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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Southey
Reginald, English physician, 1835–1899. See S. tubes, under tube.

soya (soy′a)
SYN: soybean. [Hind. s., fennel]

soybean (soy′ben)
The bean of the climbing herb Glycine soja or G. hispida (family Leguminosae); a bean rich in protein and containing little starch; it is the source of s. oil; s. flour is used in preparing a bread for diabetics, in feeding formulas for infants who are unable to tolerate cow's milk, and for adults allergic to cow's milk. SYN: soja, soya. [Hind. soya, fennel] s. oil obtained from soybeans by expression or solvent extraction; contains triglycerides of linoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and saturated fatty acids; used as a food and in the manufacture of margarine and other food products.

SP
Abbreviation for sacroposterior position.

SP1
Abbreviation for stimulatory protein 1.

sp.
Abbreviation for species; pl. form is s.. [L. spiritus, spirit.]

spa (spah)
A health resort, especially one where there are one or more mineral springs whose waters possess therapeutic properties. [S., a mineral spring health resort in Belgium]

space (spas) [TA]
Any demarcated portion of the body, either an area of the surface, a segment of the tissues, or a cavity. SEE ALSO: area, region, zone. SYN: spatium [TA] . [L. spatium, room, s.] alveolar dead s. the difference between physiologic dead s. and anatomic dead s.; it represents that part of the physiologic dead s. resulting from ventilation of relatively underperfused or nonperfused alveoli; it differs specifically in being placed so as to fill and empty in parallel with functional alveoli, rather than being interposed in the conducting tubes between functional alveoli and the external environment. anatomic dead s. the volume of the conducting airways from the external environment (at the nose and mouth) down to the level at which inspired gas exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with pulmonary capillary blood; formerly presumed to extend down to the beginning of alveolar epithelium in the respiratory bronchioles, but more recent evidence indicates that effective gas exchange extends some distance up the thicker-walled conducting airways because of rapid longitudinal mixing. Cf.:alveolar dead s., physiologic dead s.. SYN: anatomic airway. antecubital s. SYN: cubital fossa. anterior clear s. SYN: retrosternal s.. apical s. the s. between the alveolar wall and the apex of the root of a tooth where an alveolar abscess usually has its origin. axillary s. SYN: axilla. Berger s. the s. between the patellar fossa of the vitreous and the lens. Bogros s. SYN: retroinguinal s.. Böttcher s. SYN: endolymphatic sac. Bowman s. SYN: capsular s.. Burns s. SYN: suprasternal s.. capsular s. the slitlike s. between the visceral and parietal layers of the capsule of the renal corpuscle; it opens into the proximal tubule of the nephron at the neck of the tubule. SYN: Bowman s., filtration s.. cartilage s. SYN: cartilage lacuna. cavernous s. [TA] an anatomic cavity with many interconnecting chambers. SYN: cavern, caverna. cavernous spaces of corpora cavernosa [TA] the vascular spaces of the corpora cavernosa that, together with the intervening fibrous trabeculae, form the erectile tissue of the penis or clitoris. SYN: cavernae corporum cavernosorum [TA] , caverns of corpora cavernosa, cavities of corpora cavernosa. cavernous spaces of corporus spongiosum [TA] the vascular spaces forming the erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum penis in the male and the bulb of the vestibule in the female. SYN: cavernae corporis spongiosi [TA] , caverns of corpus spongiosum, cavities of corpus spongiosum. central palmar s. the more medial of the central palmar spaces, bounded medially by the hypothenar compartment; related distally to the synovial tendon sheaths of digits 3 and 4 and proximally to the common flexor sheath. SYN: medial midpalmar s., middle palmar s.. Chassaignac s. potential s. between the pectoralis major and the mammary gland. Cloquet s. a s. between the ciliary zonule and the vitreous body. Colles s. SYN: superficial perineal s.. corneal s. one of the stellate spaces between the lamellae of the cornea, each of which contains a cell or corneal corpuscle. SYN: lacuna (4) . Cotunnius s. SYN: endolymphatic sac. (cranial) extradural s. [TA] s. between the cranial bones and the external periosteal layer of the dura; it becomes an actual s. only pathologically, as when as extra- or epidural hemorrhage occurs forming a hematoma. dead s. 1. a cavity, potential or real, remaining after the closure of a wound that is not obliterated by the operative technique; 2. See anatomic dead s., physiologic dead s.. deep perineal s. the region immediately superior to the perineal membrane, occupied by the membranous part of the urethra, the bulbourethral gland (in the male), the deep transverse perineal and sphincter urethrae muscles, and the dorsal nerve and artery of the penis or clitoris. SYN: deep perineal pouch, spatium perinei profundum. denture s. 1. that portion of the oral cavity which is, or may be, occupied by maxillary and/or mandibular denture(s); 2. the s. between the residual ridges which is available for dentures. SEE ALSO: interarch distance. disk s. on radiographs of the spine, the radiolucent region between each pair of vertebral bodies. Disse s. SYN: perisinusoidal s.. s. of Donders the s. between the dorsum of the tongue and the hard palate when the mandible is in rest position following the expiratory cycle of respiration. endolymphatic s. [TA] endolymph-filled s. contained by the membranous labyrinth. SYN: spatium endolympha′ticum [TA] . epidural s. the s. between the walls of the vertebral canal and the dura mater of the spinal cord. SYN: extradural s. [TA] , spatium extradurale [TA] , spatium extradura′le&star, cavum epidurale, epidural cavity. episcleral s. [TA] the s. between the fascial sheath of the eyeball and the sclera. SYN: spatium episclerale [TA] , interfascial s., spatium interfasciale, spatium intervaginale bulbi oculi, Tenon s.. epitympanic s. SYN: epitympanic recess. extradural s. [TA] SYN: epidural s.. extraperitoneal s. [TA] loose areolar s. (potential only in many places) or plane immediately external to the peritoneum; in surgery, this plane enables dissection within the body wall but external to the peritoneum. SEE ALSO: retroperitoneal s.. SYN: spatium extraperitonea′le [TA] . filtration s. SYN: capsular s.. Fontana spaces SYN: spaces of iridocorneal angle. freeway s. the s. between the occluding surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when the mandible is in physiologic resting position. SYN: interocclusal clearance, interocclusal distance (2) , interocclusal gap, interocclusal rest s. (2) . gingival s. SYN: gingival sulcus. haversian spaces spaces in bone formed by the enlargement of haversian canals. Henke s. SYN: retropharyngeal s.. His perivascular s. SYN: Virchow-Robin s.. infraglottic s. SYN: infraglottic cavity. interalveolar s. SYN: interarch distance. intercostal s. [TA] an interval between the ribs, occupied by intercostal muscles, veins, arteries, and nerves. SYN: spatium intercostale [TA] . interfascial s. SYN: episcleral s.. interglobular s. one of a number of irregularly branched spaces near the periphery of the dentin of the crown of a tooth, through which pass the ramifications of the tubules; they are caused by failure of calcification of the dentin. SYN: interglobular s. of Owen, spatium interglobulare. interglobular s. of Owen SYN: interglobular s.. intermembrane s. the s. between the two membranes in a cell or organelle enclosed by a double biomembrane; E.G., the s. between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondria; sometimes referred to as the external matrix. interocclusal rest s. 1. SYN: interocclusal distance (1) . 2. SYN: freeway s.. interosseous metacarpal spaces [TA] the spaces between the metacarpal bones in the hand. SYN: spatia interossea metacarpi [TA] . interosseous metatarsal spaces [TA] the spaces between the metatarsal bones in the foot. SYN: spatia interossea metatarsi [TA] . interpleural s. SYN: mediastinum (2) . interproximal s. the s. between adjacent teeth in a dental arch; it is divided into the embrasure occlusal to the contact area, and the septal s. gingival to the contact area. interradicular s. the s. between the roots of multirooted teeth. interseptovalvular s. the interval in the developing embryonic heart between the septum primum and the left valve of the sinus venosus. intersheath spaces of optic nerve SYN: intervaginal subarachnoid s. of optic nerve. intervaginal subarachnoid s. of optic nerve [TA] the spaces within the internal sheath of the optic nerve, between the arachnoidal and pial layers, filled with cerebrospinal fluid and continuous with the subarachnoid s.. SYN: spatium intervaginale subarachnoidale nervi optici [TA] , intersheath spaces of optic nerve, Schwalbe spaces. intervillous spaces the s.'s containing maternal blood, located between placental villi; they are lined with syncytiotrophoblast. intraretinal s. the potential cleft between the pigmented and neural layers of the retina; it represents the cavity of the embryonic optic vesicle; retinal detachment occurs by the opening of this s.. spaces of iridocorneal angle [TA] irregularly shaped endothelium-lined spaces within the trabecular reticulum, through which the aqueous filters to reach the sinus venosus sclerae. SYN: spatia anguli iridocornealis [TA] , ciliary canals, Fontana spaces. Kiernan s. interlobular s. in the liver. Kretschmann s. a slight depression in the epitympanic recess below the superior recess of the tympanic membrane. Kuhnt spaces shallow diverticula or recesses between the ciliary body and ciliary zonule that open into the posterior chamber of the eye. lateral central palmar s. the more lateral (radial) of the central palmar spaces, bounded laterally by the thenar compartment; related distally to the synovial tendon sheath of the index finger and proximally to the common flexor sheath. SYN: lateral midpalmar s., thenar s.. lateral midpalmar s. SYN: lateral central palmar s.. lateral pharyngeal s. [TA] that part of the peripharyngeal s. located at the sides of the pharynx. SYN: spatium lateropharyngeum [TA] , spatium pharyngeum laterale [TA] . leeway s. the difference between the combined mesiodistal widths of the deciduous cuspids and molars and their successors. leptomeningeal s. SYN: subarachnoid s.. SYN: spatium leptomeningeum [TA] . lymph s. a s., in tissue or a vessel, filled with lymph. Magendie spaces spaces between the pia and arachnoid at the level of the fissures of the brain. Malacarne s. SYN: posterior perforated substance. masticator s. a s. subtended by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia that splits into lateral and medial slings at the inferior border of the mandible to enclose the masseter muscle, part of the temporalis muscle, and the medial and pterygoid muscles before attaching to the zygomatic arch and base of the skull. Meckel s. SYN: trigeminal cave. medial midpalmar s. SYN: central palmar s.. mediastinal s. SYN: mediastinum (2) . medullary s. the central cavity and the cellular intervals between the trabeculae of bone, filled with marrow. middle palmar s. SYN: central palmar s.. midpalmar s. either of the two central palmar spaces (medial or lateral). Mohrenheim s. SYN: infraclavicular fossa. muscular s. of retroinguinal compartment [TA] the lateral compartment beneath the inguinal (Poupart) ligament, for the passage of the iliopsoas muscle and femoral nerve; it is separated by the iliopectineal arch from the vascular lacuna. SYN: lacuna musculorum retroinguinalis, lacuna musculorum, muscular lacuna. Nuel s. an interval in the spiral organ (of Corti) between the outer pillar cells on one side and the phalangeal cells and hair cells on the other. paraglottic s. the s. on each side of the glottis bounded laterally by the perichondrium of the thyroid cartilage and the cricothyroid membrane and posteriorly by the mucous membrane of the pyriform sinus; anterosuperiorly it extends into the preepiglottic s.. It is an important route of transglottic and extralaryngeal spread of carcinoma of the larynx. parapharyngeal s. [TA] SYN: pharyngomaxillary s.. SYN: spatium parapharyngeum. Parona s. a s. between the pronator quadratus deep and the overlying flexor tendons of the forearm which is continuous through the carpal tunnel with the medial central palmar s.. parotid s. a deep hollow on the side of the face flanking the posterior aspect of the ramus of the mandible with its attached muscles that is occupied by the parotid gland; it is lined with fascial laminae (the parotid sheath) derived from the investing layer of deep cervical fascia; the structures bounding the s. collectively constitute the parotid bed. Surgeons operating in the area take advantage of the fact that the anteroposterior dimensions of the parotid s. increase with protrusion of the mandible. SYN: bed of parotid gland, parotid recess, recessus parotideus. perforated s. anterior perforated substance, posterior perforated substance. perichoroid s. SYN: perichoroidal s.. perichoroidal s. [TA] the interval between the choroid and the sclera filled by the loose meshes of the lamina fusca of sclera and the suprachoroid lamina. SYN: spatium perichoroideum [TA] , perichoroid s.. perilymphatic s. [TA] s. between the bony and membranous portions of the labyrinth. SYN: spatium perilymphaticum [TA] , cisterna perilymphatica. perineal spaces deep perineal s., superficial perineal s.. perinuclear s. SYN: cisterna caryothecae. peripharyngeal s. [TA] the s., filled with loose areolar tissue, around the pharynx; it is divided into two portions, parapharyngeal (lateral pharyngeal) spatium and retropharyngeal spatium. SYN: spatium peripharyngeum [TA] . periportal s. of Mall a tissue s. between the limiting lamina and the portal canal in the liver. perisinusoidal s. the potential extravascular s. between the liver sinusoids and liver parenchymal cells. SYN: Disse s.. perivitelline s. the s. between the vitelline membrane and the zona pellucida, appearing in an ovum immediately following fertilization. personal s. a term used in the behavioral sciences to denote the physical area immediately surrounding an individual who is in proximity to one or more others, whether known or unknown, and which serves as a body buffer zone in such interpersonal transactions. pharyngeal s. the area occupied by the pharynx (naso-, oro-, and laryngopharnynx). Not to be confused with the retropharyngeal s.. pharyngomaxillary s. the s. limited by the lateral wall of the pharynx, the cervical vertebrae, and the medial pterygoid muscle. SYN: parapharyngeal s. [TA] . physiologic dead s. (VD) unthe sum of anatomic and alveolar dead s.; the dead s. calculated when the carbon dioxide pressure in systemic arterial blood is used instead of that of alveolar gas in the Bohr equation; it is a virtual or apparent volume that takes into account the impairment of gas exchange because of uneven distributions of lung ventilation and perfusion. plantar s. one of four areas between fascial layers in the foot, where pus may be confined when the foot is infected. pleural s. SYN: pleural cavity. pneumatic s. any one of the paranasal sinuses. Poiseuille s. SYN: still layer. popliteal s. SYN: popliteal fossa. postpharyngeal s. SYN: retropharyngeal s.. preepiglottic s. the s. anterior to the epiglottis that is bounded anteriorly by the thyrohyoid membrane and the superior parts of the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, superiorly by the hyoepiglottic ligament and inferiorly by the thyroepiglottic ligament; laterally it extends into the paraglottic spaces. Carcinoma of the infrahyoid portion of the epiglottis often extends into the preepiglottic s.. Proust s. SYN: rectovesical pouch. Prussak s. SYN: superior recess of tympanic membrane. pterygomandibular s. the area between the mandibular ramus and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. quadrangular s. musculotendinous formation providing passageway for the axillary nerve, posterior humeral circumflex artery, and accompanying veins as they run from the axilla to the superior posterior arm; as the neurovascular structures enter the formation anteriorly, it is bounded superiorly by the shoulder joint, medially by the lateral border of subscapularis, laterally by the surgical neck of the humerus, and inferiorly by the tendon of latissimus dorsi; where the vessels exit the formation posteriorly, it is bounded superiorly by the teres minor, medially by the long head of the triceps, laterally by the lateral head of the triceps and inferiorly by the teres major muscle or tendon; as they emerge, most of the neurovascular structures run on the deep surface of the deltoid muscle, which they supply. SYN: quadrilateral s.. quadrilateral s. SYN: quadrangular s.. Reinke s. a potential s. between the lamina propria and the external elastic lamina of the vocal fold. Edema in this s. produces hoarseness in chronic inflammation. respiratory dead s. that part of the respiratory tract or of a single breath which fails to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with pulmonary capillary blood; a nonspecific term which fails to distinguish between anatomical dead s. and physiologic dead s.. retroadductor s. potential s. between the adductor pollicis and first dorsal interosseous muscles. retroinguinal s. [TA] a triangular s. between the peritoneum and the transversalis fascia, at the lower angle of which is the inguinal ligament; it contains the lower portion of the external iliac artery. SYN: spatium retroinguinale [TA] , Bogros s.. retromylohyoid s. the sulcus at the posterior end of the mylohyoid line. retroperitoneal s. [TA] the s. between the parietal peritoneum and the muscles and bones of the posterior abdominal wall. SYN: spatium retroperitoneale [TA] , retroperitoneum. retropharyngeal s. [TA] that part of the peripharyngeal spatium located posterior to the pharynx. SYN: spatium retropharyngeum [TA] , Henke s., postpharyngeal s.. retropubic s. [TA] the area of loose connective tissue between the bladder with its related fascia and the pubis and anterior abdominal wall. SYN: spatium retropubicum [TA] , cavum retzii, Retzius cavity, Retzius s.. retrosternal s. on lateral chest radiographs, the region dorsal to the sternum and ventral to the ascending aorta. SYN: anterior clear s.. retrozonular s. [TA] potential s. of the chamber of the eyeball immediately posterior to the zonule and anterior to the vitreous body. SYN: spatium retrozonulare [TA] . Retzius s. SYN: retropubic s.. Schwalbe spaces SYN: intervaginal subarachnoid s. of optic nerve. (spinal) epidural s. [TA] fat-filled s. immediately external to the dura mater ensheathing the spinal cord; contains the internal vertebral (epidural) venous plexus, and is the target site for epidural anesthesia. SYN: spatium peridurale&star. subarachnoid s. [TA] the s. between the arachnoidea and pia mater, traversed by delicate fibrous trabeculae and filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Since the pia mater immediately adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, the s. is greatly widened wherever the brain surface exhibits a deep depression ( e.g., between the cerebellum and medulla); such widenings are called cisternae. The large blood vessels supplying the brain and spinal cord lie in the subarachnoid s.. SYN: spatium subarachnoideum [TA] , cavum subarachnoideum, leptomeningeal s., subarachnoid cavity. subchorial s. the part of the placenta adjacently beneath the chorionic plate; it joins with irregular channels to form the marginal lakes. SYN: subchorial lake. subdural s. [TA] originally thought to be a narrow fluid-filled interval between the dural and arachnoid; now known to be an artificial s. created by the separation of the arachnoid from the dura as the result of trauma or some ongoing pathologic process; in the healthy state, the arachnoid is lightly attached to the dura (maintained in that position by the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid) and a naturally occurring subdural s. is not present. SYN: spatium subdurale [TA] , cavum subdurale, subdural cavity, subdural cleavage, subdural cleft. subgingival s. SYN: gingival sulcus. subhepatic s. [TA] the part of the peritoneal cavity between the visceral surface of the liver and the transverse colon. SYN: recessus subhepaticus [TA] , subhepatic recess. subphrenic s. [TA] the recesses in the peritoneal cavity between the anterior part of the liver and the diaphragm, separated into right and left by the falciform ligament. SYN: recessus subphrenicus [TA] , subphrenic recesses, suprahepatic spaces. superficial perineal s. [TA] the superficial compartment of the perineum; the s. bounded superiorly by the perineal membrane (formerly the now obsolete inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm) and inferiorly by the superficial perineal (Colles) fascia; it contains the root structure of the penis or clitoris and associated musculature, plus the superficial transverse perineal muscle and, in the female only, the greater vestibular glands. SYN: spatium perinei superficiale [TA] , Colles s., superficial perineal pouch. suprahepatic spaces SYN: subphrenic s.. suprasternal s. [TA] a narrow interval between the deep and superficial layers of the cervical fascia above the manubrium of the sternum through which pass the anterior jugular veins. SYN: spatium supraspinale [TA] , Burns s.. Tarin s. SYN: interpeduncular cistern. Tenon s. SYN: episcleral s.. thenar s. SYN: lateral central palmar s.. Traube semilunar s. a crescentic s. about 12 cm wide, bounded medially by the left border of the sternum, above by an oblique line from the sixth costal cartilage to the lower border of the eighth or ninth rib in the midaxillary line and below by the costal margin; the percussion tone here is normally tympanitic, because of the underlying stomach, but is modified by pulmonary emphysema, a pleural effusion, or an enlarged spleen. Trautmann triangular s. the area of the temporal bone bounded by the sigmoid sinus, the superior petrosal sinus, and a tangent to the posterior semicircular canal. vascular s. of retroinguinal compartment [TA] the medial compartment beneath the inguinal ligament, for the passage to the femoral vessels; it is separated from the muscular lacuna by the iliopectineal arch. SYN: lacuna vasorum retroinguinalis [TA] , lacuna vasorum, vascular lacuna. vertebral epidural s. spinal dura mater. Virchow-Robin s. a tunnel-like extension of the subarachnoid s. surrounding blood vessels that pass into the brain or spinal cord from the subarachnoid s.; the lining of the channel is composed of pia and glial feet of astrocytes; a continuation of the s. around capillaries and nerve cells probably does not occur. SYN: His perivascular s.. Waldeyer s. SYN: Waldeyer sheath. Westberg s. the s. surrounding the origin of the aorta which is invested with the pericardium. zonular spaces [TA] the spaces between the fibers of the ciliary zonule at the equator of the lens of the eye. SYN: spatia zonularia [TA] , Petit canals.

spacing (spa′sing)
Making or arranging spaces, especially at intervals. third s. loss of extracellular fluid from the vascular to other body compartments.

spagyric (spa-jir′ik)
Relating to the paracelsian or alchemical system of medicine, which stressed the treatment of disease by various types of chemical substances. [G. spao, to tear open, + ageiro, to collect]

spagyrist (spaj′i-rist)
A physician of the 16th century, a follower of the teachings of Paracelsus who believed in the essential importance of chemical or alchemical knowledge in the understanding and treatment of disease.

spall (spawl)
1. A fragment. 2. To break up into fragments.

Spallanzani
Lazaro, Italian priest and scientist, 1729–1799. See S. law.

spallation (spaw-la′shun)
1. SYN: fragmentation. 2. Nuclear reaction in which nuclei, on being bombarded by high energy particles, liberate a number of protons and alpha particles. [M.E. spalle, fragment]

span
The amount, distance, or length between two points; the full extent or reach of anything. attention s. the length of time a person can concentrate on a subject. memory s. the maximum number of items recalled after a single presentation (auditory or visual).

sparganoma (spar-ga-no′ma)
A localized mass resulting from sparganosis.

sparganosis (spar-ga-no′sis)
Infection with the plerocercoid or sparganum of a pseudophyllidean tapeworm, usually in a dermal sore resulting from application of infected flesh as a poultice; infection may also occur from ingestion of uncooked frog, snake, mammal, or bird intermediate or transport host bearing the spargana, but not from fish with Diphyllobothrium larvae, since s. is an infection with nonhuman pseudophyllidean tapeworms, usually species of Spirometra. S. may also develop from ingestion of water containing procercoid-infected Cyclops. ocular s. infestation of the orbits with the sparganum of Spirometra mansoni; characterized by redness and edema of the eyelids, lacrimation, and blepharoptosis; acquired by application of infected raw frog flesh against the eye as a poultice.

sparganum (spar′ga-num)
Originally described as a genus, but now restricted to the plerocercoid stage of certain tapeworms. [G. sparganon, a swathing band, fr. spargo, to swathe]

sparteine (spar′te-en, -te-in)
An alkaloid obtained from scoparius, Cytisus scoparius and Lupinus luteus; s. sulfate was used as an oxytocic drug. SYN: lupinidine.

spasm (spazm)
A sudden involuntary contraction of one or more muscles; includes cramps, contractures. SYN: muscle s., spasmus. [G. spasmos] s. of accommodation excessive contraction of the ciliary muscle. affect spasms rarely used term for spasmodic attacks of laughing, weeping, and screaming, accompanied by marked tachypnea. anorectal s. SYN: proctalgia fugax. Bell s. SYN: facial tic. cadaveric s. rigor mortis occurring irregularly in the different muscles, causing movements of the limbs. canine s. SYN: risus caninus. carpopedal s. s. of the feet and hands observed in hyperventilation, calcium deprivation, and tetany: flexion of the hands at the wrists and of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extension of the fingers at the phalangeal joints; the feet are dorsiflexed at the ankles and the toes plantar flexed. diffuse esophageal s. abnormal contraction of the muscular wall of the esophagus causing pain and dysphagia, often in response to regurgitation of acid gastric contents. epidemic transient diaphragmatic s. SYN: epidemic pleurodynia. epileptic s. s. characterized by a sudden flexion-extension, or mixed extension-flexion, predominantly proximal (including truncal muscles), which is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Occurs frequently in clusters, with the individual events ranging in duration from myoclonic to tonic seizure components. esophageal s. a disorder of the motility of the esophagus characterized by pain or forceful eructations after swallowing food. Esophageal muscle contractions are of excessive force and duration. Chest pain can be confused with symptoms of cardiac or other origin. facial s. SYN: facial tic. habit s. SYN: tic. hemifacial s. a facial nerve disorder, with onset in late adult life, characterized by episodes of irregular, sometimes painful, myoclonic contractions of various facial muscles; triggered by voluntary or reflex movements of the face, s. typically begins in the orbicularis oculi muscle and then spreads; occasionally a sequela of Bell palsy, but more often the result of proximal compression of the facial nerve by an aberrant blood vessel or neoplasm. infantile s. brief (1–3 seconds) muscular spasms in infants with West syndrome, which often appear as nodding or salaam spasms. SYN: salaam convulsions. intention s. a spasmodic contraction of the muscles occurring when a voluntary movement is attempted. masticatory s. involuntary convulsive muscular contraction affecting the muscles of mastication. mobile s. a tonic s. occurring in spastic infantile hemiplegia on attempted movement. muscle s. SYN: s.. nictitating s. involuntary spasmodic winking. SYN: spasmus nictitans, winking s.. nodding s. 1. in infants, a drop of the head on the chest due to loss of tone in the neck muscles as in epilepsia nutans, or to tonic s. of anterior neck muscles as in West syndrome; 2. in adults, a nodding of the head from clonic spasms of the sternomastoid muscles. SYN: salaam attack, salaam s., spasmus nutans (1) . salaam s. SYN: nodding s.. saltatory s. a spasmodic affection of the muscles of the lower extremities. SYN: Bamberger disease (1) , Gowers disease (1) . winking s. SYN: nictitating s..

spasmo-
Spasm. [G. spasmos]

spasmodic (spaz-mod′ik)
Relating to or marked by spasm. [G. spasmodes, convulsive, fr. spasmos, + eidos, form]

spasmogen (spaz′mo-jen)
A substance causing contraction of smooth muscle; e.g., histamine.

spasmogenic (spaz-mo-jen′ik)
Causing spasms. [spasmo- + G. -gen, producing]

spasmolysis (spaz-mol′i-sis)
The arrest of a spasm or convulsion. [spasmo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

spasmolytic (spaz′mo-lit′ik)
1. Relating to spasmolysis. 2. Denoting a chemical agent that relieves smooth muscle spasms.

spasmophilic (spaz-mo-fil′ik)
Relating to spasmophilia.

spasmus (spaz′mus)
SYN: spasm. [L. fr. G. spasmos, spasm] s. coordinatus compulsive movements, such as imitative or mimic tics, festinatio. s. glottidis SYN: laryngismus stridulus. s. nictitans SYN: nictitating spasm. s. nutans 1. SYN: nodding spasm. 2. a fine nystagmus, sometimes rotary, sometimes monocular, associated with head-nodding movements.

spastic (spas′tik)
1. SYN: hypertonic (1) . 2. Relating to spasm or to spasticity. [L. spasticus, fr. G. spastikos, drawing in]

spasticity (spas-tis′i-te)
One type of increase in muscle tone at rest; characterized by increased resistance to passive stretch, velocity dependent and asymmetric about joints ( i.e., greater in the flexor muscles at the elbow and the extensor muscles at the knee). Exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and clonus are additional manifestations. SEE ALSO: clasp-knife s.. clasp-knife s. initial increased resistance to stretch of the extensor muscles of a joint that give way rather suddenly allowing the joint then to be easily flexed; the rigidity is due to an exaggeration of the stretch reflex. SEE ALSO: lengthening reaction. SYN: clasp-knife effect, clasp-knife rigidity.

spatia (spa′she-a)
Plural of spatium. [L.]

spatial (spa′shal)
Relating to space or a space.

spatium, pl .spatia (spa′she-um, -she-a) [TA]
SYN: space. [L.] spatia anguli iridocornealis [TA] SYN: spaces of iridocorneal angle, under space. s. endolympha′ticum [TA] SYN: endolymphatic space. s. episclerale [TA] SYN: episcleral space. s. extradura′le epidural space. s. extradurale [TA] SYN: epidural space. s. extraperitonea′le [TA] SYN: extraperitoneal space. s. intercostale [TA] SYN: intercostal space. s. interfasciale SYN: episcleral space. s. interglobulare, pl .spatia interglobularia SYN: interglobular space. spatia interossea metacarpi [TA] SYN: interosseous metacarpal spaces, under space. spatia interossea metatarsi [TA] SYN: interosseous metatarsal spaces, under space. s. intervaginale bulbi oculi SYN: episcleral space. s. intervaginale subarachnoidale nervi optici [TA] SYN: intervaginal subarachnoid space of optic nerve. s. lateropharyngeum [TA] SYN: lateral pharyngeal space. SEE ALSO: retropharyngeal space. s. leptomeningeum [TA] SYN: leptomeningeal space. s. parapharyngeum SYN: parapharyngeal space. s. perichoroideum [TA] SYN: perichoroidal space. s. peridurale (spinal) epidural space. s. perilymphaticum [TA] SYN: perilymphatic space. s. perinei profundum SYN: deep perineal space. s. perinei superficiale [TA] SYN: superficial perineal space. s. peripharyngeum [TA] SYN: peripharyngeal space. s. pharyngeum laterale [TA] SYN: lateral pharyngeal space. s. retroinguinale [TA] SYN: retroinguinal space. s. retroperitoneale [TA] SYN: retroperitoneal space. s. retropharyngeum [TA] SYN: retropharyngeal space. SEE ALSO: lateral pharyngeal space. s. retropubicum [TA] SYN: retropubic space. s. retrozonulare [TA] SYN: retrozonular space. s. subarachnoideum [TA] SYN: subarachnoid space. s. subdurale [TA] SYN: subdural space. s. supraspinale [TA] SYN: suprasternal space. spatia zonularia [TA] SYN: zonular spaces, under space.

spatula (spach′u-la)
A flat blade, like a knife blade but without a sharp edge, used in pharmacy for spreading plasters and ointments and as an aid to mixing ingredients with a mortar and pestle. [L. dim. of spatha, a broad, flat wooden instrument, fr. G. spathe] iris s. a flat surgical instrument used for repositioning an iris that has prolapsed through a wound. Ro s. a very small nickeled steel s. used to transfer bits of infected material, such as diphtheritic membrane, to culture tubes.

spatulate (spach′u-lat)
1. Shaped like a spatula. 2. To manipulate or mix with a spatula. 3. To incise the cut end of a tubular structure longitudinally and splay it open, to allow creation of an elliptical anastomosis of greater circumference than would be possible with conventional transverse or oblique (bevelled) end-to-end anastomoses. SYN: spatulated.

spatulated (spach′u-lat-ed)
SYN: spatulate.

spatulation (spach′u-la′shun)
Manipulation of material with a spatula.

Spatz
Hugo, German neurologist and psychiatrist, 1888–1969. See Hallervorden-S. disease, Hallervorden-S. syndrome.

spay (spa)
To remove the ovaries of an animal. [Gael. spoth, castrate, or G. spadon, eunuch]

SPCA
Abbreviation for serum prothrombin conversion accelerator.

spearmint (sper′mint)
The leaves and flowering tops of Mentha viridis (green garden or lamb mint) or M. cardiaca (family Labiatae); a carminative and flavoring agent. s. oil the volatile oil, distilled with steam from the fresh overground parts of the flowering plant of Mentha viridis or M. cardiaca, a flavoring agent.

specialist (spesh′a-list)
One who has developed professional expertise in a particular specialty or subject area.




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