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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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sacral (sa′kral)
Relating to or in the neighborhood of the sacrum.

sacralgia (sa-kral′je-a)
Pain in the sacral region. SYN: sacrodynia. [sacr- + G. algos, pain]

sacralization (sa′kral-i-za′shun)
Lumbar development and appearance of the first sacral vertebra.

sacrectomy (sa-krek′to-me)
Resection of a portion of the sacrum to facilitate an operation. SYN: sacrotomy. [sacr- + G. ektome, excision]

sacro-, sacr-
The sacrum. [L. os sacrum, sacred bone]

sacrococcygeal (sa-kro-kok-sij′e-al)
Relating to both sacrum and coccyx.

sacrococcygeus (sa′kro-kok-si-je′us)
See muscle.

sacrodynia (sa′kro-din′e-a)
SYN: sacralgia. [sacro- + G. odyne, pain]

sacroiliac (sa-kro-il′e-ak)
Relating to the sacrum and the ilium.

sacroiliitis (sa′kro-il-e-i′tis)
Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint.

sacrolumbalis (sa′kro-lum-ba′lis)
The iliocostalis lumborum muscle.

sacrolumbar (sa′kro-lum′bar)
SYN: lumbosacral.

sacrosciatic (sa′kro-si-at′ik)
Relating to both sacrum and ischium.

sacrospinal (sa′kro-spi′nal)
Relating to the sacrum and the vertebral column above.

sacrotomy (sa-krot′o-me)
SYN: sacrectomy. [sacro- + G. tome, incision]

sacrovertebral (sa′kro-ver′te-bral)
Relating to the sacrum and the vertebrae above.

sacrum, pl .sacra (sa′krum, sa′kra) [TA]
The segment of the vertebral column forming part of the pelvis; a broad, slightly curved, spade-shaped bone, thick above, thinner below, closing in the pelvic girdle posteriorly; it is formed by the fusion of five originally separate sacral vertebrae; it articulates with the last lumbar vertebra, the coccyx, and the hip bone on either side. SYN: os s. [TA] , sacred bone, vertebra magna. [L. (lit. sacred bone), neuter of sacer (sacr-), sacred] assimilation s. one which is composed of six segments, the last lumbar vertebra assuming the appearance of a sacral segment; or one which is composed of but four segments, the first sacral being free and having the characteristics of a lumbar vertebra.

SACT
Abbreviation for sinoatrial conduction time.

SAD
Abbreviation for seasonal affective disorder.

saddle (sad′l)
1. A structure shaped like, or suggestive of, a seat or s. used in horseback riding. SYN: sella. 2. SYN: denture base. Turkish s. SYN: sella turcica.

sadism (sa′dizm, sad′izm)
A form of perversion, often sexual in nature, in which a person finds pleasure in inflicting abuse and maltreatment. Cf.:masochism. [Marquis de Sade, 1740–1814, confessedly addicted to the practice]

sadist (sa′dist, sad′ist)
One who practices sadism.

sadistic (sa-dis′tik)
Pertaining to or characterized by sadism.

sadomasochism (sa-do-mas′o-kizm, sad-o-)
A form of perversion marked by enjoyment of cruelty and/or humiliation in its received or active and/or dispensed and passive form. [sadism + masochism]

Saemisch
Edwin T., German ophthalmologist, 1833-1909. See S. section, S. ulcer.

Saenger
M., Prague obstetrician, 1853–1903. See S. operation.

safflower (saf′low-er)
SYN: carthamus. [Ar. safra, yellow]

safflower oil
An oil extracted from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius, containing 74.5% linoleic acid and 6.6% saturated fatty acids; recommended for use in hypercholesteremia, myocardial infarction, and coronary insufficiency.

saffron (saf′ron)
SYN: crocus. [Ar. zafaran, fr. safra, yellow]

safranin O (saf′ra-nin) [C.I. 50240]
A mixture of dimethyl- and trimethylphenosafranin chloride, a basic red dye that exhibits orange metachromasia; used in histology as a nuclear stain, in microbiology as a counterstain in the Gram method, and to demonstrate enterochromaffin.

safranophil, safranophile (saf′ra-no-fil, -fil)
Staining readily with safranin; denoting certain cells and tissues.

safrole (saf′rol)
The methylene ether of allyl pyrocatechol; contained in oil of sassafras, oil of camphor, and various other volatile oils; it is obtained chiefly from oil of camphor by fractional distillation; used as a tonic and carminative; prolonged administration causes fatty degeneration.

sage (saj)
SYN: salvia. [L. salvia, the s. plant, fr. salvus, safe]

sagitta (saj′i-ta)
SYN: otoliths.

sagittal (saj′i-tal) [TA]
Resembling an arrow; in the line of an arrow shot from a bow, i.e., in an anteroposterior direction; referring to a s. plane or direction. SYN: sagittalis [TA] . [L. sagitta, an arrow]

sagittalis (saj-i-ta′lis) [TA]
SYN: sagittal. [L.]

Saint
Charles F.M., African surgeon, *1886. See S. triad.

Saint Anthony fire (sant anth-o-ne)
1. SYN: ergotism. 2. Any of several inflammations or gangrenous conditions of the skin ( E.G., erysipelas). [St. Anthony, Egyptian monk, about 250–350 ad]

Sakaguchi reaction
See under reaction.

Saksenaea vasiformis
one of the fungal species that cause mucormycosis. This species is notable for the proportion of cases with subcutaneous infection, rather than pulmonary or paranasal sinus disease, more typical manifestations of mucormycosis.

Sakurai
Japanese ophthalmologist. See S.-Lisch nodule.

sal, pl .sales (sal, sal′ez)
SYN: salt. [L.] s. alembroth the product obtained by crystallization from a solution of equal parts of ammonium chloride and mercuric chloride. SYN: salt of wisdom. [an alchemist's term of unknown origin] s. ammoniac SYN: ammonium chloride. s. diureticum SYN: potassium acetate. s. soda SYN: sodium carbonate. s. volatile SYN: aromatic ammonia spirit.

Salah
M., 20th century Egyptian surgeon. See S. sternal puncture needle.

salbutamol (sal-bu′ta-mol)
SYN: albuterol.

Saldino
Ronald M., American radiologist.

salicin (sal′i-sin)
A glucoside of o-hydroxybenzylalcohol, obtained from the bark of several species of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar); s. is hydrolyzed to glucose and saligenin (salicyl alcohol); formerly used in rheumatoid arthritis.

salicyl (sal′i-sil)
The acyl radical of salicylic acid. s. aldehyde obtained from Spirea ulmaria (meadow sweet), and made synthetically; used as a diuretic and antiseptic, and in perfumery. SYN: salicylic aldehyde.

salicylamide (sal-i-sil′a-mid)
The amide of salicylic acid, o-hydroxybenzamide; an analgesic, antipyretic and antiarthritic, similar in action to aspirin.

salicylanilide (sal′i-sil-an′i-lid)
An antifungal agent especially useful in the treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum audouinii.

salicylate (sa-lis′i-lat)
1. A salt or ester of salicylic acid. 2. To treat foodstuffs with salicylic acid as a preservative. SYN: salicylize.

salicylated (sa-lis′i-lat-ed)
Treated by the addition of salicylic acid as a preservative.

salicylazosulfapyridine (sal′i-sil-az′o-sool-fa-pir′i-den)
SYN: sulfasalazine.

salicylic acid (sal-i-sil′ik)
A component of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), derived from salicin and made synthetically; used externally as a keratolytic agent, antiseptic, and fungicide.

salicylic aldehyde (sal-i-sil′ik)
SYN: salicyl aldehyde.

salicylism (sal′i-sil-izm)
Poisoning by salicylic acid or any of its compounds.

salicylize (sal′i-sil-iz)
SYN: salicylate (2) .

salicylsalicylic acid (sal′i-sil-sal-i-sil′ik)
SYN: salsalate.

salicylsulfonic acid (sal′i-sil-sul-fon′ik)
SYN: sulfosalicylic acid.

salicyluric acid (sal′i-sil-ur′ik)
The conjugation product of glycine with salicylic acid; excreted in urine after the administration of salicylic acid or some of its compounds.

salient (sa′le-ent, sal′yent)
1. SYN: projection. 2. In radiology, an obsolete term for projection. [L. salio, to leap or spring up]

salifiable (sal-i-fi′a-bl)
Capable of being made into salts; said of a base that combines with acids to make salts.

salify (sal′i-fi)
To convert into a salt.

saligenin, saligenol (sal-i-jen′in, sal′i-jen-ol)
Obtained by the hydrolysis of salicin; a local anesthetic.

salimeter (sa-lim′e-ter)
A hydrometer used to determine the specific gravity, or the concentration, of a saline solution.

saline (sa′len, -lin)
1. Relating to, of the nature of, or containing salt; salty. 2. A salt solution, usually sodium chloride. [L. salinus, salty, fr. sal, salt] physiologic s. an isotonic aqueous solution of salts, containing 0.9% sodium chloride.

salinometer (sal-i-nom′e-ter)
A hydrometer so calibrated as to give a direct reading of the percentage of a particular salt present in solution.

saliva (sa-li′va)
A clear, tasteless, odorless, slightly acid (pH 6.8) viscid fluid, consisting of the secretion from the parotid, sublingual, and submandibular salivary glands and the mucous glands of the oral cavity; its function is to keep the mucous membrane of the mouth moist, to lubricate the food during mastication, and, in a measure, to convert starch into maltose, the latter action being effected by a diastatic enzyme, ptyalin. SYN: spittle. [L. akin to G. sialon] chorda s. the secretion of the submaxillary gland obtained by stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve. ganglionic s. submaxillary s. obtained by direct irritation of the gland. resting s. the s. found in the mouth in the intervals of food taking and mastication. sympathetic s. submaxillary s. obtained by stimulation of the sympathetic fibers innervating the gland.

salivant (sal′i-vant)
1. Causing a flow of saliva. 2. An agent that increases the flow of saliva. SYN: salivator.

salivary (sal′i-var-e)
Relating to saliva. SYN: sialic, sialine. [L. salivarius]

salivate (sal′i-vat)
To cause an excessive flow of saliva.

salivation (sal′i-va′shun)
SYN: sialorrhea.




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