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Medical Dictionary


sodium (Na) (so′de-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 11, atomic wt. 22.989768; an alkali metal oxidizing readily in air or water; its salts are found in natural biologic systems and are extensively used in medicine and industry. The s. ion is the most plentiful extracellular ion in the body. For organic s. salts not listed below, see under the name of the organic acid portion. SYN: natrium. [Mod. L. fr. soda] s. acetate a systemic and urinary alkalizer, expectorant, and diuretic. s. acid carbonate SYN: s. bicarbonate. s. acid citrate SYN: s. citrate. s. acid phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate. s. alginate SYN: algin. s. p-aminohippurate used intravenously in renal function tests, to determine the renal plasma flow and the tubular excretion. s. p-aminophenylarsonate a compound that was one of the first modern pentavalent arsenicals. SYN: s. arsanilate. s. aminosalicylate used for the same purposes as aminosalicylic acid. s. antimonylgluconate SYN: stibogluconate s. (2) . s. antimonyl tartrate SYN: antimony s. tartrate. s. arsanilate SYN: s. p-aminophenylarsonate. s. ascorbate same actions and uses as ascorbic acid; it is preferred for intramuscular administration. s. aurothiomalate SYN: gold s. thiomalate. s. aurothiosulfate SYN: gold s. thiosulfate. s. benzoate used in chronic and acute rheumatism, as a liver function test, and as a preservative. s. bicarbonate NaHCO3;used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities. SYN: baking soda, s. acid carbonate, s. hydrogen carbonate. s. biphosphate used to increase urinary acidity. SYN: primary s. phosphate, s. acid phosphate, s. dihydrogen phosphate. s. bisulfite NaHSO3;acid s. sulfite, used in gastric and intestinal fermentation, externally in the treatment of parasitic diseases, and as an antioxidant in certain injections (s. metabisulfite). SYN: s. hydrogen sulfite, s. pyrosulfite. s. borate used in lotions, gargles, mouthwashes, and as a detergent. SYN: borax, s. pyroborate, s. tetraborate. s. bromide NaBr;an obsolete hypnotic and sedative; occasionally used in epilepsy and other functional disorders of the nervous system. s. cacodylate used in anemia, leukemia, and malaria. SYN: s. dimethylarsenate. s. carbonate used in the treatment of scaly skin diseases; otherwise rarely used in medicine because of its irritant action. SYN: sal soda, soda, washing soda. s. carboxymethyl cellulose the s. salt of a polycarboxymethyl ether of cellulose; used as a laxative due to its indigestibility and binding of water within the gastrointestinal tract. s. chloride NaCl;the chief component of blood and other body fluids, and urine; used to make isotonic and physiological saline solutions, in the treatment of salt depletion, and topically for inflammatory lesions. SYN: common salt, table salt. s. citrate used as diuretic, antilithic, systemic and urinary alkalizer, expectorant, and anticoagulant (in vitro). SYN: s. acid citrate. s. citrate, acid same actions and uses as s. citrate; in addition, it may be used in solutions of glucose without producing caramelization of the latter during autoclaving. s. cromoglycate SYN: cromolyn s.. s. dehydrocholate a cholagogue; also used to determine circulation time. s. diatrizoate a water-soluble organic iodine compound formerly used for intravenous excretory urography and angiography. dibasic s. phosphate SYN: s. phosphate. s. dihydrogen phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate. s. dimethylarsenate SYN: s. cacodylate. s. dodecyl sulfate (SDS) SYN: s. lauryl sulfate. effervescent s. phosphate exsiccated s. phosphate 200, s. bicarbonate 477, tartaric acid 252, and citric acid 162, mixed and passed through a sieve to make a granular salt. exsiccated s. sulfite anhydrous s. sulfite, used as a preservative in pharmaceutical preparations. s. fluoride used as a dental prophylactic against caries in drinking water, and topically as a 2% solution applied on the teeth. s. fluosilicate SYN: s. hexafluorosilicate. s. folate the s. salt of folic acid; action and uses are the same as those of folic acid, but it is preferred for parenteral administration. SYN: s. pteroylglutamate. s. fusidate SYN: fusidate s.. s. glycerophosphate has been used as a tonic. s. hexafluorosilicate Na2SiF6;used (in dilute solutions) as an antiseptic and deodorant, and for fluoridation of drinking water. SYN: s. fluosilicate, s. silicofluoride. s. hydrogen carbonate SYN: s. bicarbonate. s. hydrogen sulfite SYN: s. bisulfite. s. hydroxide NaOH;used externally as a caustic. SYN: caustic soda. s. hypochlorite strong oxidizer; explosive when anhydrous. Decomposes by absorbing carbon dioxide from the air. Liberates chlorine and oxygen; used in aqueous solution as a bleach and disinfectant. The active constituent of many household bleaches, e.g., Clorox. s. hypophosphite formerly used as a nerve tonic. s. hyposulfite SYN: s. thiosulfate. s. ichthyolsulfonate an alterative and antiseptic. s. indigotin disulfonate SYN: indigo carmine. s. iodide NaI;used as a source of iodine. s. lactate a systemic and urinary alkalizer. s. lauryl sulfate a surface-active agent of the anionic type used in toothpastes. SYN: s. dodecyl sulfate. s. levothyroxine S. salt of the natural isomer of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone. It is twice as effective as the racemic form. Used in the treatment of hypothyroidism in humans and animals, to treat lowered fertility in bulls, and to stimulate lactation in animals. s. liothyronine s. l-triiodothyronine, the physiologically active isomer of triiodothyronine, twice as active as the racemic form; used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency syndromes. A metabolite of thyroxine. s. metabisulfite used as an antioxidant in injectable solutions. s. methicillin SYN: methicillin s.. s. methylarsonate formerly used in tuberculosis, chorea, and other affections in which the cacodylates were used. s. nitrate NaNO3;formerly used for dysentery and as a diuretic. SYN: Chilean saltpeter, cubic niter. s. nitrite NaNO2;used to lower systemic blood pressure, to relieve local vasomotor spasms, especially in angina pectoris and Raynaud disease, to relax bronchial and intestinal spasms, and as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. s. nitroferricyanide SYN: s. nitroprusside. s. nitroprusside a rapidly acting and potent arterial and venous vasodilator used in hypertensive emergencies and administered intravenously. Acts in a manner similar to vasodilator nitrates and nitrites by donating nitric oxide which produces vasodilation; also used as a reagent for detection of organic compounds in the urine. SYN: s. nitroferricyanide. s. orthophosphate SYN: s. phosphate. s. perborate used in the extemporaneous preparation of hydrogen peroxide; a 2% solution is equivalent in germicidal action to 0.4% of hydrogen peroxide. s. peroxide Na2O2;used externally as a paste or soap in the treatment of comedones and acne. s. pertechnetate Na99mTcO4;a radiopharmaceutical used for brain, thyroid, and salivary gland scanning. s. phosphate a laxative. SYN: dibasic s. phosphate, s. orthophosphate. s. phosphate 32P anionic radioactive phosphorus in the form of a solution of s. acid phosphate and s. basic phosphate; a beta emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days; after administration, highest concentrations are found in rapidly proliferating tissues; it is used in the treatment of polycythemia vera, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and osseous metastases. SEE ALSO: chromic phosphate 32P colloidal suspension. s. polyanhydromannuronic acid sulfate an anticoagulant drug prepared from alginic acid and having an action similar to that of heparin. s. polystyrene sulfonate a cationic exchange resin used in hyperpotassemia. s. potassium tartrate SYN: potassium s. tartrate. pravastatin s. antihyperlipoproteinemic. An HMG-Co reductase inhibitor resembling lovastatin and simvastatin, which inhibits cholesterol formation. primary s. phosphate SYN: s. biphosphate. s. propionate the s. salt of propionic acid; used for fungus infections of the skin, usually in combination with calcium propionate; used as a preservative. s. psylliate the s. salt of the liquid fatty acids of psyllium oil, prepared by dissolving the fatty acid in dilute s. hydroxide solution; used like morrhuate s. as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins. s. pteroylglutamate SYN: s. folate. s. pyroborate SYN: s. borate. s. pyrosulfite SYN: s. bisulfite. s. rhodanate SYN: s. thiocyanate. s. ricinoleate, s. ricinate the s. salt of ricinoleic acid; a sclerosing agent similar in action to morrhuate s.. s. salicylate an analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic. s. silicofluoride SYN: s. hexafluorosilicate. s. stearate stearic acid s. salt, used as a pharmaceutical adjuvant in ointments, creams, and suppositories. s. sulfate an ingredient of many of the natural laxative waters, and also used as a hydragogue cathartic primarily in large animals. SYN: Glauber salt. s. sulfite has been used for the relief of intestinal fermentation, and externally for aphthous stomatitis. s. sulfocyanate SYN: s. thiocyanate. s. sulforicinate, s. sulforicinoleate made by combining castor oil, sulfuric acid, and s. hydroxide and chloride; used as a solvent for iodine, iodoform, resorcinol, pyrogallol, and a number of other substances for external use. s. tartrate a laxative. s. taurocholate the s. salt of taurocholic acid, extracted from the bile of carnivora; a cholagogue. s. tetraborate SYN: s. borate. s. tetradecyl sulfate an anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties to enhance the surface action of certain antiseptic solutions; also used as a sclerosing agent similar to morrhuate s. in the treatment of varicose veins. s. thiocyanate formerly used in the management of essential hypertension. SYN: s. rhodanate, s. sulfocyanate. s. thiosulfate an antidote in cyanide poisoning in conjunction with s. nitrite; used as a prophylactic agent against ringworm infections in swimming pools and baths, and to measure the extracellular fluid volume of the body. SYN: s. hyposulfite. s. tungstoborate used in electron microscopy as a negative stain.

sodium-24 (24Na)
The isotope of sodium with an atomic weight of 24, and a half-life of 14.96 hr; it emits beta and gamma rays, and is more easily prepared than the longer-lived, positron-emitting 22Na (half-life, 2.605 yr). It is used to measure extracellular fluid by indicator dilution.

sodium group
The alkali metals: cesium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, and sodium.

sodoku (so-do′koo)
SYN: rat-bite fever. [Jap. rat poison]

sodomist, sodomite (sod′o-mist, -mit)
One who practices sodomy. [G. sodomites, an inhabitant city of Sodom, said in the Bible to have been destroyed by fire because of the wickedness of its people]

sodomy (sod′om-e)
A term denoting a number of sexual practices variously proscribed by law, especially bestiality, oral-genital contact, and anal intercourse. SYN: buggery. [see sodomist]

Samuel Thomas von, German anatomist, 1755–1830. See S. ganglion, S. ligament, S. muscle, S. spot, ring of S..

Louis J., U.S. internist, *1904. See Sohval-S. syndrome.

The program or instructions for a computer.

Arthur R., U.S. internist, *1904. See S.-Soffer syndrome.

soil (soyl)
Dirt. night s. human feces used for fertilizer.

soja (so′yah)
SYN: soybean.

sokosho (so-ko′sho)
SYN: rat-bite fever. [Jap. so, rat, + ko, bite, + sho, malady]

1. A colloidal dispersion of a solid in a liquid. Cf.:gel. 2. Abbreviation for solution.

Solanaceae (so-la-na′se-e)
A family of plants that includes the genus Solanum (nightshade) and some 84 other genera comprising 1,800 species, including belladonna, the tomato, and potato plants.

solanaceous (so-la-na′shus, sol′a-)
Pertaining to plants of the family Solanaceae, or to drugs derived from them.

solanochromene (sol′a-no-kro′men)
SYN: plastochromenol-8.

solapsone (so-lap′son)
SYN: solasulfone.

solasulfone (sol-a-sulf′on)
A leprostatic agent. SYN: solapsone.

solation (sol-a′shun)
In colloidal chemistry, the transformation of a gel into a sol, as by melting gelatin.

solder (sod′er)
1. A fusible alloy used to unite edges or surfaces of two pieces of metal of higher melting point; hard solders, usually containing gold or silver as their main constituent, are usually used in dentistry to connect noble metal alloys. 2. To join two pieces of metal with such an alloy. [L. solido, to make solid, through Fr., various forms]

soldering (sod′er-ing)
A laser technique to make one tissue adhere to another.

sole (sol) [TA]
The plantar surface or under part of the foot. SYN: planta [TA] , pelma. [A.S.] s. of foot [TA] the inferior aspect or bottom of the foot, much of which is in contact with the ground when standing; it is covered with hairless, usually nonpigmented skin that is especially thickened and provided with epidermal ridges over the weightbearing areas. SYN: planta pedis [TA] , plantar region&star, regio plantaris&star, plantar surface of foot.

Solenoglypha (so-le-nog′li-fa)
A major category of snakes that includes the viper and rattlesnake families. [L., fr. G. solen, pipe channel, + glypho, to carve]

solenoid (sol′e-noyd)
A helical coil of wire energized electrically to produce a magnetic field, which induces a current in any conductor placed within or near the coil.

Solenopotes capillatus (so-le-nop′o-tez kap-i-la′tus)
A sucking louse of cattle, called the little blue cattle louse in the U.S. and the tubercle-bearing louse in Australia. [G. solen, pipe, + potos, a drinking]

solenopsin A (so-le-nop′sin)
One of several, probably five, alkaloidal constituents present in the venom of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima; the venom has necrotoxic, hemolytic, insecticidal, and antibiotic properties.

Solenopsis (sol-e-nop′sis)
A genus of ants known as fire ants, which can inflict painful burning stings that cause local and occasionally systemic reactions. S. invicta the red imported fire ant, a species imported from South America which has spread extensively within the southeastern United States where it has become a major pest of humans and animals; it readily stings humans, producing local swelling and pruritus with development of a pustule at the site of the sting and, in rare cases, it can cause anaphylactic shock with death from respiratory or cardiac arrest. SEE ALSO: S. richteri. SYN: red imported fire ant. S. richteri the black imported fire ant, a species imported from South America but less extensively established in the United States than S. invicta. SEE ALSO: S. invicta. SYN: black imported fire ant.

soleus (so-le′us)
See s. (muscle). [Mod. L. fr. L. solea, a sandal, sole of the foot (of animals), fr. solum, bottom, floor, ground]

1. Firm; compact; not fluid; without interstices or cavities; not cancellous. 2. A body that retains its form when not confined; one that is not fluid, neither liquid nor gaseous. [L. solidus]

solidism (sol′i-dizm)
The theory propounded by Asclepiades and his followers that disease was due to an imbalance between solid particles (atoms) of the body and the spaces (pores) between them, a doctrine that opposed the humoral conception of Hippocrates. SYN: methodism.

solidist (sol′i-dist)
An adherent of the doctrine of solidism.

solidistic (sol-i-dis′tik)
Relating to solidism.

solidus (sol′i-dus)
That line on a constitution diagram indicating the temperature below which all metal is solid.

soliped (sol′i-ped)
A solid-hoofed animal such as the horse. [L. solidus, solid, + pes, foot]

solipsism (so′lip-sizm, sol′ip-)
A philosophical concept that whatever exists is a product of will and the ideas of the perceiving individual. [L. solus, alone, + ipse, self]

Abbreviation for solution.

solubility (sol-u-bil′i-te)
The property of being soluble.

soluble (sol′u-bl)
Capable of being dissolved. [L. solubilis, fr. solvo, to dissolve]

solum (so′lum)
Bottom; the lowest part. [L.]

solute (sol′ut, so′loot)
The dissolved substance in a solution. [L. solutus, dissolved, pp. of solvo, to dissolve]

solutio (so-loo′she-o)
SYN: solution. [L.]

solution (sol., soln.) (so-loo′shun)
1. The incorporation of a solid, a liquid, or a gas in a liquid or noncrystalline solid resulting in a homogeneous single phase. See dispersion, suspension. 2. Generally, an aqueous s. of a nonvolatile substance. 3. In the language of the Pharmacopeia, an aqueous s. of a nonvolatile substance is called a s. or liquor; an aqueous s. of a volatile substance is a water (aqua); an alcoholic s. of a nonvolatile substance is a tincture (tinctura); an alcoholic s. of a volatile substance is a spirit (spiritus); a s. in vinegar is a vinegar (acetum); a s. in glycerin is a glycerol (glyceritum); a s. in wine is a wine (vinum); a s. of sugar in water is a syrup (syrupus); a s. of a mucilaginous substance is a mucilage (mucilago); a s. of an alkaloid or metallic oxide in oleic acid is an oleate (oleatum). 4. The termination of a disease by crisis. 5. A break, cut, or laceration of the solid tissues. See s. of contiguity, s. of continuity. SYN: solutio. [L. solutio] acetic s. a vinegar. amaranth s. a 1% s. of amaranth (trisodium naphthol sulfonic acid), a synthetic vivid red dye, stable in acid and intensified in sodium hydroxide s.; used as a red or pink colorant in liquid pharmaceuticals. aqueous s. a s. containing water as the solvent; examples include lime water, rose water, saline s., and a large number of solutions intended for intravenous administration. Benedict s. an aqueous s. of sodium citrate, sodium carbonate, and copper sulfate which changes from its normal blue color to orange, red, or yellow in the presence of a reducing sugar such as glucose. SEE ALSO: Benedict test for glucose. Burow s. a preparation of aluminium subacetate and glacial acetic acid, used for its antiseptic and astringent action on the skin. chemical s. s. (1) . colloidal s. a dispersoid, emulsoid, or suspensoid. SYN: colloidal dispersion. s. of contiguity the breaking of contiguity; a dislocation or displacement of two normally contiguous parts. s. of continuity division of bones or soft parts that are normally continuous, as by a fracture, a laceration, or an incision. SYN: dieresis. Dakin s. a bactericidal wound irrigant. SYN: Dakin fluid. disclosing s. a s. that selectively stains all soft debris, pellicle, and bacterial plaque on teeth; used as an aid in identifying bacterial plaque after rinsing with water. Earle s. a tissue culture medium containing CaCl2, MgSO4, KCl, NaHCO3, NaCl, NaH2PO4&chmpnt;H2O, and glucose. ethereal s. a s. of any substance in ether. Fehling s. an alkaline copper tartrate s. formerly used for detection of reducing sugars. SYN: Fehling reagent. ferric and ammonium acetate s. a clear, aromatic, reddish-brown liquid which has been used in iron-deficiency anemia in animals and man; a source of iron. SYN: Basham mixture. Fonio s. a diluent with magnesium sulfate, used for stained smears of blood platelets. Gallego differentiating s. a dilute s. of formaldehyde and acetic acid used in a modified Gram stain to differentiate and enhance the basic fuchsin binding to Gram-negative microorganisms. Gey s. a salt s. usually used in combination with naturally occurring body substances ( e.g., blood serum, tissue extracts) and/or more complex chemically defined nutritive solutions for culturing animal cells. Hanks s. a salt s. usually used in combination with naturally occurring body substances ( e.g., blood serum, tissue extracts) and/or more complex chemically defined nutritive solutions for culturing animal cells; two variations contain CaCl2, MgSO4&chmpnt;7H2O, KCl, KH2PO4, NaHCO3, NaCl, Na2HPO4&chmpnt;2H2O, and d-glucose. Hartman s. a s. used to desensitize dentin in dental operations; contains thymol, ethyl alcohol, and sulfuric ether. Hartmann s. SYN: lactated Ringer s.. Hayem s. a blood diluent used prior to counting red blood cells. Krebs-Ringer s. a modification of Ringer s., prepared by mixing NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgSO4, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. lactated Ringer s. a s. containing NaCl, sodium lactate, CaCl2(dihydrate), and KCl in distilled water; used for the same purposes as Ringer s.. SYN: Hartmann s.. Lange s. a colloidal gold s. used to demonstrate protein abnormalities in spinal fluid. See Lange test. Locke solutions solutions containing, in varying amounts, NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, and d-glucose; used for irrigating mammalian heart and other tissues, in laboratory experiments; also used in combination with naturally occurring body substances ( e.g., blood serum, tissue extracts) and/or more complex chemically defined nutritive solutions for culturing animal cells. Locke-Ringer s. a s. containing NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, MgCl2, NaHCO3, d-glucose, and water; used in the laboratory for physiological and pharmacological experiments. Lugol iodine s. an iodine-potassium iodide s. used as an oxidizing agent, for removal of mercurial fixation artifacts, and also in histochemistry and to stain amebas. molecular dispersed s. SYN: dispersoid. Monsel s. ferric subsulfate s. used to coagulate superficial bleeding such as that following skin biopsy. normal s. normal (3) . ophthalmic solutions sterile solutions, free from foreign particles and suitably compounded and dispensed for instillation into the eye. Ringer s. 1. a s. resembling the blood serum in its salt constituents; it contains 8.6 g of NaCl, 0.3 g of KCl, and 0.33 g of CaCl2 in each 1000 mL of distilled water; used as a fluid and electrolyte replenisher by intravenous infusion. 2. a salt s. usually used in combination with naturally occurring body substances ( e.g., blood serum, tissue extracts) and/or more complex chemically defined nutritive solutions for culturing animal cells. SYN: Ringer lactate. See Ringer injection. saline s. 1. a s. of any salt; SYN: salt s.. 2. specifically, an isotonic sodium chloride s..; 0.85–0.9 per 100 mL of water. salt s. SYN: saline s. (1) . saturated s. (sat. sol., sat. soln.) a s. that contains all of a substance capable of dissolving; a s. of a substance in equilibrium with an excess undissolved substance. standard s., standardized s. a s. of known concentration, used as a standard of comparison or analysis. supersaturated s. a s. containing more of the solid than the liquid would ordinarily dissolve; it is made by heating the solvent when the substance is added, and on cooling the latter is retained without precipitation; addition of a crystal or solid of any kind usually results in precipitation of the excess solute, leaving a saturated s.. test s. a s. of some reagent, in definite strength, used in chemical analysis or testing. Tyrode s. a modified Locke s.; it contains 8 g of NaCl, 0.2 g of KCl, 0.2 g of CaCl2, 0.1 g of MgCl2, 0.05 g of NaH2PO4, 1 g of NaHCO3, 1 g of d-glucose, and water to make 1000 mL; used to irrigate the peritoneal cavity, and in laboratory work. volumetric s. (VS) a s. made by mixing measured volumes of the components. Weigert iodine s. an iodine-potassium iodide mixture used as a reagent to alter crystal and methyl violet so that they are retained by certain bacteria and fungi.

solvate (sol′vat)
A nonaqueous solution or dispersoid in which there is a noncovalent or easily reversible combination between solvent and solute, or dispersion means and disperse phase; when water is the solvent or dispersion medium, it is called a hydrate.

solvation (sol-va′shun)
Noncovalent or easily reversible combination of a solvent with solute, or of a dispersion means with the disperse phase; if the solvent is water, s. is called hydration. S. affects the size of ions in solution, thus Na+ is much larger in H2O than in solid NaCl.

A liquid that holds another substance in solution, i.e., dissolves it. [L. solvens, pres. p. of solvo, to dissolve] amphiprotic s. a s. capable of acting as an acid or a base; e.g., H2O. See solvolysis. fat solvents organic liquids notable for their ability to dissolve lipids; usually, but not always, immiscible in water; e.g., diethyl ether, carbon tetrachloride. SYN: nonpolar solvents. nonpolar solvents SYN: fat solvents. polar solvents solvents that exhibit polar forces on solutes, due to high dipole moment, wide separation of charges, or tight association; e.g., water, alcohols, acids. universal s. a substance sought by the alchemists, and claimed by some to have been found, supposedly capable of dissolving all substances; sometimes, in a physiological sense, applied to water.

solvolysis (sol-vol′i-sis)
The reaction of a dissolved salt with the solvent to form an acid and a base; the (partial) reverse of neutralization. If the solvent is water, an amphiprotic solvent, s. is called hydrolysis.

soma (so′ma)
1. The axial part of the body, i.e., head, neck, trunk, and tail, excluding the limbs. 2. All of an organism with the exception of the germ cells. SEE ALSO: body. 3. The body of a nerve cell, from which axons, dendrites, etc. project. [G. s., body]

soman (so′man)
An extremely potent cholinesterase inhibitor. SEE ALSO: sarin, tabun.

somasthenia (so-mas-the′ne-a)
SYN: somatasthenia.

See somato-.

somatagnosia (so′ma-tag-no′se-a)
SYN: somatotopagnosis. [somat- + G. a- priv. + gnosis, recognition]


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