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Medical Dictionary


somatotopagnosis (so′ma-to-top′ag-no′sis)
The inability to identify any part of the body, either one's own or another's body. Cf.:autotopagnosia. SYN: somatagnosia. [somato- + top- + G. a- priv. + G. gnosis, knowledge]

somatotopic (so-ma-to-top′ik)
Relating to somatotopy.

somatotopy (so-ma-tot′o-pe)
The topographic association of positional relationships of receptors in the body via respective nerve fibers to their terminal distribution in specific functional areas of the cerebral cortex; the continuation of these positional relationships in all stages of the ascent of nerve fibers through the central nervous system enables the brain and spinal cord to function on a basis of spatially designated units. [somato- + G. topos, place]

somatotropes (so-ma′to-trops)
A subclass of pituitary acidophilic cells; site of synthesis of growth hormone.

somatotroph (so′mat′o-trof)
A cell of the adenohypophysis that produces somatotropin.

somatotrophic (so′ma-to-trof′ik)
SYN: somatotropic. [somato- + G. trophe, nourishment]

somatotropic (so′ma-to-trop′ik)
Having a stimulating effect on body growth. SYN: somatotrophic. [somato- + G. trope, a turning]

somatotropin (so′ma-to-tro′pin)
A protein hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, produced by the acidophil cells, that promotes body growth, fat mobilization, and inhibition of glucose utilization; diabetogenic when present in excess; a deficiency of s. is associated with a number of types of dwarfism (type III is an X-linked disorder). SYN: growth hormone, pituitary growth hormone, somatotropic hormone. [for somatotrophin, fr. somato- + G. trophe nourishment; corrupted to -tropin and reanalyzed as fr. G. trope, a turning]

somatotype (so′ma-to-tip)
1. The constitutional or body type of an individual. 2. The particular constitutional or body type associated with a particular personality type.

somatotypology (so′ma-to-ti-pol′o-je)
The study of somatotypes. [somato- + G. typos, form, + logos, study]

somatrem (so′ma-trem)
N-l-Methionyl growth hormone (human); a purified polypeptide hormone, made by recombinant DNA techniques, that contains the identical sequence of 191 amino acids constituting naturally occurring somatotropin, plus an additional amino acid, methionine; used in long-term treatment of children deficient in somatotropin.

somatropin (so-ma-tro′pin)
A drug identical with human growth hormone; used in the treatment of growth disturbances due to insufficient secretion of growth hormone in children or adults or associated with gonadal dysgenesis (Turner syndrome) and of growth disturbance in prepubertal children with chronic renal insufficiency.

somesthesia (so-mes-the′ze-a)
SYN: somatesthesia.

somite (so′mit)
One of the paired, metamerically arranged cell masses formed in the early embryonic paraxial mesoderm; commencing in the third or early fourth week in the region of the hindbrain, they develop in a caudal direction typically until 42 pairs are formed. SYN: mesoblastic segment. [G. soma, body, + -ite] occipital s. one of the four most rostral somites; these become incorporated into the occipital region of the embryonic skull.

somnambulance (som-nam′bu-lans)
SYN: somnambulism (1) .

somnambulism (som-nam′bu-lizm)
1. A disorder of sleep involving complex motor acts which occurs primarily during the first third of the night but not during rapid eye movement sleep. SYN: oneirodynia activa, sleepwalking, somnambulance. 2. A form of hysteria in which purposeful behavior is forgotten. [L. somnus, sleep, + ambulo, to walk]

somnambulist (som-nam′bu-list)
One who is subject to somnambulism (1). SYN: sleepwalker.

somnifacient (som-ni-fa′shent)
SYN: soporific (1) . [L. somnus, sleep, + facio, to make]

somniferous (som-nif′er-us)
SYN: soporific (1) . [L. somnus, sleep, + fero, to bring]

somnific (som-nif′ik)
SYN: soporific (1) .

somniloquence, somniloquism (som-nil′o-kwens, -kwizm)
1. Talking or muttering in one's sleep. SYN: sleeptalking (1) . 2. SYN: somniloquy. [L. somnus, sleep, + loquor, to talk]

somniloquist (som-nil′o-kwist)
A habitual sleep-talker.

somniloquy (som-nil′o-kwe)
Talking under the influence of hypnotic suggestion. SYN: sleeptalking (2) , somniloquence (2) , somniloquism. [L. somnus, sleep, + loquor, to speak]

somnolence, somnolency (som′no-lens, -len-se)
1. An inclination to sleep. SYN: sleepiness. 2. A condition of obtusion. SYN: somnolentia (1) . [L. somnolentia]

somnolent (som′no-lent)
1. Drowsy; sleepy; having an inclination to sleep. 2. In a condition of incomplete sleep; semicomatose. [L. somnus, sleep]

somnolentia (som-no-len′she-a)
1. SYN: somnolence. 2. SYN: sleep drunkenness. [L.]

somnolescent (som-no-les′ent)
Inclined to sleep; drowsy.

somnolism (som′no-lizm)
SYN: hypnotism (1) .

Michael, U.S. biochemist, 1883–1971. See S. effect, S. method, S. unit.

R., 20th century German ophthalmologist. See S. canal.

sone (son)
A unit of loudness; a pure tone of 1000 Hz at 40 dB above the normal threshold of audibility has a loudness of 1 s.. [L. sonus, sound]

sonic (son′ik)
Of, pertaining to, or determined by sound; e.g., s. vibration. [L. sonus, sound]

sonicate (son′i-kat)
To expose a suspension of cells or microbes to the disruptive effect of the energy of high frequency sound waves.

sonication (son-i-ka′shun)
The process of disrupting biologic materials by use of sound wave energy.

sonification (son′i-fi-ka′shun)
The production of sound, or of sound waves.

sonifier (son′i-fi-er)
An instrument which produces sound waves, especially those of the frequencies used in sonification procedures.

sonify (son′i-fi)
To produce sound.

Carl, Danish bacteriologist, 1882–1948.

sonochemistry (son-o-kem′is-tre)
The branch of chemistry concerned with chemical changes caused by, or involving, sound, particularly ultrasound.

sonogram (son′o-gram)
SYN: ultrasonogram. [L. sonus, sound, + G. gramma, a drawing]

sonograph (son′o-graf)
SYN: ultrasonograph. [L. sonus, sound, + G. grapho, to write]

sonographer (so-nog′ra-fer)
SYN: ultrasonographer.

sonography (so-nog′ra-fi)
SYN: ultrasonography. [L. sonus, sound. + G. grapho, to write]

sonolucent (son-o-lu′sent)
In ultrasonography, containing few or no echoes; a misnomer for transonic or anechoic. See anechoic. [L. sonus, sound + L. luceo, to shine]

sonomicrometer (son′o-mi-krom′e-ter)
An operatively implanted ultrasonic dimension gauge to measure the wall thickening and motion of the heart.

sonomotor (son-o-mo′ter)
Related to movements caused by sound. See s. response.

sophisticate (so-fis′ti-kat)
To adulterate. [Mod. L. sophisticare, pp. sophisticatus, to alter deceptively, fr. G. sophistikos, deceitful]

sophoretin (sof-o-re′tin)
SYN: quercetin.

sopor (so′por)
An unnaturally deep sleep. [L.]

soporiferous (so-por-if′er-us, sop′or-)
SYN: soporific (1) . [L. soporifer, fr. sopor, deep sleep, + fero, to bring]

soporific (so-por-if′ik, sop′or-)
1. Causing sleep. SYN: somnifacient, somniferous, somnific, soporiferous. 2. SYN: hypnotic (2) . [L. sopor, deep sleep, + facio, to make]

soporose, soporous (so′po-ros, -rus)
Relating to or causing an unnaturally deep sleep. [L. sopor, deep sleep]

sorbefacient (sor-be-fa′shent)
1. Causing absorption. 2. An agent that causes or facilitates absorption. [L. sorbeo, to suck up, + facio, to make]

sorbic acid (sor′bik)
Obtained from berries of the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia (family Rosaceae), or prepared synthetically; it inhibits growth of yeast and mold and is nearly nontoxic to humans; used as a preservative.

sorbin (sor′bin)
SYN: l-sorbose.

sorbinose (sor-bin-os)
SYN: l-sorbose.

sorbitan (sor′bi-tan)
Sorbitol or sorbose and related compounds in ester combination with fatty acids and with short oligo (ethylene oxide) side chains and an oleate terminus to form detergents such as polysorbate 80.

sorbite (sor′bit)
SYN: sorbitol.

sorbitol (sor′bi-tol)
A reduction product of glucose and sorbose found in the berries of the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia (family Rosaceae), and in many fruits and seaweeds. It has many industrial and pharmaceutical uses; medicinally, it is used as a laxative and as a sweetening agent, and is almost completely metabolized (to CO2 and H2O); accumulates in type I diabetes mellitus; elevated levels can cause osmotic damage. SYN: sorbite.

sorbitose (sor′bi-tos)
SYN: l-sorbose.

sordes (sor′dez)
A dark brown or blackish crustlike collection on the lips, teeth, and gums of a person with dehydration associated with a chronic debilitating disease. [L. filth, fr. sordeo, to be foul]

sore (sor)
1. A wound, ulcer, or any open skin lesion. 2. Painful; aching; tender. [A.S. sar] bed s. bedsore. canker sores SYN: aphtha (2) . cold s. colloquialism for herpes simplex. Delhi s. SYN: Oriental s.. desert s. any of a variety of chronic nonspecific cutaneous ulcers, most commonly on the shins, knees, hands, and forearms, and probably a variant of ecthyma, that occur in tropical and desert areas. SYN: veldt s.. hard s. SYN: chancre. Lahore s. SYN: Oriental s.. Natal s. lesion of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Oriental s. See cutaneous leishmaniasis. SYN: Delhi s., Lahore s.. pressure s. SYN: decubitus ulcer. soft s. SYN: chancroid. tropical s. SYN: tropical ulcer (1) . See cutaneous leishmaniasis. veldt s. SYN: desert s.. venereal s. SYN: chancroid.

soremouth (sor′mowth)
SYN: orf.

Sören P.L., Danish chemist, 1868–1939. See S. scale.

C., French radiologist, &dag;1931. See S. band, S. phenomenon.

soroche (so-ro′che)
SYN: altitude sickness. [Sp. (orig. ore, formerly attributed to toxic emanations of ores in mountains)] chronic s. SYN: chronic mountain sickness.

sorption (sorp′shun)
Adsorption or absorption.

Arnold, British ophthalmologist, 1900–1980. See S. macular degeneration, S. syndrome.

Abbreviation for L. si opus sit, if needed.

sotalol hydrochloride (so′ta-lol)
A β-receptor blocking agent with uses similar to those of propranolol; also possesses potassium channel blocking properties.

J.F., U.S. pediatrician, *1927. See S. syndrome.

Jules, French neurologist, 1866–1943. See Dejerine-S. disease.

souffle (soo′fl)
A soft blowing sound heard on auscultation. [Fr. souffler, to blow] cardiac s. a soft puffing heart murmur. fetal s. a blowing murmur, synchronous with the fetal heart beat, sometimes only systolic and sometimes continuous, heard on auscultation over the pregnant uterus. SYN: funic s., funicular s., umbilical s.. funic s., funicular s. SYN: fetal s.. mammary s. a blowing murmur heard late in pregnancy and during lactation at the medial border of the breast, sometimes only systolic and sometimes continuous. placental s. SYN: uterine s.. umbilical s. SYN: fetal s.. uterine s. a blowing sound, synchronous with the cardiac systole of the mother, heard on auscultation of the pregnant uterus. SYN: placental s..

Jean Pierre, French hematologist, 1915–1985. See Bernard-S. disease, Bernard-S. syndrome.

sound (sownd)
1. The vibrations produced by a sounding body, transmitted by the air or other medium, and perceived by the internal ear. 2. An elongated cylindrical, usually curved, instrument of metal, used for exploring the bladder or other cavities of the body, for dilating strictures of the urethra, esophagus, or other canal, for calibrating the lumen of a body cavity, or for detecting the presence of a foreign body in a body cavity. 3. To explore or calibrate a cavity with a s.. 4. Whole; healthy; not diseased or injured. adventitious breath sounds sounds heard by auscultation of abnormal lungs. SEE ALSO: rale, rhonchus, crackle, crepitation, wheeze, rub, crunch. after-s. aftersound. amphoric voice s. amphoric voice. anvil s. SYN: bellmetal resonance. atrial s. SYN: fourth heart s.. auscultatory s. a rale, murmur, bruit, fremitus, or other s. heard on auscultation of the chest or abdomen. bell s. SYN: bellmetal resonance. bowel sounds relatively high-pitched abdominal sounds caused by propulsion of intestinal contents through the lower alimentary tract. breath sounds a murmur, bruit, fremitus, rhonchus, or rale heard on auscultation over the lungs or any part of the respiratory tract. SYN: respiratory sounds. bronchial breath sounds loud, high-pitched, hollow-toned breath sounds heard by auscultation mainly over the sternum; when heard elsewhere in the chest they may indicate consolidated lung or another pathologic condition. bronchovesicular breath sounds sounds intermediate between bronchial and vesicular breath sounds; they can be abnormal, but are normal when heard between the 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces anteriorly and posteriorly between scapulae. Campbell s. a miniature s. with a short round-tipped beak, especially curved for the deep urethra of the young male. cannon s. SYN: bruit de canon. cardiac s. SYN: heart sounds. cavernous voice s. cavernous voice. coconut s. a s. like that produced when a cracked coconut is tapped; it is elicited by percussing the skull of a patient with osteitis deformans. complex s. a s. composed of a number of sounds of different frequencies. cracked-pot s. SYN: cracked-pot resonance. Davis interlocking s. a s. comprised of two instruments with curved male and female tips, used to introduce a catheter into the bladder in the treatment of ruptured urethra; the male s. is introduced into the distal urethra via the meatus and the female s. is passed downward through the bladder neck into the proximal urethra via an open cystotomy; the ends of the two instruments are engaged, with the female s. guiding the male s. upward into the bladder; a catheter is then sutured to the tip of the male s. and withdrawn through the urethra to restore continuity of its lumen. double-shock s. SYN: bruit de rappel. eddy sounds sounds that punctuate the continuous murmur of patent ductus arteriosus, imparting to it a characteristically “uneven” quality. ejection sounds click-like sounds during ejection from a hypertensive aorta or pulmonary artery or associated with stenosis (particularly congenital) of the aortic or pulmonic valve. first heart s. (S1) occurs with ventricular systole and is mainly produced by closure of the atrioventricular valves. fourth heart s. (S4) the s. produced in late diastole in association with ventricular filling due to atrial systole and related to reduced ventricular compliance. It is a low frequency oscillation that may be normal at older ages owing to a physiologic decline in ventricular compliance but is nearly always abnormal at younger ages if it is of high intensity or palpable. It is common in ventricular hypertrophy, particularly with hypertension, and is almost invariable during acute myocardial infarction. Fourth heart sounds may arise from the right or left ventricle or both. SYN: atrial s.. friction s. the s., heard on auscultation, made by the rubbing of two opposed serous surfaces roughened by an inflammatory exudate, or, if chronic, by nonadhesive fibrosis. SYN: friction murmur, friction rub. gallop s. the abnormal third or fourth heart s. which, when added to the first and second sounds, produces the triple cadence of gallop rhythm. SEE ALSO: gallop. heart sounds the noise made by muscle contraction and the closure of the heart valves during the cardiac cycle. See first heart s., second heart s., third heart s., fourth heart s.. SYN: cardiac s., heart tones. hippocratic succussion s. a splashing s. elicited by shaking a patient with hydro- or pyopneumothorax, the physician's ear being applied to the chest. Jewett s. a short straight s. for dilating the anterior urethra. Korotkoff sounds sounds heard over an artery when pressure over it is reduced below systolic arterial pressure, as when blood pressure is determined by the auscultatory method. Le Fort s. a curved s. threaded for a filiform bougie, used for dilation of urethral strictures in the male when small caliber or presence of false passages prevents safe passage of a standard s. or catheter. McCrea s. a gently curved s. used to dilate the urethra in infants or children. Mercier s. a catheter the beak of which is short and bent almost at a right angle. muscle s. a noise heard on auscultation over the belly of a contracting muscle. percussion s. any s. elicited on percussing over one of the cavities of the body. pericardial friction s. a to-and-fro grating, rasping, or, rarely, creaking s. heard over the heart in some cases of pericarditis, due to rubbing of the inflamed pericardial surfaces as the heart contracts and relaxes; during normal sinus rhythm it is usually triphasic; during any rhythm it may be biphasic or uniphasic. SYN: pericardial rub, pericardial friction rub. pistol-shot s. s. created by lightly compressing an artery during aortic regurgitation; sometimes is audible without compression. pistol-shot femoral s. a shotlike systolic s. heard over the femoral artery in high output states, especially aortic insufficiency; presumably due to sudden stretching of the elastic wall of the artery; pistol-shot sounds may also be heard over other relatively large arteries, e.g., brachial, radial. posttussis suction s. a s. produced by the falling back of a drop of mucus or pus into a pulmonary cavity after the latter has been emptied by coughing. respiratory sounds SYN: breath sounds. sail s. a s., likened to the snapping of a sail; the abnormal first heart s. in some patients with Ebstein anomaly. Santini booming s. a sonorous booming s. heard on auscultatory percussion of a hydatid cyst. second s. SYN: second heart s.. second heart s. (S2) the second s. heard on auscultation of the heart; signifies the beginning of diastole and is due to closure of the semilunar valves. SYN: second s.. Simpson uterine s. a slender flexible metal rod used to calibrate or dilate the cervical canal, or to hold the uterus in various positions during gynecologic surgery. Sims uterine s. a slender flexible s. with a small projection about 7 cm from its tip, used to estimate the size and caliber of the uterine cavity. splitting of heart sounds the production of major components of the first and second heart sounds (rarely the third and fourth) due to contribution by the left-sided and right-sided valves; thus, the first heart s. would have a mitral and a tricuspid component and the second heart s. an aortic and pulmonic component. The latter are best appreciated during respiration, with inspiration delaying the pulmonic component and producing an earlier aortic component. succussion s. the noise made by fluid with overlying air when shaken, such as occurs with gastric dilation or with fluid and air in a pleural cavity (hydropneumothorax). tambour s. SYN: bruit de tambour. third s. SYN: third heart s.. third heart s. (S3) occurs in early diastole and corresponds with the end of the first phase of rapid ventricular filling; normal in children and younger people but abnormal in others. SYN: third s.. tic-tac sounds SYN: embryocardia. to-and-fro s. doubling of an abnormal murmur usually in systole and diastole and formerly applied to pericardial rubs. tracheal breath sounds loud, harsh, hollow breath sounds usually heard only over the neck. van Buren s. a standard s., available in several calibers, with a gently curved tip designed to follow the contour of the bulbous urethra in the male; used for urethral calibration or dilation. vesicular breath sounds the gentle rustling sounds of normal breathing heard by auscultation over most of the lung fields; the inspiratory phase is usually longer than the expiratory. waterwheel s. s. made by cardiac motion inducing splashes in the presence of fluid and air within the pericardial sac. water-whistle s. a bubbling whistle heard on auscultation over a bronchial or pulmonary fistula. Winternitz s. a double-current catheter in which water at any desired temperature circulates. xiphisternal crunching s. Hamman sign.

M.E., 20th century British biologist. See S. blot analysis.


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