|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A cylinder of variable diameter, with rounded ends, used to measure the internal diameter of the bowel in preparation for stapling.
Henrik C., Swedish ophthalmologist, 1899–1986. See S. disease, S. syndrome, Gougerot-S. disease.
Torsten, Swedish physician, 1859–1939. See S.-Larsson syndrome, Torsten S. syndrome, Marinesco-S. syndrome.
O., Swedish neurosurgeon, 1901–1954. See S. tractotomy.
Abbreviation for streptokinase.
Obsolete spelling of scato-.
3-Methyl-1H-indole, formed in the intestine by the bacterial decomposition of l-tryptophan and found in fecal matter, to which it imparts its characteristic odor.
3-Hydroxymethylindole, formed in the intestine by the oxidation of skatole; some undergoes conjugation in the body with sulfuric or gluronic acids and is excreted in the urine in conjugated form.
The coiled threads of chromatin seen in the prophase of mitosis. [Gael. sgeinnidh, hempen thread] choroid s. SYN: choroid enlargement.
Relating to the skeleton.
The branch of anatomy and of mechanics dealing with the skeleton.
1. The bony framework of the body in vertebrates (endoskeleton) or the hard outer envelope of insects (exoskeleton or dermoskeleton). 2. All the dry parts remaining after the destruction and removal of the soft parts; this includes ligaments and cartilages as well as bones. 3. All the bones of the body taken collectively. 4. A rigid or semirigid nonosseous structure which functions as the supporting framework of a particular structure. [G. skeletos, dried, ntr. s., a mummy, a s.] appendicular s. [TA] the bones of the limbs including the shoulder and pelvic girdles. SYN: s. appendiculare [TA] . s. appendiculare [TA] SYN: appendicular s.. articulated s. mounted s., one with the various parts connected in such a way as to demonstrate normal relationships and allow motion between components as in the living body. axial s. [TA] articulated bones of head and vertebral column, i.e., head and trunk, as opposed to the appendicular s., the articulated bones of the upper and lower limbs. SYN: s. axiale [TA] . s. axiale [TA] SYN: axial s.. cardiac s. SYN: fibrous s. of heart. cardiac fibrous s. SYN: fibrous s. of heart. s. of eyelid SYN: tarsus (2) . facial s. viscerocranium. fibrous s. of heart a complex framework of dense collagen forming four fibrous rings (annuli fibrosi), which surround the ostia of the valves, a right and left fibrous trigone, formed by connecting the rings, and the membranous portions of the interatrial and interventricular septa; it is found in association with the base of the ventricles, i.e., at the level of the coronary sulcus; its functions include: 1) contributing reinforcement of the valvular ostia while providing attachment for the leaflets and cusps of the valves; 2) providing origin and insertion for the myocardium; and 3) serving as a sort of electrical “insulator,” separating the electrically conducted impulses of the atria and ventricles and providing passage for the common atrioventricular bundle of conductive tissue through the right fibrous trigone and membranous interventricular septum. SYN: cardiac fibrous s., cardiac s., s. of heart. s. of free inferior limb the bones of the lower limb except the hip bones, i.e., all lower limb bones including and distal to the femur. s. of free superior limb the bones of the upper limb except the scapula and clavicle, i.e., all upper limb bones including and distal to the humerus. gill arch s. cartilages associated with the visceral portion of the embryonic mammalian chondrocranium, representing the gill arch (branchial) skeletons as seen in shark-type fishes; they are the primordia of Meckel cartilage, the styloid, hyoid, cricoid, thyroid, and arytenoid cartilages, and the auditory ossicles. SEE ALSO: branchial arches, under arch. s. of heart SYN: fibrous s. of heart. jaw s. SYN: viscerocranium. thoracic s. [TA] the bones and cartilage that comprise the thoracic cage. SYN: s. thoracis [TA] , s. thoracicus. s. thoracicus SYN: thoracic s.. s. thoracis [TA] SYN: thoracic s.. visceral s. SYN: visceroskeleton (2) .
Alexander J.C., U.S. gynecologist, 1837–1900. See S. glands, under gland, S. tubules, under tubule, ducts of S. glands, under duct.
skeneitis, skenitis (ske-ni′tis)
Inflammation of Skene glands.
A form of endoscope for inspecting Skene glands.
In statistics, departure from symmetry of a frequency distribution.
Shadow; superseded by radio-. [G. skia]
Penn Gaskell Jr., U.S. surgeon, *1882. See S. fracture.
The membranous protective covering of the body, consisting of the epidermis and corium (dermis). SYN: cutis [TA] . [A.S. scinn] alligator s. SYN: ichthyosis. bronzed s. the dark s. in Addison disease. deciduous s. SYN: keratolysis (2) . elastic s. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. farmer's s. dry, wrinkled s. with presence of dry premalignant keratoses; observed most commonly in fair-skinned, blue-eyed persons who are exposed by occupation or sport to sunshine for prolonged periods and over many years. SYN: golfer's s., sailor's s.. fish s. SYN: ichthyosis. glabrous s. s. that is normally devoid of hair. glossy s. shiny atrophy of the s., usually of the hands, following nerve injury; a type of neurotrophic atrophy. SYN: atrophoderma neuriticum. golfer's s. SYN: farmer's s.. hidden nail s. SYN: eponychium (2) . loose s. SYN: dermatochalasis. parchment s. parchmentlike appearance of the s. caused by loss of underlying connective and elastic tissue, or by the relatively rapid and persistent loss of water from the horny layer. piebald s. SYN: piebaldism. pig s. soft s. in which follicles are widely dilated; seen in pretibial myxedema. porcupine s. SYN: epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. sailor's s. SYN: farmer's s.. shagreen s. an oval-shaped, elevated nevoid plaque, s.-colored or occasionally pigmented, smooth or crinkled, appearing on the trunk or lower back in early childhood; sometimes seen with other signs of tuberous sclerosis. SYN: shagreen patch. s. of teeth SYN: enamel cuticle. thick s. s. from the palms and soles, so named because of its relatively thick epidermis. thin s. s. from areas of the body other than the palms and soles, so named because of its relatively thin epidermis. toad s. SYN: phrynoderma. yellow s. 1. SYN: xanthochromia. 2. SYN: xanthoderma (2) .
Burrhus F., U.S. psychologist, 1904–1990. See skinnerian conditioning, S. box.
E.L., 20th century German physician. See S. symptom.
Joseph, Bohemian clinician in Vienna, 1805–1881. See skodaic resonance, S. rale, S. sign, S. tympany.
Relating to Skoda.
SYN: cranium. [Early Eng. skulle, a bowl] cloverleaf s. cloverleaf s. syndrome. maplike s. various defects in the s., especially in the temporal bone, the anterior fossa, and orbits, forming irregular outlines resembling the national boundaries in an atlas. natiform s. palpable bony nodules on the surface of the s. in infants with congenital syphilis. steeple s., tower s. SYN: oxycephaly.
sky blue (ski′ bloo′)
A pigment mixture of cobaltous stannate and calcium sulfate; used biologically as an injection mass.
Abbreviation for spinal length.
Symbol for slyke.
A process by which prism base-up is produced in the reading field of a spectacle lens through bicentric grinding.
Abbreviation for systemic lupus erythematosus.
A physiologic state of relative unconsciousness and inaction of the voluntary muscles, the need for which recurs periodically. The stages of s. have been variously defined in terms of depth (light, deep), EEG characteristics (delta waves, synchronization), physiologic characteristics (REM, NREM), and presumed anatomic level (pontine, mesencephalic, rhombencephalic, Rolandic, etc.). [A.S. slaep] electric s. a condition of convulsions and unconsciousness induced by the passage of an electric current through the brain. electrotherapeutic s. electrotherapeutic s. therapy. hypnotic s. SYN: hypnosis. light s. SYN: dysnystaxis. paroxysmal s. SYN: narcolepsy. rapid eye movement s., REM s. that state of deep s. in which rapid eye movements, alert EEG pattern, and dreaming occur; several central and autonomic functions are distinctive during this state. s. terror SYN: night terrors. winter s. SYN: hibernation.
SYN: somnolence (1) .
1. SYN: somniloquence (1) . 2. SYN: somniloquy.
SYN: somnambulism (1) .
A rectangular glass plate on which is placed an object to be examined under the microscope.
A supporting bandage or suspensory device; especially a loop suspended from the neck and supporting the flexed forearm.
A long, narrow opening, incision, or aperture. Cheatle s. a longitudinal incision into the antimesenteric border of the small intestine, which when closed transversely creates a larger lumen than would be possible by simple end-to-end anastomosis; currently modified to include longitudinal incisions into the cut ends of the transected small intestine or other tubular structures, allowing a wide caliber elliptical anastomosis to be performed. filtration slits SYN: s. pores, under pore. pudendal s. SYN: pudendal cleft. vulvar s. SYN: pudendal cleft.
In ophthalmology, an instrument consisting of a microscope combined with a rectangular light source that can be narrowed into a slit. SYN: biomicroscope, Gullstrand s.. Gullstrand s. SYN: s..
An inclination or slant. lower ridge s. the s. of the mandibular residual ridge in the second and third molar as seen from the buccal side.
1. Necrosed tissue separated from the living structure. 2. To separate from the living tissue, said of a dead or necrosed part. [M.E. slughe]
Greenfield, U.S. laryngologist, 1865–1928.
See under neuralgia.
A muddy sediment. SEE ALSO: sludged blood. activated s. activated s. method.
A thin semifluid suspension of a solid in a liquid.
slyke (sl) (slik)
A unit of buffer value, the slope of the acid-base titration curve of a solution; the millimoles of strong acid or base that must be added per unit of change in pH. [D.D. Van S., U.S. physician and chemist, 1883–1971]
Symbol for samarium.
Abbreviation for sequential multichannel autoanalyzer; spinal muscular atrophy.
An acute eruptive contagious disease caused by a poxvirus (Orthopoxvirus, a member of the family Poxviridae) and marked at the onset by chills, high fever, backache, and headache; in 2–5 days the constitutional symptoms subside and an eruption appears as papules, which become umbilicated vesicles, develop into pustules, dry, and form scabs that, on falling off, leave a permanent marking of the skin (pock marks); average incubation period is 8–14 days. As a result of increasingly aggressive vaccination programs carried out over a period of about 200 years, s. is now extinct. SYN: variola major, variola. [E. small pocks, or pustules] S. was a universally dreaded scourge for more than 3 millennia, with case fatality rates sometimes exceeding 20%. In many ways a unique disease, it had no nonhuman reservoir species and no human carriers. First subjected to some control by variolation in the 10th century in India and China, it was gradually suppressed in the industrialized world after Edward Jenner's 1776 landmark discovery that infection with the harmless cowpox (vaccinia) virus renders humans immune to the s. virus. A global eradication program was initiated by the World Health Organization in 1966, and the last naturally occurring case of the disease was reported in Somalia in 1977. The disease is now of mainly historical interest. confluent s. a severe form in which the lesions run into each other, forming large suppurating areas. discrete s. the usual form in which the lesions are separate and distinct from each other. fulminating s. SYN: hemorrhagic s.. hemorrhagic s. a severe and frequently fatal form of s. accompanied by extravasation of blood into the skin in the early stage, or into the pustules at a later stage, accompanied often by nosebleed and hemorrhage from other orifices of the body. SYN: fulminating s., variola hemorrhagica. malignant s. SYN: variola maligna. modified s., varicelloid s. SYN: varioloid (2) . West Indian s. SYN: alastrim.
A thin specimen for examination; it is usually prepared by spreading material uniformly onto a glass slide, fixing it, and staining it before examination. alimentary tract s. a group of cytologic specimens containing material from the mouth (oral s.), esophagus and stomach (gastric s.), duodenum (paraduodenal s.), and colon, obtained by specialized lavage techniques; used principally for the diagnosis of cancer of those areas. bronchoscopic s. SYN: lower respiratory tract s.. buccal s. a cytologic s. containing material obtained by scraping the lateral buccal mucosa above the dentate line, smearing, and fixing immediately; used principally for determining somatic sex as indicated by the presence of the sex chromocenter (Barr body). cervical s. a generic name for different types of smears of the cervix uteri, e.g., ectocervical, endocervical, pancervical; used principally for cervical screening. colonic s. alimentary tract s.. cul-de-sac s. a cytologic specimen of material obtained by aspirating the pouch of Douglas from the posterior vaginal fornix and prepared by smearing, centrifuging, or filtering; used principally for ovarian cancer. cytologic s. a type of cytologic specimen made by smearing a sample (obtained by a variety of methods from a number of sites), then fixing it and staining it, usually with 95% ethyl alcohol and Papanicolaou stain. SYN: cytosmear. duodenal s. alimentary tract s.. ectocervical s. a cytologic s. of material obtained from the ectocervix, usually by scraping; used principally for the diagnosis of late cervical cancers involving the ectocervix. endocervical s. a cytologic s. of material obtained from the endocervical canal by swab, aspiration, or scraping; used principally for the detection of early cervical cancer. endometrial s. a group of cytologic smears containing material obtained directly from the endometrium by aspiration, lavage, or brushing of the uterine cavity. esophageal s. alimentary tract s.. fast s. a cytologic s. containing material from the vaginal pool and pancervical scrapings, mixed and prepared on one microscopic slide, smeared, and fixed immediately; used principally for routine screening of ovaries, endometrium, cervix, vagina, and hormonal states. gastric s. alimentary tract s.. lateral vaginal wall s. a cytologic s. containing material obtained by scraping the lateral wall of the vagina near the junction of its upper and middle third; used for cytohormonal evaluation. lower respiratory tract s. a group of cytologic specimens containing material from the lower respiratory tract and consisting mainly of sputum (spontaneous, induced) and material obtained at bronchoscopy (aspirated, lavaged, brushed); used for cytologic study of cancer and other diseases of the lungs. SYN: bronchoscopic s., sputum s.. oral s. alimentary tract s.. pancervical s. a cytologic s. of material obtained from the endocervical canal, external os, and ectocervix by scraping these areas with a properly designed cervical spatula; used principally for early cervical cancer detection. Pap s. a s. of vaginal or cervical cells obtained for cytological study. SYN: Papanicolaou s.. Papanicolaou s. SYN: Pap s.. sputum s. SYN: lower respiratory tract s.. urinary s. a group of cytologic specimens containing processed urine obtained from bladder, ureters, or renal pelvis; used for cytologic study of cancer and other diseases of the urinary tract. vaginal s. a s. of debris from the vaginal lumen of mammals, used to determine the stage of their reproductive cycle. It is most useful in subprimate mammals having short estrous cycles; nucleated epithelial cells and leukocytes prevail in the s. during diestrus and proestrus, and cornified cells during estrus. VCE s. a cytologic s. of material obtained from the vagina, ectocervix, and endocervix, smeared separately (in that order) on one slide, and fixed immediately; used principally for the detection of cervical cancer and identification of the sites of diseases of those areas, and for hormonal evaluation.
A foul-smelling, pasty accumulation of desquamated epidermal cells and sebum that has collected in moist areas of the genitalia. [G. unguent] s. clitoridis the secretion of the apocrine glands of the clitoris, in combination with desquamating epithelial cells. s. preputii whitish secretion that collects under the prepuce of the foreskin of the penis or of the clitoris; it is comprised chiefly of desquamating epithelial cells.
A calcareous concretion in the smegma. [smegma + G. lithos, stone]
1. To scent; to perceive an odor by means of the olfactory apparatus. 2. SYN: olfaction (1) . 3. SYN: odor.
William, English obstetrician, 1698–1763. See S. scissors.
David W., U.S. pediatrician, 1926–1981. See S.-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
Henry, Irish-born British military surgeon in India, 1862–1948. See S. operation, S.-Indian operation.
M.J.V., 20th century U.S. urologist.
Robert W., Irish surgeon, 1807–1873. See S. fracture.
Theobald, U.S. pathologist, 1859–1934. See Theobald S. phenomenon.
William R., 20th century U.S. physician. See S.-Riley syndrome.
Marius N., U.S. surgeon, 1886–1953. See Smith-Petersen nail.
Air pollution characterized by a hazy and often highly irritating atmosphere resulting from a mixture of fog with smoke and other air pollutants. [smoke + fog]
A fungal disease of cereal grains caused by species of Ustilago and characterized by dark brown or black masses of spores on the plants; e.g., corn s. (U. maydis); loose s. of wheat (U. nuda)
Symbol for tin.
Symbol for tin-113.
Prefix meaning stereospecifically numbered; a system of numbering the glycerol carbon atoms in lipids, so that the locant numbers remain constant regardless of chemical substitutions, as opposed to systematic numbering.
Common name for members of the class Gastropoda (phylum Mollusca). The freshwater pulmonate (nonoperculated, air-breathing) snails (subclass Pulmonata, order Basommatophora) include the majority of intermediate hosts of trematodes parasitic in humans and domestic birds and mammals, chiefly in the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae. The subclass Prosobranchiata, the operculate snails, includes the order Neogastropoda, which includes the venomous stinging cone snails (genus Conus), and the order Mesogastropoda, of which the family Hydrobiidae includes most of the medically important host snails. [M.E. snaile]
An elongated, limbless, scaly reptile of the suborder Ophidia.
SYN: serpentaria. Canada s. SYN: Asarum canadense. European s. SYN: Asarum europaeum. Seneca s. SYN: senega. Texas s. botanical source of serpentaria. Virginia s. Aristolochia serpentaria; botanical source of serpentaria.
A click; a short sharp sound; said especially of cardiac sounds. closing s. the accentuated first heart sound of mitral stenosis, related to closure of the abnormal valve. opening s. a sharp, high-pitched click in early diastole, usually best heard between the cardiac apex and the lower left sternal border, related to opening of the abnormal valve in cases of mitral stenosis.
An instrument for removing polyps and other projections from a surface, especially within a cavity; it consists of a wire loop passed around the base of the tumor and gradually tightened. [A.S. snear, a cord] cold s. an unheated s.. galvanocaustic s., hot s. a s. the wire of which is heated to a high temperature by an electric current.
Abbreviation for subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy.
Ian B., 20th century English dermatologist. See S. syndrome, S.-Wilkinson disease.
1. To expel air from the nose and mouth by an involuntary spasmodic contraction of the muscles of expiration. 2. An act of sneezing; a reflex excited by an irritation of the mucous membrane of the nose or, sometimes, by a bright light striking the eye. [A.S. fneosan]
Simeon, English ophthalmologist, 1851–1909. See S. law.
Hermann, Dutch ophthalmologist, 1834–1908. See S. sign, S. test types.
1. A rough, rattling, inspiratory noise produced by vibration of the pendulous palate, or sometimes of the vocal cords, during sleep or coma. SEE ALSO: stertor, rhonchus. 2. To breathe noisily, or with a s.. [A.S. snora]
See carbon dioxide s..
Abbreviation for small nuclear RNA.
1. To inhale forcibly through the nose. 2. Finely powdered tobacco used by inhalation through the nose or applied to the gums. 3. Any medicated powder applied by insufflation to the nasal mucous membrane. [echoic]
See anatomic s..
Obstructed nasal respiration, especially in the newborn infant, sometimes due to congenital syphilis.
Marshall L., U.S. microbiologist, 1907–1969. See S. test.
Acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan; used in problem-oriented records for organizing follow-up data, evaluation, and planning.
The sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids ( e.g., sodium stearate); used as an emulsifier for cleansing purposes and as an excipient in the making of pills and suppositories. [A.S. sape, L. sapo, G. sapon] animal s. s. made with sodium hydroxide and a purified animal fat consisting chiefly of stearin; used in pharmacy in the preparation of certain liniments. SYN: curd s., domestic s., tallow s.. Castile s. SYN: hard s.. curd s., domestic s. SYN: animal s.. green s. SYN: medicinal soft s.. hard s. a s. made with olive oil, or some other suitable oil or fat, and sodium hydroxide; used as a detergent, and in the form of a suppository or soapsuds enema for constipation; used also as an excipient in pills. SYN: Castile s.. insoluble s. s. made with a fatty acid and an earthy or metallic base (iron or calcium salts of fatty acids). marine s. a s. made of palm or coconut oil for use with sea water in which it is soluble. SYN: salt water s.. medicinal soft s. a s. made with vegetable oils, potassium hydroxide, oleic acid, glycerin, and purified water; used as a cleansing agent and stimulant in chronic skin diseases. SYN: green s., soft s.. salt water s. SYN: marine s.. soft s. SYN: medicinal soft s.. soluble s. any s. made with potassium, sodium, or ammonium hydroxide: ordinary animal s., Castile s., green s., etc. superfatted s. a s. containing an excess (3–5%) of fat above that necessary to completely neutralize all the alkali; used in the manufacture of medicated s., and in the treatment of skin diseases. tallow s. SYN: animal s..
F., 20th century Italian pediatric surgeon. See S. operation.
An aloin obtained from aloes of the island of Socotra.
An ectopic, supernumerary, or accessory portion of an organ. s. parotidis (so′she-a pa-rot′i-dis) SYN: accessory parotid gland. [L. companion of the parotid]
1. The process of learning attitudes and interpersonal and interactional skills which are in conformity with the values of one's society. 2. In a group therapy setting, a way of learning to participate effectively in the group. [L. socius, partner, companion]
Social, society. [L. socius, companion]
The hearing loss produced by exposure to nonoccupational noise such as small arms fire in hunting and target practice. [socio- + G. akousis, hearing]
Outgoing; reactive to the social or cultural milieu. [socio- + L. centrum, center]
Taking one's own social group as the standard by which others are measured.
The totality that includes human society, human thought, and the relationship of humans to nature. [socio- + G. kosmos, universe]
The origin of social behavior from past interpersonal experiences. [socio- + G. genesis, origin]
A diagrammatic representation of the valences and degrees of attractiveness and acceptance of each individual rated according to the interpersonal interactions between and among members of a group; a diagram in which group interactions are analyzed on the basis of mutual attractions or antipathies between group members. [socio- + G. gramma, something written]
Pertaining to the relation of the practice of medicine to society.
The study of interpersonal relationships in a group. [socio- + G. metron, measure]
A designation for a person with an antisocial personality disorder. SEE ALSO: antisocial personality, psychopath.
A term for the behavioral pattern exhibited by persons with an antisocial personality disorder. SEE ALSO: personality disorder. [socio- + G. pathos, suffering]
SYN: gomphosis. 1. The hollow part of a joint; the excavation in one bone of a joint which receives the articular end of the other bone. 2. Any hollow or concavity into which another part fits, as the eye s.. [thr. O. Fr. fr. L. soccus, a shoe, a sock] dry s. SYN: alveoalgia. eye s. generally the orbit, although the true “s.” for the eyeball, into which a prosthetic eye would be inserted, is formed by the fascial sheath of the eyeball. SYN: orbit. tooth s. [TA] a s. in the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible, into which each tooth fits and is attached by means of the periodontal ligament. SYN: alveolus dentalis [TA] , alveolus (4) [NA] .
Abbreviation for superoxide dismutase.
SYN: sodium carbonate. [It., possibly fr. Mediev. L. barilla plant] baking s. SYN: sodium bicarbonate. caustic s. SYN: sodium hydroxide. s. lime a mixture of calcium and sodium hydroxides used to absorb carbon dioxide in situations in which rebreathing occurs; e.g., in basal determinations or in certain types of anesthesia circuits. washing s. SYN: sodium carbonate.
Relating to or containing soda or sodium.
A compound containing sodium; as sodiocitrate, sodiotartrate, a citrate or tartrate of some element containing sodium in addition.
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