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Medical Dictionary


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salivator (sal′i-va-ter)
SYN: salivant (2) .

salivolithiasis (sa-li′vo-li-thi′a-sis)
SYN: sialolithiasis.

Salk
Jonas, U.S. immunologist, 1914–1995. See S. vaccine.

Salmonella (sal′mo-nel′a)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing Gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms do not liquefy gelatin or produce indole and vary in their production of hydrogen sulfide; they utilize citrate as a sole source of carbon; their metabolism is fermentative, producing acid and usually gas from glucose, but they do not attack lactose; most are aerogenic, but S. typhi never produces gas; they are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. choleraesuis. [Daniel E. Salmon, U.S. pathologist, 1850–1914] S. enterica enteritidis a widely distributed bacterial species that occurs in humans and in domestic and wild animals, especially rodents; it causes human gastroenteritis. S. enterica paratyphi A a bacterial species that is an important etiologic agent of enteric fever in developing countries. S. enterica paratyphi B (formerly known as S. schottmülleri), consists of two distinct types of strains, those that produce enteric fever, found primarily in humans, and those producing gastroenteritis in humans, also found in animal species. This species includes 56 strains distinguishable by phage typing and/or biotyping, features of epidemiologic value. S. enterica typhi SYN: S. typhi. S. enterica typhimurium a bacterial species causing food poisoning in humans; it is a natural pathogen of all warm-blooded animals and is also found in snakes and pet turtles; worldwide, it is the most frequent cause of gastroenteritis due to S. enterica species. S. enterica choleraesuis a bacterial species that occurs in pigs, where it is an important secondary invader in the virus disease hog cholera, but does not occur as a natural pathogen in other animals; occasionally causes acute gastroenteritis and enteric fever in humans; it is the type species of the genus S.. S. typhi the bacterial species that causes typhoid fever in humans; transmitted through ingestion of contaminated water or food. SYN: Eberth bacillus, S. enterica typhi, typhoid bacillus. S. typhosa former name for S. typhi.

salmonellosis (sal′mo-nel-o′sis)
Infection with bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Patients with sickle cell anemia and compromised immune systems are particularly susceptible. [Salmonella + G. -osis, condition]

salol (sal′ol)
SYN: phenyl salicylate.

salping-
See salpingo-.

salpingectomy (sal-pin-jek′to-me)
Removal of the fallopian tube. SYN: tubectomy. [salping- + G. ektome, excision] abdominal s. removal of one or both fallopian tubes through an abdominal incision.

salpinges (sal-pin′jez)
Plural of salpinx.

salpingian (sal-pin′je-an)
Relating to the fallopian tube or to the auditory tube.

salpingioma (sal-pin-je-o′ma)
Any tumor arising in the tissues of a uterine tube. [salping- + G. -oma, tumor]

salpingitic (sal-pin-jit′ik)
Relating to salpingitis.

salpingitis (sal-pin-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the uterine or the eustachian tube. [salping- + G. -itis, inflammation] chronic interstitial s. s. in which fibrosis or mononuclear cell infiltration involves all layers of the uterine or eustachian tube. foreign body s. s. in which giant cells form in the tissue, as a result of introduction of foreign material into the uterine tube. gonorrheal s. inflammation of the uterine tube following acute gonorrheal infection. s. isthmica nodosa a condition of the fallopian tube characterized by nodular thickening of the tunica muscularis of the isthmic portion of the tube enclosing glandlike or cystic duplications of the lumen. SYN: adenosalpingitis. pyogenic s. a form of acute s. usually occurring with puerperal infection.

salpingo-, salping-
A tube (usually the uterine or auditory tube). SEE ALSO: tubo-. [G. salpinx, trumpet (tube)]

salpingocele (sal-ping′go-sel)
Hernia of a fallopian tube. [salpingo- + G. kele, hernia]

salpingocyesis (sal-ping′go-si-e′sis)
SYN: tubal pregnancy. [salpingo- + G. kyesis, pregnancy]

salpingography (sal-ping-gog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the fallopian tubes after the injection of radiopaque contrast medium. [salpingo- + G. grapho, to write]

salpingolysis (sal-ping-gol′i-sis)
Freeing the fallopian tube from adhesions. [salpingo- + G. lysis, loosening]

salpingoneostomy (sal-ping′o-ne-os′to-me)
Surgical reopening of a uterine tube clubbed because of fimbrial adhesions. [salpingo- + neostomy]

salpingo-oophor-, salpingo-oophoro-
The uterine tube and ovary. [salpingo- + Mod. L. oophoron, ovary, fr. G. oophoros, egg-bearing]

salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-ping′go-o-of-o-rek′to-me)
Removal of the ovary and its fallopian tube. SYN: salpingo-ovariectomy, tubo-ovariectomy.

salpingo-oophoritis (sal-ping′go-o-of-o-ri′tis)
Inflammation of both fallopian tube and ovary. SYN: tubo-ovaritis.

salpingo-oophorocele (sal-ping′go-o-of′o-ro-sel)
Hernia of both ovary and fallopian tube.

salpingo-ovariectomy (sal-ping′go-o-var-e-ek′to-me)
SYN: salpingo-oophorectomy.

salpingoperitonitis (sal-ping′go-per-i-to-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the fallopian tube, perisalpinx, and peritoneum. [salpingo- + peritonitis]

salpingopexy (sal-ping′go-pek-se)
Operative fixation of an oviduct. [salpingo- + G. pexis, fixation]

salpingopharyngeal (sal-ping′go-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the auditory tube and pharynx.

salpingopharyngeus
See s. (muscle).

salpingoplasty (sal-ping′go-plas-te)
Plastic surgery of the fallopian tubes. SYN: tuboplasty. [salpingo- + G. plastos, formed]

salpingorrhagia (sal-ping-go-ra′je-a)
Hemorrhage from a fallopian tube. [salpingo- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

salpingorrhaphy (sal-ping-gor′a-fe)
Suture of the fallopian tube. [salpingo- + G. rhaphe, stitching]

salpingoscopy (sal-ping-gos′ko-pe)
Visualization of the intraluminal portion of the fallopian tubes, usually by x-ray or by means of an endoscope. [salpingo- + G. skopeo, to view]

salpingostomy (sal-ping-gos′to-me)
Establishment of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube primarily as surgical treatment for an ectopic pregnancy. [salpingo- + G. stoma, mouth]

salpingotomy (sal-ping-got′o-me)
Incision into a fallopian tube. [salpingo- + G. tome, incision] abdominal s. incision into the fallopian tube through an opening in the abdominal wall.

salpinx, pl .salpinges (sal′pingks, sal-pin′jez)
uterine tube. [G. a trumpet (tube)] s. uterina SYN: uterine tube.

salsalate (sal′sa-lat)
A combination of 2 molecules of salicylic acid in ester linkage. The compound is hydrolyzed during and after absorption to salicylic acid which, like other salicylates, exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. SYN: salicylsalicylic acid.

salt
1. A compound formed by the interaction of an acid and a base, the ionizable hydrogen atoms of the acid being replaced by the positive ion of the base. 2. Sodium chloride, the prototypical s.. 3. A saline cathartic, especially magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, or Rochelle s.; often denoted by the plural, salts. SYN: sal. [L. sal] acid s. a s. in which not all of the ionizable hydrogen of the acid is replaced by the electropositive element; e.g., NaHSO4, KH2PO4. SYN: protosalt. artificial Carlsbad s. a mixture of potassium sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and dried sodium sulfate; a laxative. artificial Kissingen s. a mixture of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and sodium bicarbonate; an antacid and laxative. artificial Vichy s. a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, potassium carbonate, and sodium chloride; an antacid. basic s. a s. in which there are one or more hydroxyl ions not replaced by the electronegative element of an acid; e.g., Fe(OH)2Cl. bile salts the s. forms of bile acids; e.g., taurocholate, glycocholate. bone s. bone-s.. common s. SYN: sodium chloride. diazonium salts salts of a theoretical base, R–&tbond;N or R–N&dbond;NOH, useful in histochemistry to demonstrate tissue phenols and aryl amines or with enzymatically released naphthols and naphthylamines to form the chromophore azo group –N&dbond;N–; diazonium salts contain only one R–&tbond;N group, tetrazonium salts contain two, and hexazonium salts contain three; examples include fast garnet GBC base and naphthol AS. double s. a s. in which two different positive ions are bonded to the same negative ion, or vice versa; e.g., NaKSO4. effervescent salts preparations made by adding sodium bicarbonate and tartaric and citric acids to the active s.; when thrown into water the acids break up the sodium bicarbonate, setting free the carbonic acid gas. Epsom salts SYN: magnesium sulfate. Glauber s. SYN: sodium sulfate. hexazonium salts diazonium salts that contain three azo groups. Reinecke s. an ammonium s. prepared by fusing ammonium thiocyanate with ammonium dichromate; dark red crystals; used in the detection and analysis of primary and secondary amines, including amino acids; also used as a reagent for mercury. Rivière s. SYN: potassium citrate. Rochelle s. SYN: potassium sodium tartrate. Seignette s. SYN: potassium sodium tartrate. smelling salts SYN: aromatic ammonia spirit. s. substitute A low-sodium food additive that tastes like s., such as potassium chloride; useful as a dietary alternative to s.. table s. SYN: sodium chloride. tetrazonium salts diazonium salts that contain two azo groups. s. of wisdom SYN: sal alembroth.

saltation (sal-ta′shun)
A dancing or leaping, as in a disease ( e.g., chorea) or physiologic function ( e.g., saltatory conduction). [L. saltatio, fr. salto, pp. -atus, to dance, fr. salio, to leap]

saltatory (sal′ta-tor-e)
Pertaining to, or characterized by, saltation.

Salter
Robert B., 20th century Canadian orthopedist. See S.-Harris classification of epiphysial plate injuries.

Salter
Sir Samuel J.A., English dentist, 1825–1897. See S. incremental lines, under line.

salting in (salt′ing)
The increase in solubility (as observed for some proteins) by dilute salt solutions (as compared to pure water).

salting out
The precipitation of a protein from its solution by saturation or partial saturation with such neutral salts as sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, or ammonium sulfate.

saltpeter (salt′pe-ter)
SYN: potassium nitrate. Chilean s. SYN: sodium nitrate.

salubrious (sa-loo′bre-us)
Healthful, usually in reference to climate. [L. salubris, healthy, fr. salus, health]

saluresis (sal-u-re′sis)
Excretion of sodium in the urine. [L. sal, salt, + G. ouresis, uresis (urination)]

saluretic (sal-u-ret′ik)
Facilitating the renal excretion of sodium.

Salus
Robert, Bohemian ophthalmologist, *1877. See Koerber-S.-Elschnig syndrome.

salutarium (sal-u-tar′e-um)
SYN: sanitarium. [L. salutaris, healthful, fr. salus (salut-), health]

salutary (sal′u-tar-e)
Healthful; wholesome. [L. salutaris]

Salvarsan (sal′var-san)
Historic proprietary name for arsphenamine. [L. salvare, to preserve, + sanitas, health]

salve (sav)
SYN: ointment. [A.S. sealf]

salvia (sal′ve-a)
The dried leaves of S. officinalis (family Labiatae), garden or meadow sage; it inhibits secretory activity, especially of the sweat glands, and was also used in bronchitis and inflammation of the throat. SYN: sage. [L.]

Salzmann
Maximilian, German ophthalmologist, 1862–1954. See S. nodular corneal degeneration.

SAM
Abbreviation for S-adenosyl-l-methionine.

samandarine (sa-man′da-ren)
A toxic alkaloid from salamanders; causes hemolysis.

samarium (Sm) (sa-mar′e-um)
A metallic element of the lanthanide group, atomic no. 62, atomic wt. 150.36. [bands indicating its presence first found in the spectrum of samarskite, a mineral named after Col. von Samarski, 19th century Russian mine official]

sambucus (sam-bu′kus)
The dried flowers of S. canadensis or S. nigra (family Caprifoliaceae), the common elder or black elder; slightly laxative. SYN: elder, elder flowers. [L. an elder-tree]

sAMP
Abbreviation for adenylosuccinic acid.

sample (sam′pel)
1. A specimen of a whole entity small enough to involve no threat or damage to the whole; an aliquot. 2. A selected subset of a population; a s. may be random or nonrandom (haphazard), representative or nonrepresentative. [M.E. ensample, fr. L. exemplum, example] cluster s. each sampling unit is a group of individuals. end-tidal s. a s. of the last gas expired in a normal expiration, ideally consisting only of alveolar gas. Haldane-Priestley s. an approximation of alveolar gas obtained from the end of a sudden maximal expiration into a Haldane tube. probability s. each individual in the s. has a known, generally equal, chance of being selected. proficiency samples samples sent to a laboratory as unknowns to allow an external assessment of laboratory performance, a frequent practice as part of proficiency testing programs to ensure the laboratory is generating correct results. SEE ALSO: proficiency testing. Rahn-Otis s. an approximation of alveolar gas continuously provided by a simple device that admits just the latter part of each expiration. random s. a selection on the basis of chance of individuals or items in a population for research; selection is made in such a way that all members presumably have the same chance of being selected. stratified s. a subset of a total population, defined by some objective criterion such as age or occupation, is sampled.

sampling
The policy of inferring the behavior of a whole batch by studying a fraction of it. [MF essample, fr. L. exemplum, taking out] biological s. denotes s. that can be taken without jeopardy to the whole organism ( e.g., for hematological or biochemical study). Because of the complexity of biological samples it is usually supposed that the source of the sample is thoroughly mixed and hence representative; this assumption is often not true, e.g., in genetic studies in mosaic patients. chemical s. a sample that is obtained by whatever means is convenient and then purified of irrelevant elements before analysis; the assumption of thorough mixing is not necessary. continuous interleaved s. a strategy in speech processing for cochlear implants in which brief pulses are presented to each electrode in a nonoverlapping sequence. haphazard s. the assembly of data in an unprescribed and undefined fashion that allows no sound scientific inferences other than establishing the existence of types. (Finding even one unicorn in such a set would establish that unicorns can exist, but no inference about their prevalence could be made from it.) Cf.:random sample. random s. a selection of elements from a population such that each possible outcome is independent of other possible outcomes and the probability of each member of the population being chosen is equal. snowball s. a method whereby the names of prospective interview subjects for a statistical study are obtained from subjects already interviewed for the study.

Sanarelli
Giuseppe, Italian bacteriologist, 1865–1940. See S. phenomenon, S.-Shwartzman phenomenon.

sanative (san′a-tiv)
Having a tendency to heal. [L. sano, to cure, heal]

sanatorium (san′a-tor′e-um)
An institution for the treatment of chronic disorders and a place for recuperation under medical supervision. Cf.:sanitarium. [Mod. L. neuter of sanatorius, curative, fr. sano, to cure, heal]

sanatory (san′a-tor-e)
Health-giving; conducive to health. [Mod. L. sanatorius]

Sanchez Salorio
Manuel, Spanish ophthalmologist, *1930. See S. syndrome.

sand
The fine granular particles of quartz and other crystalline rocks, or a gritty material resembling s.. [A.S.] brain s. SYN: corpora arenacea, under corpus. hydatid s. the scoleces, daughter cysts, hooks, and calcareous corpuscles of Echinococcus tapeworms in the fluid within a primary or daughter hydatid cyst. intestinal s. minute calculi or gritty material occurring in feces, composed of soaps, bile pigment, cholesterol, magnesium salts, succinic acid, etc. urinary s. multiple small calculous particles passed in the urine of patients with nephrolithiasis; each particle is usually too small to cause significant symptoms or to be identified as a true calculus.

sandalwood oil (san′dal-wood)
SYN: santal oil.

sandfly (sand′fli)
A small, biting, dipterous midge of the genus Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia; a vector of leishmaniasis.

Sandhoff
K., contemporary German biochemist. See S. disease.

Sandison
J. Calvin, U.S. surgeon, *1899. See S.-Clark chamber.

Sandström
I., Swedish anatomist, 1852–1889. See S. bodies, under body.

sandworm (sand′werm)
Any of the various dog and cat hookworms whose larvae cause cutaneous larva migrans.

sane (san)
Denoting sanity. [L. sanus]

Sanfilippo
Sylvester J., 20th century U.S. pediatrician. See S. syndrome.

Sanger
Frederick, English biochemist and twice Nobel laureate, *1918. See S. reagent, S. method.

sangui-, sanguin-, sanguino-
Blood, bloody. [G. sanguis]

sanguifacient (sang-gwi-fa′shent)
SYN: hemopoietic. [sangui- + L. facio, to make]




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