaceous glands with fibrosis and increased vascularity; a form of acne rosacea. SYN: brandy nose, copper nose, hammer nose, hypertrophic rosacea, potato nose, rum nose, rum-blossom, toper's nose. [rhino- + G. phyma, tumor, growth]

rhinoplasty (ri′no-plas-te)
1. Repair of a defect of the nose. 2. Plastic surgery to change the shape or size of the nose. [rhino- + G. plastos, formed]

rhinopneumonitis (ri′no-noo-mo-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and lung. [rhino- + G. pneumon, lung, + -itis, inflammation]

rhinorrhea (ri-no-re′a)
A discharge from the nose. [rhino- + G. rhoia, flow] cerebrospinal fluid r. a discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose. gustatory r. watery nasal discharge associated with eating.

rhinosalpingitis (ri′no-sal-pin-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and eustachian tube. [rhino- + G. salpinx, tube, + -itis, inflammation]

rhinoscleroma (ri′no-skle-ro′ma)
A chronic granulomatous process involving the nose, upper lip, mouth, and upper air passages; starts usually as a growth of hard smooth nodules in the anterior nares that spreads backward into the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and even into the bronchi; it may involve the external auditory meatus and is believed to be due to a specific bacterium, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. [rhino- + G. skleroma, an induration]

rhinoscope (ri′no-skop)
A small mirror attached at a suitable angle to a rodlike handle, used in posterior rhinoscopy and nasopharyngoscopy.

rhinoscopic (ri′no-skop′ik)
Relating to the rhinoscope or to rhinoscopy.

rhinoscopy (ri-nos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the nasal cavity. [rhino- + G. skopeo, to view] anterior r. inspection of the anterior portion of the nasal cavity with or without the aid of a nasal speculum. median r. inspection of the roof of the nasal cavity and openings of the posterior ethmoid cells and sphenoidal sinus by means of a long-bladed nasal speculum or nasopharyngoscope. posterior r. inspection of the nasopharynx and posterior portion of the nasal cavity by means of the rhinoscope, or with a nasopharyngoscope. SEE ALSO: nasopharyngoscopy.

rhinosinusitis (ri-no-si-noo-si′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

rhinosporidiosis (ri′no-spo-rid-e-o′sis)
Invasion of the nasal cavity or, occasionally, the conjunctiva, or other superficial structures by Rhinosporidium seeberi, resulting in a chronic granulomatous disease producing polyps or other forms of hyperplasia on mucous membranes; it is found principally in India and Sri Lanka.

Rhinosporidium seeberi (ri′nospo-rid′e-um se-be′ri)
A funguslike organism, of worldwide distribution and uncertain taxonomic position, found in certain vascular raspberry-like nasal polyps (rhinosporidiosis). [rhino- + G. sporidion, dim. of sporos, seed]

rhinostenosis (ri′no-ste-no′sis)
Nasal obstruction. SYN: rhinocleisis. [rhino- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

rhinotomy (ri-not′o-me)
1. Any cutting operation on the nose. 2. Operative procedure in which the nose is incised along one side so that it may be turned away to provide full vision of the nasal passages for radical sinus operations. [rhino- + G. tome, incision, cutting]

rhinotracheitis (ri′no-tra-ke-i′tis)
Inflammation of the nasal cavities and trachea. [rhino- + trachea + -itis, inflammation]

Rhinovirus (ri′no-vi′rus)
A genus of acid-labile viruses (family Picornaviridae) of worldwide distribution, with a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome, associated with the common cold in humans. There are more than 110 antigenic types, formerly classified as M strains (culturable in rhesus monkey kidney and human cells) and H strains (growing only in cultures of human cells).

rhinovirus
Any virus of the genus R.. bovine rhinoviruses viruses that cause widespread subclinical and occasionally mild clinical respiratory diseases of calves in the United States and Europe. equine rhinoviruses viruses that cause inapparent as well as mild to relatively severe upper respiratory tract disease in the United States and Europe; most prevalent in breeding stables, and associated with high morbidity but negligible mortality; all equine isolates are related serologically to the original isolate.

Rhipicephalus (ri-pi-sef′a-lus)
A genus of inornate hard ticks (family Ixodidae) consisting of about 50 species, all of which are Old World except R. sanguineus. Eyes and festoons are present in both sexes; short palpi and ventral plates are present only in the male. The genus includes important vectors of disease in humans and domestic animals. [G. rhipis, fan, + kephale, head] R. sanguineus the brown dog tick, probably the most common and cosmopolitan species found on dogs in the U.S.; it may attack other animals but rarely attacks humans; it is a vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico and is a vector of the rickettsia of boutonneuse fever.

rhizo-
Combining form denoting root. [G. rhiza]

rhizoid (ri′zoyd)
1. Rootlike. 2. Irregularly branching, like a root; denoting a form of bacterial growth. 3. In fungi, the rootlike hyphae that arise at the nodes of the hyphae of Rhizopus species. [rhizo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

rhizome (ri′zom)
The creeping underground stem of plants such as iris, calamus, and sanguinaria. [G. rhizoma, mass of roots, fr. rhiza, root, + -oma, mass]

rhizomelia (ri-zo-me′le-a)
1. Disproportion in the length of the most proximal segment of the limbs (upper arms and thighs). 2. A disorder involving the shoulder and hip joint. [rhizo- + G. melos, limb]

rhizomelic (ri-zo-mel′ik)
Of or relating to the hip joint or the shoulder joint.

rhizomeningomyelitis (ri′zo-me-ning′go-mi-e-li′tis)
Inflammation of the nerve roots, the meninges, and the spinal cord. SYN: radiculomeningomyelitis. [rhizo- + G. meninx, membrane, + myelon, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]

Rhizomucor (ri-zo-moo-kor)
A genus of fungi in the family Mucoraceae; a cause of mucormycosis.

rhizoplast (ri′zo-plast)
A fine connection between the flagellum or blepharoplast and the nucleus of a protozoan. [rhizo- + G. plastos, formed]

Rhizopoda (ri-zo-po′da)
A superclass in the subphylum Sarcodina that includes the amebae of humans, having pseudopodia of various forms but without axial filaments. SYN: Rhizopodasida, Rhizopodea. [rhizo + G. pous (pod-), foot]

Rhizopodasida (ri′zo-po-das′i-da)
SYN: Rhizopoda.

Rhizopodea (ri-zo-po′de-a)
SYN: Rhizopoda. [rhizo- + G. pous (pod-), foot]

rhizopterin (ri-zop′ter-in)
A folic acid factor for certain bacteria. SYN: SLR factor, Streptococcus lactis R factor.

Rhizopus (ri-zo′pus)
A genus of fungi (class Zygomycetes, family Mucoraceae); some species cause mucormycosis in humans.

rhizotomy (ri-zot′o-me)
Section of the spinal nerve roots for the relief of pain or spastic paralysis. SYN: radicotomy, radiculectomy. [G. rhiza, root, + tome, section] anterior r. section of anterior spinal root. facet r. a percutaneous radiofrequency lysis of the innervation of a facet. posterior r. section of posterior spinal root. SYN: Dana operation. trigeminal r. division or section of a sensory root of the fifth cranial nerve, accomplished through a subtemporal (Frazier-Spiller operation), suboccipital (Dandy operation), or transtentorial approach. SYN: retrogasserian neurectomy, retrogasserian neurotomy.

rho (ρ) (ro)
1. The 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. Symbol for density. 3. See r. factor.

rhod-
See rhodo-.

rhodamine B (ro′da-men, -min) [C.I. 45170]
A fluorescent red basic xanthene dye, tetraethylrhodamine chloride, used in histology as a contrasting stain to methylene blue and methyl green, and as a vital fluorochrome.

rhodanate (ro′da-nat)
SYN: thiocyanate.

rhodanese (ro′da-nez)
SYN: thiosulfate sulfurtransferase.

rhodanic acid (ro-dan′ik)
SYN: thiocyanic acid.

rhodanile blue (ro′da-nil)
A dye mixture, considered by some to be a salt of rhodamine B and Nile blue, used to stain keratinized epithelium (red) and fibroblasts (blue), as well as spermatozoa and normal and pathologic acidophilic, basophilic, and certain neutrophilic elements of cells and tissues; used as a substitute for hematoxylin and eosin.

rhodeose (ro′de-os)
SYN: fucose.

rhodin (ro′din)
A dihydroporphyrin derivative (the two additional hydrogens being at positions 17 and 18) of the type found in chlorophyll b and with a formyl group on position 7 rather than a methyl group.

rhodium (Rh) (ro′de-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 45, atomic wt. 102.90550. [Mod. L. fr. G. rhodon, a rose]

Rhodnius (rod′ne-us)
Genus of reduvid bug that is the principal vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, and Surinam. R. prolixus a reduvid bug, an important cause of South American trypanosomiasis.

rhodo-, rhod-
Rosy, red color. [G. rhodon, rose]

Rhodococcus (ro-do-kok′us)
A genus of rod-shaped, Gram-positive, partially acid-fast, aerobic bacteria found in soil and in the feces of herbivores. Some species are pathogenic for animals and humans. The type species is R. rhodochrous. R. equi a bacterial species causing bronchopneumonia and the formation of abscesses in the lungs of foals. It can cause bronchopneumonia in immunodeficient humans, especially those with AIDS. SYN: Corynebacterium equi.

rhodogenesis (ro′do-jen′e-sis)
The production of rhodopsin by the combination of 11-cis-retinal and opsin in the dark. [rhodopsin + G. genesis, production]

rhodophylactic (ro′do-fi-lak′tik)
Relating to rhodophylaxis.

rhodophylaxis (ro′do-fi-lak′sis)
The action of the pigment cells of the choroid in preserving or facilitating the reproduction of rhodopsin. [rhodopsin + G. phylaxis, a guarding]

rhodopsin (ro-dop′sin)
A purplish-red thermolabile protein, MW about 40,000, found in the external segments of the rods of the retina; it is bleached by the action of light, which converts it to opsin and all-trans-retinal, and is restored in the dark by rhodogenesis; the dominant protein in the plasma membrane of rod cells. SYN: visual purple. r. kinase an enzyme that regulates r. function by phosphorylating activated r. at a number of sites; phosphorylated photoactivated r. binds to arrestin.

Rhodotorula (ro-do-tor′u-la)
A genus of yeasts, usually pink to red and of questionable pathogenicity, which are generally introduced iatrogenically in prosthetic implants and into immunocompromised patients via intravenous catheters.

rhombencephalon (rom-ben-sef′a-lon) [TA]
That part of the developing brain that is the most caudal of the three primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; secondarily divided into metencephalon and myelencephalon; the r. includes the pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. SYN: hindbrain [TA] , hindbrain vesicle&star. [rhombo- + G. enkephalos, brain]

rhombic (rom′bik)
1. SYN: rhomboid. 2. Relating to the rhombencephalon.

rhombo-
Rhombic, rhomboid. [G. rhombos]

rhomboatloideus
See musculus r..

rhombocele (rom′bo-sel)
SYN: rhomboidal sinus. [rhombo- + G. koilia, a hollow]

rhomboid, rhomboidal (rom′boyd, rom-boy′dal)
Resembling a rhomb; i.e., an oblique parallelogram, but having unequal sides; in anatomy, denoting especially a ligament and two muscles. SYN: rhombic (1) . [rhombo- + G. eidos, appearance]

rhomboideus (rom-bo-id′e-us)
See rhomboid minor (muscle).

rhombomere
Segments of the developing neural tube in the rhombencephalon; nine rhombomeres appear in the developing human. [rhombencephalon + G. meros, part]

rhonchal, rhonchial (rong′kal, rong′ke-al)
Relating to or characteristic of a rhonchus.

rhonchus, pl .rhonchi (rong′kus, -ki)
An added sound with a musical pitch occurring during inspiration or expiration, heard on auscultation of the chest and caused by air passing through bronchi that are narrowed by inflammation, spasm of smooth muscle, or presence of mucus in the lumen; if low-pitched, it is called sonorous r.; if high-pitched, with a whistling or squeaky quality, sibilant r.. [L. fr. G. rhenchos, a snoring] cavernous r. SYN: cavernous rale.




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