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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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serine (S, Ser) (ser′en)
2-Amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid;the l-isomer is one of the amino acids occurring in proteins. s. deaminase SYN: threonine dehydratase. s. dehydrase SYN: l-s. dehydratase. l-s. dehydratase l-hydroxyamino acid dehydratase;a deaminating hydro-lyase converting l-s. to pyruvate and NH3; a part of amino acid catabolism. SEE ALSO: threonine dehydratase. SYN: s. dehydrase. s. sulfhydrase SYN: cystathionine β-synthase.

seriograph (ser′e-o-graf)
An instrument for making a series of radiographs; used, e.g., in cerebral angiography; an obsolete term for rapid film changer. [series + G. grapho, to write]

seriography (ser-e-og′ra-fe)
The making of a series of radiographs by means of the seriograph.

serioscopy (ser-e-os′ko-pe)
Formerly, a series of radiographs of a region taken from different directional points and later combined. [series + G. skopeo, to view]

seriscission (ser-i-sish′un)
Rarely used term denoting division of the pedicle of a tumor or other tissue by a silk ligature. [L. sericum, silk, + scissio, a cleaving]

SERM
Abbreviation for selective estrogen receptor modulator.

sero-
Serum, serous. [L. serum, whey]

serocolitis (ser′o-ko-li′tis)
SYN: pericolitis. [Mod. L. serosa, serous membrane, + colitis]

seroconversion (ser′o-kon-ver′zhun)
Development of detectable specific antibodies in the serum as a result of infection or immunization.

serocystic (ser-o-sis′tik)
Relating to one or more serous cysts.

serodiagnosis (ser′o-di-ag-no′sis)
Diagnosis by means of serologic reactions using blood serum or other serous fluids in the body.

seroenteritis (ser′o-en-ter-i′tis)
SYN: perienteritis. [Mod. L. serosa, serous membrane, + enteritis]

seroepidemiology (ser′o-ep-i-de-me-ol′o-je)
Epidemiologic study based on the detection of infection by serologic testing.

serofast (ser′o-fast)
SYN: serum-fast.

serofibrinous (ser-o-fi′bri-nus)
Denoting an exudate composed of serum and fibrin.

serofibrous (ser-o-fi′brus)
Relating to a serous membrane and a fibrous tissue.

serogroup (ser′o-groop, ser)
1. A group of bacteria containing a common antigen, used in the classification of certain genera of bacteria. 2. A group of viral species that are antigenically closely related.

serologic (ser-o-loj′ik)
Relating to serology.

serology (se-rol′o-je)
The branch of science concerned with serum, especially with specific immune or lytic serums; to measure either antigens or antibodies in sera. [sero- + G. logos, study]

seroma (se-ro′ma)
A mass or tumefaction caused by the localized accumulation of serum within a tissue or organ. [sero- + G. -oma, tumor]

seromembranous (ser′o-mem′bra-nus)
Relating to a serous membrane.

seromucoid (ser-o-mu′koyd)
General term for a mucoprotein (glycoprotein) from serum. acid s. SYN: orosomucoid.

seromucous (ser-o-mu′kus)
Pertaining to a mixture of watery and mucinous material, such as that of certain glands.

seromyotomy (se′ro-mi-ot′o-me)
Incision in the wall of a hollow viscus that involves the serosa and muscularis but not the mucosa. [serosa (1) + G. mys, muscle, + tome, a cutting]

seronegative (ser-o-neg′a-tiv)
Lacking an antibody of a specific type in serum; used to mean absence of prior infection with a specific agent ( e.g., rubella virus), disappearance of antibodies after treatment of a disease ( e.g., syphilis), or absence of antibody usually found in a given syndrome ( e.g., rheumatoid arthritis without rheumatoid factor).

seropositive (ser-o-poz′i-tiv)
Containing antibody of a specific type in serum; used to indicate presence of immunological evidence of a specific infection ( e.g., Lyme disease, syphilis) or presence of a diagnostically useful antibody ( e.g., rheumatoid arthritis with rheumatoid factor).

seropurulent (ser′o-poo′roo-lent)
Composed of or containing both serum and pus; denoting a discharge of thin watery pus (seropus).

seropus (ser′o-pus)
Purulent serum, i.e., pus largely diluted with serum.

seroreversion (sir-o-re-vur′zhun)
A loss in serological reactivity; may be spontaneous or in response to therapy.

serosa (se-ro′sa) [TA]
1. The outermost coat or serous layer of a visceral structure that lies in the body cavities of the abdomen or thorax; it consists of a surface layer of mesothelium reinforced by irregular fibroelastic connective tissue. 2. The outermost of the extraembryonic membranes that encloses the embryo and all its other membranes; it consists of somatopleure, i.e., ectoderm reinforced by somatic mesoderm; the s. of mammalian embryos is frequently called the trophoderm. SYN: membrana s. (2) . SEE ALSO: chorion. SYN: tunica s. [TA] , serous coat&star, membrana s. (1) , serous membrane, serous tunic. [fem. of Mod. L. serosus, serous] s. of colon SYN: s. of large intestine. s. of esophagus [TA] serous coat of the abdominal part of the esophagus. SYN: tunica s. esophagi [TA] . s. of gallbladder [TA] serous coat of the gallbladder; the visceral peritoneum covering the portions of the gallbladder not in direct contact with the liver. SYN: tunica s. vesicae biliaris [TA] , tunica s. vesicae felleae&star. s. of large intestine [TA] serous coat of the colon; the visceral peritoneum of the large intestine. SYN: tunica s. intestini crassi [TA] , s. of colon, tunica s. coli. s. of liver [TA] serous coat of the liver; peritoneal covering of the liver, enclosing almost all except for a triangular area on its posterior surface (the “bare area of the liver”) and a smaller area where the liver and gallbladder are in direct contact. SYN: tunica s. hepatis [TA] . s. of parietal pleura [TA] glistening inner surface of the parietal pleura. SYN: tunica s. pleurae perietalis [TA] . s. of peritoneum simple squamous epithelium that forms the glistening surface of the parietal and visceral layers of peritoneum. SYN: tunica s. peritonei [TA] , serous coat of peritoneum&star, serous layer of peritoneum. s. of serous pericardium [TA] single layer of flat cells that lines the pericardial sac and heart; this layer, plus the subserous layer, constitute the serous pericardium. SYN: tunica s. pericardii serosi [TA] . s. of small intestine [TA] serous coat of the small intestine; the peritoneal covering of the external surface of the small intestine. SYN: tunica s. intestini tenuis [TA] . s. of the spleen [TA] visceral peritoneum covering the spleen. SYN: tunica s. splenis [TA] . s. of stomach [TA] serous coat of the stomach; the visceral peritoneum covering the outer surface of the stomach. SYN: tunica s. gastricae [TA] , tunica s. ventriculi. s. of (urinary) bladder [TA] serous coat of the urinary bladder; the visceral peritoneum covering the roof and lateral walls of the urinary bladder. SYN: tunica s. vesicae (urinariae) [TA] . s. of uterine tube [TA] serous coat of the uterine tube; the visceral peritoneum forming the outer surface of the uterine tubes. SYN: tunica s. tubae uterinae [TA] . s. of uterus [TA] serous coat of uterus; the visceral peritoneum covering the fundus and posterior body of the uterus. SYN: tunica s. uteri [TA] . s. of visceral pleura [TA] single layer of flat cells lining and thus forming the glistening outermost surface of the lungs. SYN: tunica s. pleurae visceralis [TA] .

serosamucin (se-ro-sa-mu′sin)
Mucoid material found in serous fluids, e.g., in ascitic or synovial fluid.

serosanguineous (ser′o-sang-gwin′e-us)
Denoting an exudate or a discharge composed of or containing serum and also blood.

seroserous (ser-o-ser′us)
1. Relating to two serous surfaces. 2. Denoting a suture, as of the intestine, in which the edges of the wound are infolded so as to bring the two serous surfaces in apposition.

serositis (ser-o-si′tis)
Inflammation of a serous membrane. multiple s. SYN: polyserositis.

serosity (se-ros′i-te)
1. A serous fluid or a serum. 2. The condition of being serous. 3. The serous quality of a liquid.

serosynovial (ser′o-si-no′ve-al)
Relating to serum and also synovia.

serosynovitis (ser′o-sin-o-vi′tis)
Synovitis attended with a copious serous effusion.

serotaxis (ser-o-tak′sis)
Edema of the skin induced by the application of a strong cutaneous irritant. [sero- + G. taxis, an arranging]

serotherapy (ser-o-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of an infectious disease by injection of an antitoxin or serum containing specific antibody. SYN: serum therapy.

serotina (ser′o-ti′na)
See decidua. [L. fem. of serotinus, late]

serotonergic (ser-o-to-ner′jik, ser-)
Related to the action of serotonin or its precursor l-tryptophan. [serotonin + G. ergon, work]

serotonin (ser-o-to′nin)
A vasoconstrictor, liberated by blood platelets, that inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates smooth muscle; present in relatively high concentrations in some areas of the central nervous system (hypothalamus, basal ganglia), and occurring in many peripheral tissues and cells and in carcinoid tumors. SYN: 5-hydroxytryptamine, enteramine, thrombocytin, thrombotonin. [sero- + G. tonos, tone, tension, + -in]

serotype (ser′o-tip)
SYN: serovar. heterologous s. an antibody that was induced by one antigen and reacts with another antigen. homologous s. an antibody that was induced by a particular antigen and reacts with that antigen.

serous (ser′us)
Relating to, containing, or producing serum or a substance having a watery consistency.

serovaccination (ser′o-vak-si-na′shun)
A process for producing mixed immunity by the injection of a serum to secure passive immunity, and by vaccination with a modified or killed culture to acquire active immunity later.

serovar (ser′o-var)
A subdivision of a species or subspecies distinguishable from other strains therein on the basis of antigenicity. SYN: serotype. [sero- + variant]

serozyme (ser′o-zim)
SYN: prothrombin.

serpentaria (ser-pen-ta′re-a, -tar′e-a)
The dried rhizome and roots of Aristolochia s., Virginia snakeroot, or of A. reticulata, Texas snakeroot (family Aristolochiaceae); a stomachic. SYN: snakeroot. [L. snakeweed]

serpiginous (ser-pij′i-nus)
Creeping; denoting an ulcer or other cutaneous lesion that extends with an arciform border; the margin has a wavy or serpent-like border. [Mediev. L. serpigo- (-gin-), ringworm, fr. L. serpo, to creep]

serpigo (ser-pi′go)
1. SYN: tinea. 2. SYN: herpes. 3. Any creeping or serpiginous eruption. [Mediev. L. s. (-gin-), ringworm, fr. L. serpo, to creep]

serpins
SYN: serine protease inhibitors, under inhibitor. [serine protease inhibitors]

serrate, serrated (ser′at, -a′ted)
Toothed. [L. serratus, fr. serra, a saw]

Serratia (se-ra′she-a)
A genus of motile, peritrichous, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) which contain small, Gram-negative rods. Some strains are encapsulated. Many strains produce a pink, red, or magenta pigment; their metabolism is fermentative and they are saprophytic on decaying plant and animal materials. The type species is S. marcescens. [Serafino Serrati, 18th century Italian physicist] S. marcescens a species found in water, soil, milk, foods, and silkworms and other insects; a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection, especially in patients with impaired immunity; it is the type species of the genus S..

serration (se-ra′shun)
1. The state of being serrated or notched. 2. Any one of the processes in a serrate or dentate formation. [L. serra, saw]

serrefine (ser-e-fen′)
A small spring forceps used for approximating the edges of a wound or for temporarily closing an artery during an operation. [Fr.]

serrenoeud (ser-e-no-ood′)
An instrument for tightening a ligature. [Fr. serrer, to press, + noeud, knot]

Serres
Antoine E.R.A., French anatomist, 1786–1868. See S. angle, S. glands, under gland, rests of S., under rest.

serrulate, serrulated (ser′u-lat, -la′ted)
Finely serrate. [L. serrula, a small saw, dim. of serra]

Sertoli
Enrico, Italian histologist, 1842–1910. See S. cell tumor, S. cells, under cell, S. columns, under column, S.-cell-only syndrome, S.-Leydig cell tumor, S.-stromal cell tumor.

sertraline (ser′tra-len)
An antidepressant which exhibits selectivity for the blockade of serotonin reuptake; similar to fluoxetine.

serum, pl .serumssera (ser′um, -umz, -a)
1. A clear, watery fluid, especially that moistening the surface of serous membranes, or exuded in inflammation of any of those membranes. 2. The fluid portion of the blood obtained after removal of the fibrin clot and blood cells, distinguished from the plasma in circulating blood. Sometimes used as a synonym for antiserum or antitoxin. [L. whey] anticomplementary s. s. that destroys or inactivates complement. antiepithelial s. an antiserum (cytotoxin) for epithelial cells. antilymphocyte s. (ALS) antiserum against lymphocytes, used to suppress rejection of grafts or organ transplants; when used in man, the globulin fraction of the heterologous s. (prepared in horse or other animals) is usually used in conjunction with other immunosuppressive agents (drugs or chemicals) and for a limited period of time. SYN: antilymphocyte globulin. antirabies s. a sterile solution containing antibodies obtained from the blood s. or plasma of a healthy animal, or human, that has been immunized against rabies by means of vaccine; administered immediately after severe or multiple bites by domestic animals suspected to be rabid and in all wild animal bites, to be followed by a regimen of rabies vaccine. antireticular cytotoxic s. an antiserum specific for cells of the reticuloendothelial system. antitoxic s. an antitoxin. bacteriolytic s. an antiserum (bacteriolysin) that sensitizes a bacterium to the lytic action of complement. blood s. s. (2) . convalescent s. s. from patients recently recovered from a disease; useful for diagnosis by demonstrating a fourfold increase in specific antibodies or in preventing or modifying by passive immunization the same disease in exposed susceptible individuals. Coombs s. SYN: antihuman globulin. dried human s. s. prepared by drying liquid human s. by freeze-drying or by any other method that will avoid denaturation of the proteins and will yield a product readily soluble in a quantity of water equal to the volume of liquid human s. from which it was prepared. foreign s. a s. derived from an animal and injected into an animal of another species or into humans. human s. dried human s., normal human s.. human measles immune s. obtained from the blood of a healthy person who has survived an attack of measles. SYN: measles convalescent s.. human pertussis immune s. the sterile s. prepared from the pooled blood of healthy adult human beings who have received repeated courses of phase I pertussis vaccine; administered intravenously or intramuscularly for the prophylaxis or treatment of whooping cough. human scarlet fever immune s. scarlet fever convalescent s., obtained from healthy persons who have survived an attack of scarlet fever. hyperimmune s. antisera with a high antibody titer produced by repeated injections of antigens. immune s. SYN: antiserum. inactivated s. s. that has been heated to 56°C for 30 min to destroy the lytic activity of complement. s. lactis SYN: whey. liquid human s. the pool of fluids separated from blood withdrawn from human subjects and allowed to clot in the absence of any anticoagulant; not more than 10 separate donations are pooled; the contributions from donors of A, O, and either B or AB groups are represented in approximately the ratio 9:9:2. measles convalescent s. SYN: human measles immune s.. muscle s. the fluid remaining after the coagulation of muscle plasma and the separation of myosin. nonimmune s. a s. from a subject that is not immune; a s. that is free of antibodies to a given antigen. normal s. a nonimmune s., usually with reference to a s. obtained prior to immunization. normal horse s. the sterile and filtered s. of a healthy, unvaccinated horse. normal human s. sterile s. obtained by pooling approximately equal amounts of the liquid portion of coagulated whole blood from eight or more persons who are free from any disease transmissible by transfusion. polyvalent s. an antiserum obtained by inoculating an animal with several different antigens or species or strains of bacteria. pooled s., pooled blood s. the mixed s. from a number of individuals. salted s. SYN: salted plasma. specific s. a monovalent antiserum, i.e., one obtained by inoculating an animal with one antigen or species or strain of bacteria. thyrotoxic s. an antiserum obtained by injecting into animals the nucleoproteins of the thyroid gland. truth s. colloquialism for a drug, such as amobarbital sodium or thiopental sodium, intravenously injected with scopolamine for the purpose of eliciting information from the subject under its influence; a misnomer because the subject's revelations may or may not be factually true, and its legal status and use is questionable.

serumal (ser′um-al)
Relating to or derived from serum.

serum-fast (ser′um-fast)
1. Pertaining to a serum in which there is little or no change in the titer of antibody, even under conditions of treatment or immunologic stimulation. 2. Resistant to the destructive effect of sera. SYN: serofast.

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
SYN: aspartate aminotransferase.

serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
SYN: alanine aminotransferase.

servation (ser-va′shun)
The use or function of an organ.

Servetus, Servet, Servide
Miguel, Spanish anatomist and theologian, 1511–1553. See S. circulation.

servomechanism (ser′vo-mek′a-nizm)
1. A control system using negative feedback to operate another system. 2. A process that behaves as a self-regulatory device; e.g., the reaction of the pupil to light. [L. servus, servant, + G. mechane, contrivance]




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