|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Inflammation of both sclera and iris.
Inflammation of the sclera and cornea. [sclero- + G. keras, horn]
Inflammation of sclera, cornea, and iris.
A circumscribed indurated focus of granulation tissue in the skin or mucous membrane. [G. skleroma, an induration] respiratory s. rhinoscleroma in which the lesion involves the mucous membrane of the greater part or all of the upper respiratory tract.
Degenerative thinning of the sclera, occurring in persons with rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen disorders. [sclero- + G. malakia, a softening]
1. Any metamere of the skeleton, such as a vertebral segment. 2. Caudal half of a sclerotome. [sclero- + G. meros, part]
A device for determining the density or hardness of any substance. [sclero- + G. metron, measure]
Generalized lichen myxedematosus with diffuse thickening of the skin underlying the papules.
Induration and thickening of the nails. [sclero- + G. onyx, nail, + -ia, condition]
Inflammatory induration of the ovary. [sclero- + Mod. L. oophoron, ovary + G. -itis, inflammation]
An abnormality in which most of the normally transparent cornea resembles the opaque sclera. [sclero- + G. ophthalmos, eye]
Plastic surgery of the sclera. [sclero- + G. plastos, formed]
SYN: albuminoid (3) . SEE ALSO: fibrous protein.
An injectable irritant used to treat varices by producing thrombi in them.
To harden; to undergo sclerosis.
sclerosis, pl .scleroses (skle-ro′sis, -sez)
1. SYN: induration (2) . 2. In neuropathy, induration of nervous and other structures by a hyperplasia of the interstitial fibrous or glial connective tissue. [G. sklerosis, hardness] Alzheimer s. hyaline degeneration of the medium and smaller blood vessels of the brain. amyotrophic lateral s. (ALS) a fatal degenerative disease involving the corticobulbar, corticospinal, and spinal motor neurons, manifested by progressive weakness and wasting of muscles innervated by the affected neurons; fasciculations and cramps commonly occur. The disorder is 90–95% sporadic in nature (although a number of cases are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait [MIM*105400]), affects adults (typically, older adults), and usually is fatal within 2–5 years of onset. It is the most common subgroup of motor neuron disease, and the only one manifested by a combination of upper and lower abnormalities. Variants include: 1) progressive bulbar palsy, in which isolated or predominant lower brainstem motor involvement occurs; 2) primary lateral s., in which only upper motor neuron abnormalities are seen; and 3) progressive spinal muscle atrophy, in which only lower motor neuron dysfunction is noted. SYN: Aran-Duchenne disease, Charcot disease, Duchenne-Aran disease, Lou Gehrig disease, progressive muscular atrophy, progressive spinal amyotrophy. arterial s. SYN: arteriosclerosis. arteriocapillary s. arteriosclerosis, especially of the finer vessels. arteriolar s. SYN: arteriolosclerosis. bone s. SYN: eburnation. Canavan s. SYN: Canavan disease. central areolar choroidal s. SYN: areolar choroidopathy. combined s. SYN: subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. diffuse infantile familial s. SYN: globoid cell leukodystrophy. disseminated s. SYN: multiple s.. endocardial s. SYN: endocardial fibrosis. glomerular s. SYN: glomerulosclerosis. hippocampal s. a loss of cortical neurons and a reactive astrocytosis in the hippocampal regions of some persons with epilepsy. idiopathic hypercalcemic s. of infants idiopathic hypercalcemia of infants. insular s. SYN: multiple s.. laminar cortical s. a degeneration of nerve fibers in the corona radiata in a laminar pattern. lateral spinal s. SYN: primary lateral s.. lobar s. SYN: Pick atrophy. mantle s. a common cerebral lesion in the palsied states of early life characterized by nodular cortical atrophy. menstrual s. SYN: physiologic s.. Mönckeberg s. SYN: Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis. multiple s. (MS) common demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, causing patches of s. (plaques) in the brain and spinal cord; occurs primarily in young adults, and has protean clinical manifestations, depending upon the location and size of the plaque; typical symptoms include visual loss, diplopia, nystagmus, dysarthria, weakness, paresthesias, bladder abnormalities, and mood alterations; characteristically, the plaques are “separated in time and space” and clinically the symptoms show exacerbations and remissions. SYN: disseminated s., insular s.. nodular s. SYN: atherosclerosis. nuclear s. increased refractivity of the central portion of the lens of the eye. See nuclear cataract. ovulational s. SYN: physiologic s.. physiologic s. a slowly progressive s. in the walls of the ovarian arteries that commences after puberty. SYN: menstrual s., ovulational s.. posterior s. SYN: tabetic neurosyphilis. posterior spinal s. SYN: tabetic neurosyphilis. primary lateral s. considered by many to be a subgroup of motor neuron disease; a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of the motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in widespread weakness on an upper motor neuron basis; spasticity, hyperreflexia, and Babinski signs are present, but not fasciculation potentials, nor any electrodiagnostic evidence of a lower motor neuron lesion. SYN: lateral spinal s.. systemic s. 1. a systemic disease characterized by formation of hyalinized and thickened collagenous fibrous tissue, with thickening of the skin and adhesion to underlying tissues (especially of the hands and face), dysphagia due to loss of peristalsis and submucosal fibrosis of the esophagus, dyspnea due to pulmonary fibrosis, myocardial fibrosis, and renal vascular changes resembling those of malignant hypertension; Raynaud phenomenon, atrophy of the soft tissues, and osteoporosis of the distal phalanges (acrosclerosis), sometimes with gangrene at the ends of the digits, are common findings. The term progressive systemic s. is commonly used and is appropriate for cases with initially widespread skin involvement including the trunk. However, when skin involvement is limited to the distal extremities and face, there is often prolonged delay in appearance of visceral manifestations. SEE ALSO: CREST syndrome. 2. SYN: scleroderma. tuberous s. [MIM*191100] phacomatosis characterized by the formation of multisystem hamartomas producing seizures, mental retardation, and angiofibromas of the face; the cerebral and retinal lesions are glial nodules; other skin lesions are hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches, and periungual fibromas; autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression, caused by mutation in either the tuberous s. gene (TSC1) on chromosome 9q or TSC2 on 16p. SYN: Bourneville disease, epiloia. unicellular s. a growth of fibrous tissue between and isolating the individual cells of a part. valvular s. fibrosis, often with calcification of valves, considered to be an aging change and not due to primary valvular disease. vascular s. SYN: arteriosclerosis. s. of white matter SYN: leukodystrophy.
Induration and contraction of the tissues. [sclero- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
A former generic name for strongyle (hookworm) nematodes and for trichostrongyle worms of horses; now replaced by other genera but still used as a collective term for this group. Species include S. duodenale (Ancylostoma duodenale) and S. syngamus (Syngamus trachea) [sclero- + G. stoma, mouth]
Surgical perforation of the sclera, as for the relief of glaucoma. [sclero- + G. stoma, mouth]
Treatment involving the injection of a sclerosing solution into vessels or tissues. SYN: sclerosing therapy.
Induration and brittleness of the hair. SYN: sclerotrichia. [sclero- + G. thrix, hair]
1. Relating to or characterized by sclerosis. 2. SYN: scleral.
SYN: sclera. [Mod. L. scleroticus, hard]
sclerotium, pl .sclerotia (skle-ro′she-um, -she-a)
1. In fungi, a variably sized resting body composed of a hardened mass of hyphae with or without host tissue, usually with a darkened rind, from which fruit bodies, stromata, conidiophores, or mycelia may develop. 2. The hardened resting condition of the plasmodium of Myxomycetes.
1. A knife used in sclerotomy. 2. The group of mesenchymal cells emerging from the ventromedial part of a somite and migrating toward the notochord. Sclerotomal cells from adjacent somites become merged in intersomitically located masses that are the primordia of the centra of the vertebrae. [sclero- + G. tome, a cutting]
An incision through the sclera. [sclero- + G. tome, incision] anterior s. incision into the anterior chamber of the eye. posterior s. incision through the sclera into the vitreous humor.
sclerotylosis (skler′o-ti-lo′sis) [MIM*181600]
Atrophic fibrosis of the skin, hypoplasia of the nails, and palmoplantar keratoderma; associated with skin and gastrointestinal cancers; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: scleroatrophy. [sclero- + G. tylosis, the process of becoming callous]
SYN: scleroid. [G. skleros, hard]
Abbreviation for sternocleidomastoid (muscle).
Plural of scolex.
Infection of the intestine by larvae of lepidopterans (moths and butterflies). [G. skolex, worm, + -iasis, condition]
1. Resembling a tapeworm scolex. 2. Wormlike. SEE ALSO: lumbricoid (1) , vermiform. SYN: scoleciform. [G. skolekoeides, fr. skolex, worm, + eidos, appearance]
SYN: helminthology. [G. skolex, worm, + logos, study]
scolex, pl .scolecesscolices (sko′leks, sko′le-sez, sko′li-sez)
The head or anterior end of a tapeworm attached by suckers, and frequently by rostellar hooks, to the wall of the intestine; it is formed within the hydatid cyst in Echinococcus, within a cysticercus in Taenia, a cysticercoid in Hymenolepis, or by a plerocercoid, as in Diphyllobothrium latum. The form of the s. varies greatly, the most familiar being rounded or club-shaped with four circular muscular suckers and an armed or unarmed rostellum, or a spatulate flattened s. with a pair of slitlike suckers (bothria) and no rostellum, as in Diphyllobothrium and its allies. Other forms have complex leaflike, cup-shaped, or fimbriated shapes, or retractile, multiply spined proboscides. These varied forms characterize the orders of cestodes, which are particularly well developed as parasites of sharks and skates or rays. [G. skolex, a worm]
SYN: kyphoscoliosis. [G. scolios, curved, + kyphosis, kyphosis]
An instrument for measuring curves, especially those in lateral curvature of the spine. [G. skolios, curved, + metron, measure]
scoliosis (sko-le-o′sis) [TA]
Abnormal lateral and rotational curvature of the vertebral column. Depending on the etiology, there may be one curve, or primary and secondary compensatory curves; s. may be “fixed” as a result of muscle and/or bone deformity or “mobile” as a result of unequal muscle contraction. [G. skoliosis, a crookedness] coxitic s. s. in the lumbar spine resulting from tilting of the pelvis in the presence of hip disease. empyemic s. s. due to retraction of one side of the chest following an empyema. habit s. s. supposedly due to habitual standing or sitting in an improper position. myopathic s. lateral curvature due to weakness of the spinal muscles, as in poliomyelitis. ocular s., ophthalmic s. s. supposed to be due to head tilting, caused by ophthalmological dysfunction. osteopathic s. lateral curvature of the spine due to vertebral disease. paralytic s. lateral curvature of the spine due to paralysis of spinal muscles. rachitic s. s. occurring as a result of rickets. sciatic s. s. caused by asymmetric spasm of spinal muscles usually associated with sciatica, usually presenting as a list toward one side. static s. lateral curvature of the spine due to inequality in length of the legs.
Relating to or suffering from scoliosis.
An apparatus for stretching the spine and reducing the curve in scoliosis. [G. skolios, crooked, + tonos, tension]
A genus of centipedes characterized by 21–23 pairs of legs. Common U.S. species are S. heros (the Western house centipede) and S. morsitans. [Mod. L., fr. G. skolopendra, multipede]
Short wavelength sensitive c. (blue c.).
A narrow, spoonlike instrument for extracting the contents of cavities or cysts. [A.S. skopa]
Denoting an instrument for viewing, but extended to include other methods of examination ( e.g., stethoscope). [G. skopeo, to view]
Scopolamine less the tropic acid side chain, i.e., 6,7-epoxytropine, or 6,7-epoxy-3-hydroxytropane.
scopolamine (sko-pol′a-men, -min)
An alkaloid found in the leaves and seeds of Hyoscyamus niger, Duboisia myoproides, Scopolia japonica, Scopolia carniolica, Atropa belladonna, and other solanaceous plants; the 6,7-epoxide of atropine, i.e., 6,7-epoxytropine tropate. Exerts anticholinergic actions similar to atropine; thought to have greater central nervous system effects; useful in preventing motion sickness. SYN: hyoscine. s. hydrobromide anticholinergic action is similar to that of atropine. SYN: hyoscine hydrobromide. s. methylbromide a quaternary ammonium derivative of s.; used when spasmolytic or antisecretory effects are desired.
The dried rhizome and roots of S. carniolica (family Solanaceae), a herb of Austria and neighboring countries of Europe; it resembles belladonna in pharmacologic action. [G.A. Scopoli, Italian naturalist, 1723–1788] s. japonica japanese belladonna, the leaves, root, and seeds of which contain scopolamine.
A decomposition product of scopolamine, and an isomer of scopine, in that the epoxy and hydroxyl groups are in different locations.
A device for determining the density of a precipitate by the degree of translucency of a fluid containing it. SEE ALSO: nephelometer. [G. skopeo, to view, + metron, measure]
SYN: voyeurism. [G. skopeo, to view, + philos, fond]
Morbid dread of being stared at. [G. skopeo, to view, + phobos, fear]
A genus of filamentous fungi rarely pathogenic for humans; several species have been implicated in onychomycosis, ulcerating granuloma, and other “mycotic” entities. Penicillium-like, it is common in nature and generally a contaminant in laboratory cultures of human tissues. [Mod. L. scopula, a small broom, + G. opsis, appearance]
An action or activity involving the use of in instrument for viewing. [G. skopeo, to view]
Relating to, suffering from, or resembling scurvy (scorbutus).
SYN: scurvy. [Mediev. L. form of Teutonic schorbuyck, scurvy]
Heaviness of the head with yawning and stretching, occurring as a prodrome of an infectious disease. [G. skordinema, yawning]
An evaluation, usually expressed numerically, of status, achievement, or condition in a given set of circumstances. [M. E. scor, notch, tally] APACHE s. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation. The most widely used method of assessing the severity of illness in acutely ill patients in intensive care units. Apgar s. evaluation of a newborn infant's physical status by assigning numerical values (0–2) to each of 5 criteria: 1) heart rate, 2) respiratory effort, 3) muscle tone, 4) response stimulation, and 5) skin color; a s. of 8–10 indicates the best possible condition. Bishop s. system to determine the inducibility of the cervix in a pregnant patient, based on dilation, effacement, station, and cervical consistency and position. discrimination s. the percentage of words that a subject can repeat correctly from a list of phonetically balanced words presented at 25–40 dB above the speech reception threshold. Dubowitz s. a method of clinical assessment of gestational age in the newborn that includes neurological criteria for the infant's maturity and other physical criteria to determine the gestational age of the infant; useful from birth to 5 days of life. Gleason s. Gleason tumor grade. Jarman s. index of social and medical deprivation, used mainly by family doctors, especially in the U.K. Logistic Organ Dysfunction S. an evaluation method used in intensive care that enumerates the level of dysfunction of each organ system and among organ systems; includes evaluation of degree of dysfunction of cardiovascular, hepatic, hematologic, pulmonary, renal, and nervous systems. raw s. the actual s., measurement, or value obtained before any statistics are applied to it. Cf.:standard s.. recovery s. a number expressing the condition of an infant at various stipulated intervals greater than 1 min after birth and based on the same features assessed by the Apgar s. at 60 seconds after birth. standard s. a statistically referenced or derived s. representing the deviation of a raw s. from its mean in standard deviation units. symptom s. American Urological Association's scoring system to evaluate prostatic obstruction.
A member of the order Scorpionida; includes the devil s., Vejovis, and the hairy s., Hadrurus. [G. skorpios]
The scorpions; an order of venomous, predaceous, arachnid arthropods characterized by a distinctly segmented bony abdomen terminating in a sharply recurved stinging spine equipped with a poison gland; causes a severely painful but rarely fatal sting. North American genera include Centruroides, Hadrurus, and Vejovis. [Mod. L.]
Darkness. [G. skotos]
SYN: Runyon group II mycobacteria. [scoto- + G. chroma, color, + -gen, producing]
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