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Medical Dictionary


sphygmogram (sfig′mo-gram)
The graphic curve made by a sphygmograph. SYN: pulse curve. [sphygmo- + G. gramma, something written]

sphygmograph (sfig′mo-graf)
An instrument consisting of a lever, the short end of which rests on the radial artery at the wrist, its long end being provided with a stylet which records on a moving ribbon of smoked paper the excursions of the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. grapho, to write]

sphygmographic (sfig-mo-graf′ik)
Relating to or made by a sphygmograph; denoting the s. tracing, or sphygmogram.

sphygmography (sfig-mog′ra-fe)
Use of the sphygmograph in recording the character of the pulse.

sphygmoid (sfig′moyd)
Pulselike; resembling the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

sphygmomanometer (sfig′mo-ma-nom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. SYN: sphygmometer. [sphygmo- + G. manos, thin, scanty, + metron, measure] Mosso s. an apparatus for measuring the blood pressure in the digital arteries. Riva-Rocci s. the original blood pressure apparatus first used to noninvasively measure arterial pressure. Rogers s. an s. with an aneroid barometer gauge.

sphygmomanometry (sfig′mo-ma-nom′e-tre)
Determination of the blood pressure by means of a sphygmomanometer.

sphygmometer (sfig-mom′e-ter)
SYN: sphygmomanometer.

sphygmometroscope (sfig-mo-met′ro-skop)
An instrument for auscultating the pulse, used especially in the auscultatory method of reading the blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure. [sphygmo- + G. metron, measure, + skopeo, to view]

sphygmo-oscillometer (sfig′mo-os′i-lom′e-ter)
An instrument resembling an aneroid sphygmomanometer used in the measurement of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [sphygmo- + L. oscillo, to swing, + G. metron, measure]

sphygmopalpation (sfig′mo-pal-pa′shun)
Feeling the pulse. [sphygmo- + L. palpatio, palpation]

sphygmophone (sfig′mo-fon)
An instrument by which a sound is produced with each beat of the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. phone, sound]

sphygmoscope (sfig′mo-skop)
An instrument by which the pulse beats are made visible by causing fluid to rise in a glass tube, by means of a mirror projecting a beam of light, or simply by a moving lever as in the sphygmograph. [sphygmo- + G. skopeo, to view] Bishop s. an instrument for measuring the blood pressure, with special reference to diastolic pressure; the tube is filled with a solution of cadmium borotungstate, and the scale is the reverse of that of a mercurial manometer, the pressure being made directly by the weight of the liquid and not by compressed air.

sphygmoscopy (sfig-mos′ko-pe)
Examination of the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. skopeo, to view]

sphygmosystole (sfig-mo-sis′to-le)
Obsolete term for that segment of the pulse wave corresponding to the cardiac systole. [sphygmo- + G. systole, a contracting]

sphygmotonograph (sfig-mo-to′no-graf)
An instrument for recording graphically both the pulse and the blood pressure. [sphygmo- + G. tonos, tension, + grapho, to write]

sphygmotonometer (sfig-mo-to-nom′e-ter)
An instrument, like the sphygmotonograph, for determining the degree of blood pressure. [sphygmo- + G. tonos, tension, + metron, measure]

sphygmoviscosimetry (sfig-mo-vis-ko-sim′e-tre)
Measurement of the pressure and the viscosity of the blood.

spica, pl .spicae (spi′ka, spi′ke)
See bandage. [L. a point, an ear of grain]

spicula (spik′u-la)
Plural of spiculum. [L.]

spicular (spik′u-lar)
Relating to or having spicules.

spicule (spik′ul)
1. A small needle-shaped body. 2. Accessory reproductive structure in male nematodes; useful in identification of species. [L. spiculum, dim. of spica, or spicum, a point]

spiculum, pl .spicula (spik′u-lum, -la)
A spicule or small spike. [L.]

spider (spi′der)
1. An arthropod of the order Araneida (subclass Arachnida) characterized by four pairs of legs; a cephalothorax; a globose, smooth abdomen; and a complex of web-spinning spinnerets. Among the venomous spiders found in the New World are the black widow s., Latrodectus mactans; red-legged widow s., Latrodectus bishopi; pruning s., or Peruvian tarantula, Glyptocranium gasteracanthoides; Chilean brown s., Loxosceles laeta; Peruvian brown s., Loxosceles rufiper; brown recluse s. of North America, Loxosceles reclusus. 2. An obstructive growth in the teat of a cow. [O. E. spinnan, to spin] arterial s. SYN: s. angioma. vascular s. SYN: s. angioma.

spider-burst (spi′der-berst)
Radiating dull red capillary lines on the skin of the leg, usually without any visible or palpable varicose veins, but nevertheless due to deep-seated venous dilation. [spiderweb + sunburst]

Otto, German gynecologist, 1830–1881. See S. criteria, under criterion.

Adrian van der. See Spigelius.

Eduard, Austrian dermatologist, 1860–1908. See cutaneous pseudolymphoma, S.-Fendt sarcoid.

Walter, Munich neurologist, 1879–1935. See S. acute swelling, S.-Stock disease, S.-Vogt disease.

spigelian (spi-je′le-an)
Relating to or described by Spigelius.

Adrian (van der Spieghel), Flemish anatomist in Padua, 1578–1625. See spigelian hernia, S. line, S. lobe.

1. A brief electrical event of 3–25 ms that gives the appearance in the electroencephalogram of a rising and falling vertical line. 2. In electrophoresis, a sharply angled upward deflection on a densitometric tracing. ponto-geniculo-occipital s. EEG spikes during REM sleep that arise in the pons and pass to the lateral geniculate body and occipital cortex.

An overflow; a scattering of fluid or finely divided matter. cellular s. a dissemination of cells through the lymph or blood, thereby resulting in metastases or implantation of foreign tissue in any part or organ.

William G., U. S. neurologist, 1863–1940. See Frazier-S. operation.

A groove or channel through which food may pass from the occlusal surfaces of teeth during the masticatory process. SYN: sluiceway.

spilus (spi′lus)
SYN: nevus s.. [Mod. L. fr. G. spilos, a spot]

See spino-.

spina, gen. and pl. spinae (spi′na, -ne) [TA]
SYN: spine (1) . [L. a thorn, the backbone, spine] s. angularis SYN: spine of sphenoid bone. s. bifida embryologic failure of fusion of one or more vertebral arches; subtypes of s. bifida are based on degree and pattern of malformation associated with neuroectoderm involvement. SYN: hydrocele spinalis, schistorrhachis. s. bifida aperta SYN: s. bifida cystica. s. bifida cystica s. bifida associated with a meningeal cyst (meningocele) or a cyst containing both meninges and spinal cord (meningomyelocele) or only spinal cord (myelocele). SYN: s. bifida aperta, s. bifida manifesta. s. bifida manifesta SYN: s. bifida cystica. s. bifida occulta s. bifida in which there is a spinal defect, but no protrusion of the cord or its membrane, although there is often some abnormality in their development. s. dorsalis SYN: vertebral column. s. frontalis s, nasalis ossis frontalis. spinae geniorum inferior et superior SYN: mental spine. s. helicis [TA] SYN: spine of helix. s. iliaca anterior inferior [TA] SYN: anterior inferior iliac spine. s. iliaca anterior superior [TA] SYN: anterior superior iliac spine. s. iliaca posterior inferior [TA] SYN: posterior inferior iliac spine. s. iliaca posterior superior [TA] SYN: posterior superior iliac spine. s. ischiadica [TA] SYN: ischial spine. s. meatus SYN: suprameatal spine. s. mentalis (inferior et superior) [TA] SYN: mental spine. s. nasalis anterior corporis maxillae [TA] SYN: anterior nasal spine of maxilla. s. nasalis ossis frontalis [TA] SYN: nasal spine of frontal bone. s. nasalis posterior laminae horizontalis ossis palatini [TA] SYN: posterior nasal spine of horizontal plate of palatine bone. s. ossis sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: spine of sphenoid bone. spinae palatinae [TA] SYN: palatine spines, under spine. s. peronealis SYN: fibular trochlea of calcaneus. s. pubis SYN: pubic tubercle. s. scapulae [TA] SYN: spine of scapula. s. suprameatalis suprameatal spine. s. suprameatica SYN: suprameatal spine. s. trochlearis [TA] SYN: trochlear spine. s. tympanica major [TA] SYN: greater tympanic spine. s. tympanica minor [TA] SYN: lesser tympanic spine.

spinal (spi′nal)
1. Relating to any spine or spinous process. 2. Relating to the vertebral column. SYN: rachial, rachidial, rachidian, spinalis. [L. spinalis]

spinalis (spi-na′lis)
SYN: spinal. [L.]

spinate (spi′nat)
Spined; having spines.

spindle (spin′dl)
In anatomy and pathology, any fusiform cell or structure. [A.S.] aortic s. a fusiform dilation of the aorta immediately beyond the isthmus. SYN: His s.. central s. a central group of microtubules (continuous fibers) that course uninterrupted, between the asters, in contrast to the microtubules attached to the individual chromosomes (s. fibers). cleavage s. the s. formed during the cleavage of a zygote or its blastomeres. His s. SYN: aortic s.. Krukenberg s. a vertical fusiform area of melanin pigmentation on the posterior surface of the central cornea. Kühne s. SYN: neuromuscular s.. mitotic s. the fusiform figure characteristic of a dividing cell; it consists of microtubules (s. fibers), some of which become attached to each chromosome at its centromere and are involved in chromosomal movement; other microtubules (continuous fibers) pass from pole to pole. SYN: nuclear s.. muscle s. SYN: neuromuscular s.. neuromuscular s. a fusiform end organ in skeletal muscle in which afferent and a few efferent nerve fibers terminate; it contains from 3–10 striated muscle fibers (intrafusal fibers) that are much smaller than the ordinary muscle fibers, are separated from them by a capsule that encloses the organ, and are innervated by the thin axon of a gamma motoneuron (gamma motor fiber); the sensory endings that occur on the intrafusal fibers are either annulospiral or flower spray endings; this sensory end organ is particularly sensitive to passive stretch of the muscle in which it is enclosed. SYN: Kühne s., muscle s.. neurotendinous s. SYN: Golgi tendon organ. nuclear s. SYN: mitotic s.. sleep s. the electroencephalographic record of 14-per-second bursts of wave frequency seen on EEG examination.

spine (spin) [TA]
1. A short, sharp, thornlike process of bone; a spinous process. SYN: spina [TA] . 2. SYN: vertebral column. [L. spina] alar s. SYN: s. of sphenoid bone. angular s. SYN: s. of sphenoid bone. anterior inferior iliac s. [TA] s. on the anterior border of the ilium between the anterior superior iliac s. and the acetabulum; site of origin for the direct head of the rectus femoris muscle. SYN: spina iliaca anterior inferior [TA] . anterior nasal s. (ANS) SYN: anterior nasal s. of maxilla. anterior nasal s. of maxilla [TA] a pointed projection at the anterior extremity of the intermaxillary suture; the tip, as seen on a lateral cephalometric radiograph, is used as a cephalometric landmark. SYN: spina nasalis anterior corporis maxillae [TA] , anterior nasal s.. anterior superior iliac s. [TA] the anterior extremity of the iliac crest, which provides attachment for the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle. SYN: spina iliaca anterior superior [TA] . bamboo s. in radiology, the appearance of the thoracic or lumbar s. with ankylosing spondylitis. cleft s. See spina bifida. dendritic spines variably long excrescences of nerve cell dendrites, varying in shape from small knobs to thornlike or filamentous processes, usually more numerous on distal dendrite arborizations than on the proximal part of dendritic trunks; they are a preferential site of synaptic axodendritic contact; sparse or absent in some types of nerve cells (motor neurons, the large cells of the globus pallidus, stellate cells of the cerebral cortex), exceedingly numerous in others such as the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. SYN: dendritic thorns, gemmule (2) . dorsal s. SYN: vertebral column. greater tympanic s. [TA] the anterior edge of the tympanic notch (of Rivinus). SYN: spina tympanica major [TA] . s. of helix [TA] an anteriorly directed s. at the extremity of the crus of the helix of the auricle. SYN: spina helicis [TA] , apophysis helicis. hemal s. the middle point on the underside of the hemal arch of a vertebra in lower vertebrates; considered by some to be represented by the sternum in humans. Henle s. SYN: suprameatal s.. iliac s. anterior inferior iliac s., anterior superior iliac s., posterior inferior iliac s., posterior superior iliac s.. ischiadic s. SYN: ischial s.. ischial s. [TA] a pointed process from the posterior border of the ischium on a level with the lower border of the acetabulum; gives attachment to the coccygeus muscle and sacrospinous ligament; the pudendal nerve passes dorsal to the ischial s., which is palpable per vagina or rectum, and thus is used as a target for the needle tip in administering a pudendal nerve block. SYN: spina ischiadica [TA] , ischiadic s., sciatic s.. lesser tympanic s. [TA] the posterior edge of the tympanic notch (of Rivinus). SYN: spina tympanica minor [TA] . meatal s. SYN: suprameatal s.. mental s. [TA] a slight projection, sometimes two (superior and inferior), in the middle line of the posterior surface of the body of the mandible, giving attachment to the geniohyoid muscle (below) and the genioglossus (above). SYN: spina mentalis (inferior et superior) [TA] , genial tubercle, spinae geniorum inferior et superior. nasal s. of frontal bone [TA] a projection from the center of the nasal part of the frontal bone, which lies between and articulates with the nasal bones and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. SYN: spina nasalis ossis frontalis [TA] . neural s. the middle point of the neural arch of the typical vertebra, represented by the spinous process. palatine spines [TA] the longitudinal ridges along the palatine grooves on the inferior surface of the palatine process of the maxilla. SYN: spinae palatinae [TA] . poker s. stiff s. resulting from widespread joint immobility or overwhelming muscle spasm as might be evoked by an osteomyelitis of a vertebra or a rheumatoid spondylitis. posterior inferior iliac s. [TA] s. at the inferior end of the posterior border of the ilium between the posterior superior iliac s. and the greater sciatic notch; it forms the upper margin of the latter. SYN: spina iliaca posterior inferior [TA] . posterior nasal s. of horizontal plate of palatine bone [TA] the sharp posterior extremity of the nasal crest of the hard palate. SYN: spina nasalis posterior laminae horizontalis ossis palatini [TA] , posterior palatine s.. posterior palatine s. SYN: posterior nasal s. of horizontal plate of palatine bone. posterior superior iliac s. [TA] the posterior extremity of the iliac crest, the uppermost point of attachment of the sacrotuberous and posterior sacroiliac ligaments; a readily apparent dimple occurs in the skin overlying the posterior superior iliac s. which is clinically useful as an indication of the level of the S2 vertebra, the level of the inferior limit of the subarachnoid space. SYN: spina iliaca posterior superior [TA] . pubic s. SYN: pubic tubercle. s. of scapula [TA] the prominent triangular ridge on the dorsal aspect of the scapula, providing attachment for the trapezius and deltoid muscles and separating the supra- and infraspinous fossae; the acromion is a lateral extension from the s.. SYN: spina scapulae [TA] . sciatic s. SYN: ischial s.. sphenoidal s. SYN: s. of sphenoid bone. s. of sphenoid bone [TA] a posterior and downward projection from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone on either side, located posterolateral to the foramen spinosum, so named for its proximity to the sphenoidal s.; gives attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament. SYN: processus spinosus [TA] , spina ossis sphenoidalis [TA] , alar s., angular s., sphenoidal s., spina angularis, spinous process of sphenoid. Spix s. SYN: lingula of mandible. suprameatal s. [TA] small bony prominence anterior to the supramastoid pit at the posterosuperior margin of the bony external acoustic meatus. SYN: spina suprameatalis&star, Henle s., meatal s., spina meatus, spina suprameatica. thoracic s. the thoracic region of the vertebral column; the thoracic vertebrae [T1–T12] as a whole; that part of the vertebral column which enters into the formation of the thorax. trochlear s. [TA] a spicule of bone arising from the edge of the trochlear fovea, giving attachment to the pulley of the superior oblique muscle of the eyeball. SYN: spina trochlearis [TA] .

Pier G., Italian gynecologist, 1862–1929. See S. operation.

spinnbarkeit (spin′bahr-kit)
The stringy, elastic character of cervical mucus during the ovulatory period; in contrast to other times in the menstrual cycle, cervical secretions at midcycle are clear, abundant, and of low viscosity. [Ger. S., viscosity, ability to form a thread]

spino-, spin-
1. The spine. 2. Spinous. [L. spina]

spinobulbar (spi′no-bul′bar)
SYN: bulbospinal.

spinocerebellum (spi′no-sar-e-bel′um) [TA]
SYN: paleocerebellum.

spinocollicular (spi′no-col-ik′u-lar)
SYN: spinotectal.

spinocostalis (spi′no-kos-ta′lis)
The superior and inferior serratus posterior muscles regarded as one. [L.]

spinoglenoid (spi′no-gle′noyd)
Relating to the spine and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.


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