|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A peculiar sensation as of a nervous discharge or electric shock passing rapidly from the top of the head to the feet, sometimes described as a sensation of the rolling of shot down the body, occurring in acromegaly.
1. The lateral portion of the scapular region, where the scapula joins with the clavicle and humerus and is covered by the rounded mass of the deltoid muscle. 2. In dentistry, the ledge formed by the junction of the gingival and axial walls in extracoronal restorative preparations. [A.S. sculder] frozen s. SYN: adhesive capsulitis.
shoulder blade (shol′der blad)
1. An appearance. 2. First appearance of blood in beginning menstruation. 3. Sign of impending labor, characterized by the discharge from the vagina of a small amount of blood-tinged mucus representing the extrusion of the mucous plug which has filled the cervical canal during pregnancy. [A.S. sceáwe]
R.J. See S. syndrome.
Henry J., English anatomist, 1761–1841. See S. membrane.
A convulsive or involuntary tremor. [M.E. shodderen] carotid s. vibrations at the crest of the carotid pulse tracing, seen in aortic stenosis.
Lawrence E., U.S. rheumatologist, *1919. See S. syndrome.
Norman, U.S. surgeon, *1923, developed method for dealing with tissue rejection related to heart transplants.
1. To bypass or divert. 2. A bypass or diversion of fluid to another fluid-containing system by fistulation or a prosthetic device. The nomenclature commonly includes origin and terminus, e.g., atriovenous, splenorenal, ventriculocisternal. SEE ALSO: bypass. [M.E. shunten, to flinch] arteriovenous s. (A-V s.) the passage of blood directly from arteries to veins, without going through the capillary network. Blalock s. subclavian artery to pulmonary artery s. to increase pulmonary circulation in cyanotic heart disease with decreased pulmonary flow. Blalock-Taussig s. a palliative subclavian artery to pulmonary artery anastomosis. cavopulmonary s. SYN: cavopulmonary anastomosis. Denver s. a tube placed subcutaneously that connects the abdominal cavity in a patient with ascites to the low pressure superior vena cava. Not only does this s. have a one-way valve but also a manually compressible chamber to facilitate flow. dialysis s. arteriovenous s. connecting the arterial and venous cannulas in arm or leg. Dickens s. SYN: pentose phosphate pathway. distal splenorenal s. anastomosis of the splenic vein to the left renal vein, usually end-to-side, for control of portal hypertension. SYN: renal-splenic venous s., Warren s.. Glenn s. SYN: cavopulmonary anastomosis. H s. a side-to-side s. between adjacent vessels that uses a connecting conduit; this s. is most commonly placed between the superior mesentary vein and the inferior vena cava in patients with portal hypertension. SYN: H graft. hexose monophosphate s. SYN: pentose phosphate pathway. jejunoileal s. SYN: jejunoileal bypass. left-to-right s. a diversion of blood from the left side of the heart to right (as through a septal defect), or from the systemic circulation to the pulmonary (as through a patent ductus arteriosus). LeVeen s. a subcutaneously placed tube with an inline one-way valve used to transport ascitic fluid from the abdomen, via the jugular vein, to the superior vena cava. mesocaval s. 1. anastomosis of the side of the superior mesenteric vein to the proximal end of the divided inferior vena cava, for control of portal hypertension; 2. H-s. anastomosis of the inferior vena cava to the superior mesenteric vein, using a synthetic conduit or autologous vein. pentose monophosphate s. SYN: pentose phosphate pathway. peritoneovenous s. a s., usually by a catheter, between the peritoneal cavity and the thoracic central venous system. pleuroperitoneal s. a surgically implanted catheter for transport of fluid from a pleural space into the peritoneal cavity, where it is absorbed; used mainly for treatment of malignant pleural effusions. pleurovenous s. a surgically implanted catheter for transport of fluid from a pleural space into the venous system; rarely used, mainly for treatment of malignant pleural effusions. portacaval s. 1. surgical anastomosis between portal and systemic veins; 2. surgical anastomosis between the portal vein and the vena cava. portasystemic s. a s. between any parts of the portal and systemic venous systems, including portacaval, mesocaval, splenorenal shunts or spontaneously occurring shunts. proximal splenorenal s. anastomosis of the proximal end of the cut splenic vein to the side of the left renal vein for control of portal hypertension; this is considered a central or complete visceral venous s.. Rapoport-Luebering s. part of the glycolytic pathway characteristic of human erythrocytes in which 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-P2Gri) is formed as an intermediate between 1,3-P2Gri and 3-phosphoglycerate; 2,3-P2Gri is an important regulator of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. renal-splenic venous s. SYN: distal splenorenal s.. reversed s. right-to-left s. that had previously been a left-to-right s.; rarely the opposite. right-to-left s. the passage of blood from the right side of the heart into the left (as through a septal defect), or from the pulmonary artery into the aorta (as through a patent ductus arteriosus); such a s. can occur only when the pressure on the right side exceeds that in the left, as in advanced pulmonic stenosis, or when the pulmonary artery pressure exceeds aortic pressure, as in one form of Eisenmenger syndrome or in tricuspid atresia. Scribner s. connection of an artery, customarily the radial, to the cephalic vein via a short extracorporeal catheter. Torkildsen s. a ventriculocisternal s.. See s. (2) . tracheoesophageal s. See tracheoesophageal puncture. transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic s. (TIPS) an interventional radiology procedure to relieve portal hypertension. Warburg-Dickens-Horecker s. SYN: pentose phosphate pathway. Warburg-Lipmann-Dickens-Horecker s. SYN: pentose phosphate pathway. Warren s. SYN: distal splenorenal s.. Waterston s. creation of a narrow (about 3 mm) opening between the ascending aorta and the subjacent right pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary circulation in cyanotic heart disease with decreased pulmonary flow.
A going back and forth regularly; used in respect to certain transport processes across a biomembrane. glycerophosphate s. a mechanism for the transfer of reducing equivalents from the cytosol into the mitochondria; NADH is used to synthesize glycerol 3-phosphate in the cytosol; this compound is then transported into the mitochondria where it is converted to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) using FAD; DHAP then returns to the cytosol to complete the cycle; found in brain tissue, brown adipose tissue, and white muscle. malate-aspartate s. a mechanism for the transfer of NADH, reducing equivalents from the cytosol into the mitochondria using two isozymes of malate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase.
Harry, U.S. pediatrician, 1910–1986. See S. syndrome, S.-Diamond syndrome.
Gregory, Russian bacteriologist in U.S., 1896–1965. See S. phenomenon, S. reaction, generalized S. phenomenon, Sanarelli-S. phenomenon.
George Milton, U.S. neurologist, 1919–1967. See S.-Drager syndrome.
Abbreviation for 6-mercaptopurine.
Abbreviation for International System of Units (Système International d'Unités).
Symbol for silicon.
Abbreviation for 6-mercaptopurine ribonucleoside (or 6-thioinosine).
Abbreviation for sialic acids.
Abbreviation for syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
A salivary gland. [sial- + G. aden, gland]
Inflammation of a salivary gland. SYN: sialoadenitis. [sial- + G. aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
Having an influence on the salivary glands. [sial- + G. aden, gland, + trope, a turning]
1. Promoting the flow of saliva. 2. An agent having this action ( e.g., anticholinesterase agents). SYN: ptyalagogue, sialogogue. [sial- + G. agogos, drawing forth]
Dilation of a salivary duct. SYN: ptyalectasis. [sial- + G. ektasis, a stretching]
sialemesis, sialemesia (si′al-em′e-sis, -e-me′ze-a)
Vomiting of saliva, or vomiting caused by or accompanying an excessive secretion of saliva. [sial- + G. emesis, vomiting]
sialic acids (Sia) (si-al′ik)
Esters and other N- and O-acyl derivatives of neuraminic acid; radicals of s. are sialoyl, if the OH of the COOH is removed, and sialosyl, if the OH comes from the anomeric carbon (C-2) of the cyclic structure; e.g., N-acetylneuraminic acid.
An enzyme that cleaves terminal acetylneuraminic residues from oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, or glycolipids; present on the surface antigen in myxoviruses; used in histochemistry to selectively remove sialomucins, as from bronchial mucous glands and the small intestine; a deficiency of this enzyme will result in sialidosis. SYN: neuraminidase.
SYN: cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome.
sialism, sialismus (si′a-lizm, si′a-liz′mus)
SYN: sialorrhea. [G. sialismos]
Saliva, salivary glands. SEE ALSO: ptyal-. Cf.:ptyal-. [G. sialon]
Excision of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. aden, gland, + ektome, excision]
Incision of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. aden, gland, + tome, incision]
A habit of frequent swallowing whereby quantities of saliva and air are taken into the stomach. SYN: aerosialophagy. [sialo- + G. aer, air, + phago, to eat]
Dilation of salivary ducts. [sialo- + G. angeion, vessel, + ektasis, a stretching]
Inflammation of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation]
SYN: ranula (2) . [sialo- + G. kele, tumor]
Inflammation of the duct of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. doche, receptacle, + -itis, inflammation]
Repair of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. doche, receptacle, + plasso, to fashion]
Producing saliva. SEE ALSO: sialagogue. [sialo- + G. -gen, producing]
A radiograph of sialography. [sialo- + G. gramma, a writing]
Radiography of the salivary glands and ducts after the introduction of contrast medium into the ducts. SYN: ptyalography. [sialo- + G. grapho, to write]
A salivary calculus. SYN: ptyalolith. [sialo- + G. lithos, stone]
The formation or presence of a salivary calculus. SYN: ptyalolithiasis, salivolithiasis. [sialolith + G. -iasis, condition]
Incision of a salivary duct or gland to remove a calculus. SYN: ptyalolithotomy. [sialolith + G. tome, incision]
Squamous cell metaplasia in the salivary ducts. [sialo- + metaplasia] necrotizing s. squamous cell metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules, with necrosis of the salivary gland lobules; seen most frequently in the hard palate.
A measurement of salivary secretion, generally for a comparison of a denervated or diseased gland with its healthy counterpart. [sialo- + G. metron, measure]
Excessive flow of saliva. SYN: hygrostomia, ptyalism, salivation, sialism, sialismus, sialosis. [sialo- + G. rhoia, a flow]
Suppression of the secretion of saliva. [sialo- + G. schesis, retention]
sialosemiology, sialosemeiology (si-a-lo-se-me-ol′o-je)
The study and analysis of saliva as an aid to diagnosis. [sialo- + G. semeion, sign, + logos, study]
Stricture of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
A member of a sibship. SYN: sibling.
Hissing or whistling in character; denoting a form of rhonchus. [L. sibilans (-ant-), pres. p. of sibilo, to hiss]
A sibilant rale. [L. a hissing]
SYN: sib. [A. S. sib, relation, + -ling, diminutive]
1. The reciprocal state between individuals who have the same pair of parents. 2. All progeny of one pair of parents. [A.S. sib, relationship]
Francis, English anatomist, 1814–1876. See S. aponeurosis, S. fascia, S. groove, S. muscle, S. aortic vestibule.
Jean A., French physician, 1872-1929. See Collet-S. syndrome.
1. Drying; removing moisture from surrounding substances. 2. A substance with such properties. SYN: siccative. [L. siccans (-ant-), pres. p. of sicco, pp. -atus, to dry]
1. SYN: nausea. 2. Loathing for food. [G. sikchasia, loathing, fr. sikchos, squeamish]
siccolabile (sik-o-la′bil, -bil)
Subject to alteration or destruction on drying. [L. siccus, dry, + labilis, perishable]
siccostabile, siccostable (sik-o-sta′bil; -bil, -bl)
Not subject to alteration or destruction on drying. [L. siccus, dry, + stabilis, stable]
1. Unwell; suffering from disease. 2. SYN: nauseated. [A.S. seóc]
Presence of sickle- or crescent-shaped erythrocytes in peripheral blood; seen in sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait.
Production of sickle-shaped erythrocytes in the circulation, as in sickle cell anemia.
SYN: disease (1) . acute African sleeping s. SYN: Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. aerial s. SYN: altitude s.. African sleeping s. Gambian trypanosomiasis, Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. air s. a form of motion s. caused by flying in an airplane. altitude s. a syndrome caused by low inspired oxygen pressure (as at high altitude) and characterized by nausea, headache, dyspnea, malaise, and insomnia; in severe instances, pulmonary edema and adult respiratory distress syndrome can occur; SYN: Acosta disease, mountain s., puna, soroche. SYN: aerial s., altitude disease. balloon s. a form of altitude s. occurring in someone as a result of ascent in a balloon. black s. SYN: visceral leishmaniasis. caisson s. disease caused by rapid decompression; so named since it appeared in workers building tunnels or supports for bridges working in enclosed units under high atmospheric pressure to keep out surrounding water, called caissons. See decompression s.. car s. a form of motion s. caused by riding on a train or in an automobile or bus. cave s. histoplasmosis acquired by inhalation of organism Histoplasma capulatum in caves (while spelunking) or mine shafts containing bird roosts or bats, prime conditions for growth of the organisms. chronic African sleeping s. SYN: Gambian trypanosomiasis. chronic mountain s. loss of high altitude tolerance after prolonged exposure ( e.g., by residence), characterized by extreme polycythemia, exaggerated hypoxemia, and reduced mental and physical capacity; relieved by descent. SYN: altitude erythremia, chronic soroche, Monge disease. decompression s. a symptom complex caused by the escape from solution in the body fluids of nitrogen bubbles absorbed originally at high atmospheric pressure, as a result of abrupt reduction in atmospheric pressure (either rapid ascent to high altitude or return from a compressed-air environment); it is characterized by headache, pain in the arms, legs, joints, and epigastrium, itching of the skin, vertigo, dyspnea, coughing, choking, vomiting, weakness and sometimes paralysis, and severe peripheral circulatory collapse; bone infarcts can occur from bubbles in nutrient vessels leading to long-term consequences. SEE ALSO: caisson s.. SYN: caisson disease, decompression disease, diver's palsy. East African sleeping s. SYN: Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. falling s. SYN: epilepsy. green s. SYN: chlorosis. green tobacco s. an illness of tobacco harvest workers characterized by headache, dizziness, and vomiting. Indian s. SYN: epidemic gangrenous proctitis. Jamaican vomiting s. SYN: ackee poisoning. milk s. a disease of humans caused by ingesting contaminated milk from cows suffering from trembles; clinical manifestations include severe vomiting, labored breathing, delirium, convulsions, coma, and death; recovery from nonlethal illness is slow. SYN: lactimorbus. morning s. the nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy. SYN: morning vomiting, nausea gravidarum. motion s. the syndrome of pallor, nausea, weakness, and malaise, which may progress to vomiting and incapacitation, caused by stimulation of the semicircular canals during travel or motion as on a boat, plane, train, car, swing, or rotating amusement ride. SYN: kinesia. mountain s. SYN: altitude s.. radiation s. a systemic condition caused by substantial whole-body irradiation, seen after nuclear explosions or accidents, rarely after radiotherapy. Manifestations depend on dose, ranging from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and mild leukopenia, to thrombocytopenia with hemorrhage, severe leukopenia with infection, anemia, central nervous system damage, and death. SYN: radiation poisoning. sea s. motion s. occurring in boat travelers. serum s. an immune complex disease appearing some days (usually 1–2 weeks) after injection of a foreign serum or serum protein, with local and systemic reactions such as urticaria, fever, general lymphadenopathy, edema, arthritis, and occasionally albuminuria or severe nephritis; originally described in patients receiving serotherapy. The term is sometimes used for clinically similar allergic reactions to drugs. SYN: serum disease, serum reaction. sleeping s. Gambian trypanosomiasis, Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. space s. dizziness as result of changes in inner ear resulting from absence of gravity. SYN: physiologic vertigo. West African sleeping s. SYN: Gambian trypanosomiasis.
One of the two lateral margins or surfaces of a body, midway between the front and back. [A.S. s.] balancing s. in dentistry, the nonfunctioning s. from which the mandible moves during the working bite. working s. in dentistry, the lateral segment of a dentition toward which the mandible is moved during occlusal function.
A result of drug or other therapy in addition to or in extension of the desired therapeutic effect; usually but not necessarily, connoting an undesirable effect. Although technically the therapeutic effect carried beyond the desired limit ( e.g., a hemorrhage from an anticoagulant) is a s., the term more often refers to pharmacologic results of therapy unrelated to the usual objective ( e.g., a development of signs of Cushing syndrome with steroid therapy).
Any sudden attack, as of apoplexy. [L. sideror, pp. sideratus, to be blasted or palsied by a constellation, fr. sidus (sider-), a constellation, the heavens]
Iron. [G. sideros]
An erythroblast containing granules of ferritin stained by the Prussian blue reaction. [sidero- + G. blastos, germ]
An erythrocyte containing granules of free iron, as detected by the Prussian blue reaction, in the blood of normal fetuses, where they constitute from 0.10–4.5% of the erythrocytes. [sidero- + G. kytos, cell]
Fibrosis associated with small foci in which iron is deposited.
Iron forming. [sidero- + G. -gen, producing]
An abnormally low level of serum iron. [sidero- + G. penia, poverty]
Characterized by sideropenia.
SYN: siderophore. [sidero- + G. phago, to eat]
siderophil, siderophile (sid′er-o-fil, -fil)
1. Absorbing iron. SYN: siderophilous. 2. A cell or tissue that contains iron. [sidero- + G. philos, fond]
siderophilins (sid-er-o-fil′in, -of′i-lin)
Nonheme, iron-binding proteins; there are three central classes of s.: transferrin (1) (in vertebrate blood), lactoferrin (in mammalian milk and other secretions), and conalbumin or ovotransferrin (avian blood and avian egg white).
SYN: siderophil (1) .
A large extravasated mononuclear phagocyte containing granules of hemosiderin, found in the sputum or in the lungs of individuals with longstanding pulmonary congestion from left ventricular failure. SEE ALSO: heart failure cell. SYN: siderophage. [sidero- + G. phoros, bearing]
Silicosis due to inhalation of dust containing iron and silica. SYN: silicosiderosis. [sidero- + silicosis]
1. A form of pneumoconiosis due to the presence of iron dust. 2. Discoloration of any part by disposition of a pigment containing iron; usually called hemosiderosis. 3. An excess of iron in the circulating blood. 4. Degeneration of the retina, lens, and uvea as a result of the deposition of intraocular iron. [sidero- + G. -osis, condition] pulmonary s. SYN: pneumoconiosis siderotica.
Related to siderosis; pigmented by iron or containing an excess of iron.
Acronym for sudden infant death syndrome.
Ferdinand, German pediatrician, 1865–1946. See S. sign.
Emil, German otologist, 1833–1900. See S. otoscope.
siemens (S) (se′menz)
The SI unit of electrical conductance; the conductance of a body with an electrical resistance of 1 ohm, allowing 1 ampere of current to flow per volt applied; equal to 1 mho. SYN: mho. [Sir William S., Ger. born British engineer, 1823–1883]
Ernst, German physician, 1857–1931.
A meshed or perforated device for separating fine particles from coarser ones. [O.E. sive] molecular s. a gel-like material with pore sizes of such ranges as to exclude molecules above certain sizes; used in fractionating or purifying macromolecules.
sievert (Sv) (se′vert)
The SI unit of ionizing radiation effective dose, equal to the absorbed dose in gray, weighted for both the quality of radiation in question and the tissue response to that radiation. The unit is the joule per kilogram and 1 Sv = 100 rem. See effective dose, equivalent dose.
Abbreviation for somatotropin release-inhibiting factor.
Abbreviation for L. signa, label, write, or signetur, let it be labeled.
Ole, Danish clinical biochemist, *1932. See Siggaard-Andersen nomogram.
1. An audible inspiration and expiration under the influence of some emotion. 2. To perform such an act. [A.S. sican]
The ability or faculty of seeing. SEE ALSO: vision. [A.S. gesihth] day s. SYN: nyctalopia. far s. SYN: hyperopia. long s. SYN: hyperopia. near s. SYN: myopia. night s. SYN: hemeralopia. second s. improved near vision in the aged as a result of increased refractivity of the nucleus of the lens causing myopia. SYN: senile lenticular myopia. short s. SYN: myopia.
The 18th letter of the Greek alphabet, &s.;.
SYN: lisping. [G. sigma, the letter S]
Resembling in outline the letter S or one of the forms of the Greek sigma. [G. sigma, the letter S, + eidos, resemblance]
Excision of the sigmoid colon. [sigmoid- + G. ektome, excision]
Describing an S-shaped curve; E.G., shape of enzyme-kinetic curves for enzymes displaying positive homotropic cooperativity.
Inflammation of the sigmoid colon. [sigmoid- + G. -itis, inflammation]
Sigmoid, usually the sigmoid colon. [G. sigma, the letter σ, + eidos, resemblance]
Operative attachment of the sigmoid colon to a firm structure to correct rectal prolapse. [sigmoido- + G. pexis, fixation]
Anastomosis between the sigmoid colon and the rectum. SYN: sigmoidorectostomy. [sigmoido- + G. proktos, anus, + stoma, mouth]
An endoscope for viewing the lumen of the sigmoid colon. SYN: sigmoscope. [sigmoido- + G. skopeo, to view]
Inspection, through an endoscope, of the interior of the sigmoid colon.
Establishment of an artificial anus by opening into the sigmoid colon. [sigmoido- + G. stoma, mouth]
Surgical opening of the sigmoid. [sigmoido- + G. tome, incision]
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