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Medical Dictionary


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rotamer (ro′ta-mer)
An isomer differing from other conformation(s) only in rotational positioning of its parts, such as cis- and trans- forms.

rotameter (ro-tam′e-ter)
A device for measuring the flow of gas or liquid; the fluid flowing up through a slightly tapered tube elevates a ball or other weight that partially obstructs the flow, until the wider cross-section allows that flow to pass around the floating obstruction. [L. rota, wheel, + G. metron, measure]

rotation (ro-ta′shun)
1. Turning or movement of a body around its axis. 2. A recurrence in regular order of certain events, such as the symptoms of a periodic disease. 3. In medical education, a period of time on a particular service or specialty. [L. rotatio, fr. roto, pp. rotatus, to revolve, rotate] intestinal r. r. of the primitive intestinal loop around an axis formed by the superior mesenteric artery. See malrotation. molecular r. one-hundredth of the product of the specific r. of an optically active compound and its molecular weight. off-vertical r. r. about an axis eccentric to the body. optic r. the change in the plane of polarization of polarized light of a given wavelength upon passing through optically active substances; measured in terms of specific r. by polarimetry, an important tool in chemical structural work, especially on carbohydrates. specific optic r. ([α]) the arc through which the plane of polarized light is rotated by 1 g of a substance per milliliter of water when the length of the light path through the solution is 1 decimeter, typically using light corresponding to the D line of sodium.

rotator (ro-ta′ter, -tor)
SYN: r. muscle. See rotatores (muscles), under muscle. [L. See rotation] medial r. a muscle that turns a part medialward. SEE ALSO: invertor. SYN: intortor.

rotavirus (ro′ta-vi′rus)
A group of RNA viruses (family Reoviridae) wheel-like in appearance that form a genus, Rota virus, which includes the human gastroenteritis viruses (a major cause of infant diarrhea throughout the world). Separated into groups A through F, rotaviruses can infect a number of vertebrates. They are fastidious, and in vitro culture is difficult. SYN: duovirus, gastroenteritis virus type B, infantile gastroenteritis virus, reovirus-like agent. [L. rota, wheel, + virus]

Rotch
Thomas M., U.S. physician, 1849–1914. See R. sign.

röteln, roetheln (ruht′eln)
SYN: rubella. [Ger. little red spots, fr. rot, red, + -el, dim. suffix]

rotenone (ro′te-non)
The principal insecticidal component of derris root, Derris elliptica, D. malaccensis, and other species of D., and from Lonchocarpus nicou (family Leguminosae); used externally for the treatment of scabies and infestation with chiggers, and in veterinary medicine for follicular mange and infestation with lice, fleas, and ticks; an inhibitor of the respiratory chain.

Roth
Moritz, Swiss physician and pathologist, 1839–1914. See R. spots, under spot, vas aberrans of R..

Roth
Vladimir K., Russian neurologist, 1848–1916. See Bernhardt-R. syndrome.

Roth
See Benedict-R. apparatus.

Rothera
Arthur C.H., English biochemist, 1880–1915. See R. nitroprusside test.

Rothia (roth′e-a)
A genus of nonmotile, non–spore-forming, non–acid-fast, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Actinomycetaceae) containing Gram-positive, coccoid, diphtheroid, or filamentous cells; metabolism is fermentative, and glucose fermentation yields primarily lactic acid but no propionic acid. These organisms are normal inhabitants of the human oral cavity and are opportunistic pathogens. The type species is R. dentocariosa. [G. D. Roth] R. dentocariosa rare cause of infective endocarditis in humans.

Rothmund
August von, German physician, 1830–1906. See R. syndrome, R.-Thomson syndrome.

Rotor
Arturo B., 20th century Philippine internist. See R. syndrome.

rotoscoliosis (ro′to-sko-le-o′sis)
Combined lateral and rotational deviation of the vertebral column. [L. roto, to rotate, + G. skoliosis, crookedness]

rototome (ro′to-tom)
A rotating cutting instrument used in arthroscopic surgery.

rotoxamine (ro-tok′sa-men)
Active isomer of carbinoxamine; an antihistaminic.

Rouget
Charles M.B., French physiologist, 1824–1904. See R. muscle, R.-Neumann sheath.

Rouget
Antoine D., 19th century French physiologist. See R. bulb.

rough (ruf)
Not smooth; denoting the irregular, coarsely granular surface of a certain bacterial colony type.

roughage (ruf′ij)
Anything in the diet, e.g., bran, serving as a bulk stimulant of intestinal peristalsis.

Roughton
Francis J.W., British scientist, 1899–1972. See R.-Scholander apparatus, R.-Scholander syringe.

Rougnon de Magny
Nicholas F., French physician, 1727–1799. See Rougnon-Heberden disease.

rouleau, pl .rouleaux (roo-lo′)
An aggregate of erythrocytes stacked like a pile of coins. R. formation commonly indicates an increase in plasma immunoglobulin. [Fr. spool, cylinder, fr. rouler, to roll, fr. L.L. rotulo, fr. rota, wheel]

roundworm (rownd′werm)
A nematode member of the phylum Nematoda, commonly confined to the parasitic forms.

Rous
F. Peyton, U.S. pathologist and Nobel laureate, 1879–1970. See R. sarcoma, R. sarcoma virus, R. tumor, R.-associated virus.

Roussy
Gustave, French pathologist, 1874–1948. See R.-Lévy disease, R.-Lévy syndrome, Dejerine-R. syndrome.

Rouviere
Henri, French anatomist and embryologist, *1875. See node of R..

Roux
Philibert J., French surgeon, 1780–1854. See R. method.

Roux
Pierre P.E., French bacteriologist, 1853–1933. See Ro spatula, R. stain.

Roux
César, Swiss surgeon, 1857–1934. See R.-en-Y anastomosis, R.-en-Y operation.

Rovsing
Niels T., Danish surgeon, 1862–1927. See R. sign.

RPF
Abbreviation for renal plasma flow. See effective renal plasma flow.

R.Ph.
Abbreviation for Registered Pharmacist.

rpm
Abbreviation for revolutions per minute.

RPO
1. Abbreviation for right posterior oblique, a radiographic projection. 2. Abbreviation for radiation protection officer.

R.Q.
Abbreviation for respiratory quotient.

-rrhagia
Excessive or unusual discharge; hemorrhage. [G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

-rrhaphy
Surgical suturing. [G. rhaphe, suture]

-rrhea
A flowing; a flux. [G. rhoia, a flow]

-rrhoea
See -rrhea.

rRNA
Abbreviation for ribosomal ribonucleic acid.

RSA
Abbreviation for right sacroanterior position.

RSD
Abbreviation for reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

RSP
Abbreviation for right sacroposterior position.

RST
Abbreviation for right sacrotransverse position.

RSV
Abbreviation for Rous sarcoma virus; respiratory syncytial virus.

RT, rt
Abbreviation for room temperature.

RT3
Symbol for reverse triiodothyronine.

rTMP
Abbreviation for ribothymidylic acid.

RT-PCR
Abbreviation for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

RU-486
SYN: mifepristone.

Ru
Symbol for ruthenium.

rub (rub)
Friction encountered in moving one body in contact with another. friction r. SYN: friction sound. pericardial r., pericardial friction r. SYN: pericardial friction sound. pleural r. friction r. sound caused by inflammation of the pleura. SYN: pleural friction r., pleural rale. pleural friction r. SYN: pleural r.. pleuritic r. a friction sound produced by the rubbing together of the roughened surfaces of the costal and visceral pleurae.

Rubarth
Sven, Swedish veterinarian, *1905. See R. disease virus.

rubber (rub′er)
The prepared inspissated milky juice of Hevea brasiliensis and other species of Hevea (family Euphorbiaceae), known in commerce as pure Para r.; used in the manufacture of various plasters, tissues, bandages, etc.

rubber policeman
See policeman.

rubeanic acid (roo′be-an-ik)
Dithiooxamide, which forms complete dark greenish-black complexes with copper in alkaline ethanolic solution; used histochemically for demonstrating pathologic copper deposits, as in Wilson disease; also reacts with cobalt and nickel.

rubedo (roo-be′do)
A temporary redness of the skin. [L. redness, fr. ruber, red]

rubefacient (roo-be-fa′shent)
1. Causing a reddening of the skin. 2. A counterirritant that produces erythema when applied to the skin surface. [L. rubi-facio, fr. ruber, red, + facio, to make]

rubefaction (roo-be-fak′shun)
Erythema of the skin caused by local application of a counterirritant. [see rubefacient]

rubella (roo-bel′a)
An acute but mild exanthematous disease caused by r. virus (Rubivirus family Togaviridae), with enlargement of lymph nodes, but usually with little fever or constitutional reaction; a high incidence of birth defects in children results from maternal infection during the first trimester of fetal life (congenital r. syndrome). SYN: epidemic roseola, German measles, röteln, roetheln, third disease, three-day measles. [L. rubellus, fem. -a, reddish, dim. of ruber, red]

rubellin (roo-bel′in)
A cardiac glycoside with a digitalis-like action, obtained from Urginia rubella (family Liliaceae).

rubeola (roo-be′o-la, -be-o′la)
A term used for measles; not to be confused with rubella. [Mod. L. dim. of ruber, red, reddish]

rubeosis (roo-be-o′sis)
Reddish discoloration, as of the skin. [L. ruber, red, + G. -osis, condition] r. iridis diabetica neovascularization of the anterior surface of the iris in diabetes mellitus.

rubescent (roo-bes′ent)
Reddening. [L. rubesco, pr. p. rubescens, to become red]

rubidium (Rb) (roo-bid′e-um)
An alkali element, atomic no. 37, atomic wt. 85.4678; its salts have been used in medicine for the same purposes as the corresponding sodium or potassium salts. [L. rubidus, reddish, dark red, fr. rubeo, to be red]

rubidomycin (daunorubicin) (roo-bid′o-mi-sin)
An antibiotic used as an antineoplastic particularly in acute leukemias; similar to doxorubicin in antitumor activity and in exhibiting cumulative cardiotoxicity.

Rubin
Isidor C., U.S. gynecologist, 1883–1958. See R. test.

rubin S, rubine (roo′bin, ben) [C.I. 42685]
SYN: acid fuchsin.

Rubinstein
Jack H., U.S. child psychiatrist and pediatrician, *1925. See R.-Taybi syndrome.

Rubivirus (roo′bi-vi′rus)
A genus of viruses (family Togaviridae) that includes the rubella virus. [rubella + virus]

Rubner
Max, German hygienist and biochemist, 1854–1932. See R. laws of growth, under law, R. test.

rubor (roo′bor)
Redness, as one of the four signs of inflammation (r., calor, dolor, tumor) enunciated by Celsus. [L.]




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