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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


spinomuscular (spi′no-mus′ku-lar)
Relating to the spinal cord and the muscles supplied by the spinal nerves.

spinoneural (spi-no-noo′ral)
Relating to the spinal cord and the nerves given off from it.

spinose (spi′nos)
SYN: spinous.

spinotectal (spi-no-tek′tal)
Passing upward from the spinal cord to the tectum. SYN: spinocollicular.

spinotransversarius (spi′no-trans-ver-sar′e-us)
The splenius and obliquus capitis major muscles regarded as one.

spinous (spi′nus)
Relating to, shaped like, or having a spine or spines. SYN: spinose.

spintharicon (spin-thar′i-kon)
A spark chamber device used to record the distribution of low energy emissions from radiopharmaceuticals administered internally, especially for thyroid scans using iodine-125. [G. spinther, spark]

spinthariscope (spin-thar′i-skop)
SYN: scintillation counter. [G. spinther, spark, + skopeo, to view]

spiperone (spip′e-ron)
An antipsychotic.

See spiro-.

spiracle (spi′ra-kl, spir-)
An aperture for breathing in arthropods and in sharks and related fishes. [L. spiraculum, fr. spiro, to breathe]

spiradenoma (spi-rad-e-no′ma)
A benign tumor of sweat glands. [G. speira, coil, + adenoma] eccrine s. a typically painful benign skin tumor composed of two cell types derived from the secretory part of eccrine sweat glands.

spiral (spi′ral)
1. Coiled; winding around a center like a watch spring; winding and ascending like a wire spring. 2. A structure in the shape of a coil. [Mediev. L. spiralis, fr. G. speira, a coil] Curschmann spirals spirally twisted masses of mucus occurring in the sputum in bronchial asthma. s. of Tillaux an imaginary line connecting the insertions of the recti muscles of the eye.

spiramycin (spir-a-mi′sin)
An antibiotic substance (almost identical to leucomycin) produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens; an antimicrobial agent.

spirem, spireme (spi′rem, spi′rem)
Term formerly applied to the first stage of mitosis or meiosis (prophase) when extended chromosome filaments have the appearance of a loose ball of yarn, on the incorrect supposition that the filaments were continuous and later broke apart to form individual chromosomes. [G. speirema, a coil 1]

spirilla (spi-ril′a)
Plural of spirillum.

Spirillaceae (spi-ri-la′se-e)
A family of usually motile, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (order Pseudomonadales) containing Gram-negative, rod-shaped cells which are curved or spirally twisted. Motile cells contain a single polar flagellum or a tuft of polar flagella. These organisms are primarily water forms, although some are parasitic or pathogenic on humans and other higher animals. The type genus is Spirillum. See Spirillum.

spirillar (spi-ril′ar)
S-shaped; referring to a bacterial cell with an S shape.

spirillicidal (spi-ril-i-si′dal)
Destructive to spirilla or spirochetes. [spirilla + L. caedo, to kill]

spirillosis (spi′ri-lo′sis)
Any disease caused by the presence of spirilla in the blood or tissues.

Spirillum (spi-ril′um)
A genus of large (1.4–1.7 μm in diameter), rigid, helical, Gram-negative bacteria (family Spirillaceae) that are motile by means of bipolar fascicles of flagella. These freshwater organisms are obligately microaerophilic and chemoorganotrophic, possessing a strictly respiratory metabolism; they neither oxidize nor ferment carbohydrates. The type species is S. volutans. [Mod. L. dim. of L. spira, coil, fr. G. speira] S. minus a species of uncertain taxonomic classification that causes a form of rat-bite fever (sodoku). This species has never been cultured. S. volutans a species found in fresh water; it is the type species of S..

spirillum, pl .spirilla (spi-ril′um, -a)
A member of the genus S.. Obermeier s. SYN: Borrelia recurrentis. Vincent s. the s. or spirochete found in association with Vincent bacillus. Fusobacterium nucleatum is frequently the only bacillus isolated.

spirit (spir′it)
1. An alcoholic liquor stronger than wine, obtained by distillation. 2. Any distilled liquid. 3. An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution of volatile substances; some spirits are used as flavoring agents, others have medicinal value. SYN: spiritus. [L. spiritus, a breathing, life soul, fr. spiro, to breathe] ardent spirits brandy, whiskey, and other forms of distilled alcoholic liquors. aromatic ammonia s. a hydroalcoholic solution containing approximately 2% ammonia and 4% ammonium carbonate and the aromatics: lemon oil, lavender oil, and myristica oil. Used mainly by inhalation to produce reflex stimulation in persons who have fainted or are at risk of syncope. SYN: sal volatile, smelling salts. industrial methylated s., methylated s. SYN: denatured alcohol. neutral spirits spirits distilled from suitable raw materials, are 95% ethanol (v/v), that is, at least 190 proof when distilled. Used for blending with straight whiskey and for making gin, cordials, liqueurs, and vodka. SEE ALSO: alcohol. proof s. dilute alcohol, specific gravity 0.920, containing 49.5% by weight (57.27% by volume) of C2H5OH at 15.56°C. Originally in Great Britain it was the weakest alcohol that would permit ignition of gunpowder moistened with it. British proof s. has a specific gravity of 0.9198 and contains 49.2% C2H5OH by weight, or 57.1% by volume at the temperature of 10.56°C. pyroligneous s., pyroxylic s. SYN: methyl alcohol. rectified s. SYN: alcohol (2) . wine s. SYN: alcohol (2) . wood s. SYN: methyl alcohol.

spirituous (spir′i-choo-us)
Containing alcohol in large amount, denoting liquors.

spiritus, gen. and pl. spiritus (spir′i-tus)
SYN: spirit. [L.]

spiro-, spir-
1. Coil, coil-shaped. [G. speira] 2. Breathing. [L. spiro, to breathe]

Spirocerca lupi (spi-ro-ser′ka loo′pi)
The esophageal worm of dogs and other carnivores, a red spiruroid nematode that occurs in nodules in the wall of the esophagus, stomach, and aorta of dogs, foxes, and wolves; intermediate hosts are various coprophagic beetles. Clinical symptoms occur only in very heavy infections, which are associated with esophageal carcinomata in dogs and with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy. [L., fr. G. speira, coil, + G. kerkos, tail; L. lupus, wolf]

Spirochaeta (spi′ro-ke′ta)
A genus of motile bacteria (order Spirochaetales) containing presumably Gram-negative, flexible, undulating, spiral-shaped rods that may or may not possess flagelliform, tapering ends. The protoplast is spirally wound around an axial filament. No obvious periplast membrane or cross-striations occur. These organisms are motile by means of a creeping motion over the surfaces of supporting objects. They are not parasitic but are found free-living in fresh or sea water slime; they are commonly found in sewage and foul waters. At present the genus contains five species. The type species is S. plicatilis. [Mod. L. fr. G. speira, a coil, + chaite, hair] S. obermeieri SYN: Borrelia recurrentis. S. plicatilis a very large species (sometimes as long as 200 μm) of bacteria; it is nonparasitic, so far as known; it is the type species of the genus S..

Spirochaetaceae (spi-ro-ke-ta′se-e)
A family of bacteria (order Spirochaetales) consisting of coarse, spiral cells, 30–50 μm in length and possessing definite protoplasmic structures. These organisms occur in stagnant, fresh, or salt water and in the intestinal tracts of bivalve molluscs. The type genus is Spirochaeta. See Spirochaeta.

Spirochaetales (spi-ro-ke-ta′lez)
An order of bacteria containing slender, flexuous cells, 6–500 μm in length, in the form of spirals with at least one complete turn. Some species may have an axial filament, a lateral crista, or ridge, or transverse striations. All of these organisms are motile, whirling or spinning about the long axis, thus driving the organism forward or backward. Free-living, saprophytic, and parasitic forms occur. The type family is Spirochaetaceae.

spirochetal (spi-ro-ke′tal)
Relating to spirochetes, especially to infection with such organisms.

spirochete (spi′ro-ket)
A vernacular term used to refer to any organism resembling a Leptospira, Spirochaeta, or Treponema cell.

spirochetemia (spi′ro-ke-te′me-a)
Presence of spirochetes in the blood. [spirochete + G. haima, blood]

spirocheticide (spi-ro-ke′ti-sid)
An agent destructive to spirochetes. [spirochete + L. caedo, to kill]

spirochetolysis (spi′ro-ke-tol′i-sis)
Destruction of spirochetes, as by chemotherapy or by specific antibodies. [spirochete + G. lysis, a loosening]

spirochetosis (spi′ro-ke-to′sis)
Any disease caused by a spirochete. bronchopulmonary s. SYN: hemorrhagic bronchitis.

spirochetotic (spi′ro-ke-tot′ik)
Relating to or marked by spirochetosis.

spirogram (spi′ro-gram)
The tracing made by the spirograph.

spirograph (spi′ro-graf)
A device for representing graphically the depth and rapidity of respiratory movements. [L. spiro, to breathe, + G. grapho, to write]

spiro-index (spi′ro-in-deks)
Vital capacity divided by the height of the individual.

spirometer (spi-rom′e-ter)
In clinical practice and research, any device used for measuring flows and volumes, inspired and expired by the lungs, thus assessing pulmonary function. Considered the most basic measurement device of pulmonary function. [L. spiro, to breathe, + G. metron, measure] chain-compensated s. a Tissot s. in which compensation for change in bell buoyancy is accomplished automatically by a suspending chain of correct mass per unit length. Krogh s. a water-sealed s. in which the bell is a large, shallow, rectangular box rotating slightly around a horizontal axis extending along one edge, with an arm extending beyond that axis to a counterbalancing weight; comparable with a wedge s.. Tissot s. a very large water-sealed s. designed for accumulating expired gas over a long period of time; the counterbalancing of the bell (almost frictionless) is compensated for by the bell's change in buoyancy as it emerges from the water, keeping the contained gas precisely at ambient atmospheric pressure. wedge s. a waterless s. constructed of two large rectangular plates with edges connected by accordion-pleated rubber so that large changes in volume are accommodated by small changes in the acute angle of the wedge-shaped interior, sensed by an electrical transducer; designed for rapid response by reducing the acceleration of the moving parts.

Spirometra (spi-ro-me′tra)
A genus of pseudophyllid tapeworms. [G. speira, coil, + metra, womb (uterus)] S. mansoni a species of pseudophyllid tapeworms of wild and feral cats, the larval form of which (sparganum) may survive in human tissues; it has been commonly found in humans in the Orient, but is also reported from widely scattered areas elsewhere; infection of humans with the sparganum occurs from active migration of the larva from freshly split infected frogs used as a poultice for wounds, sore eyes (as in ocular sparganosis), bruises, or ulcerations; it is also likely that humans may be infected with sparganum larvae from eating any vertebrate harboring these plerocercoids. SYN: Diphyllobothrium linguloides, Diphyllobothrium mansoni. S. mansonoides a species of pseudophyllid tapeworms from North America, whose larva (sparganum) may be a cause of sparganosis of humans in Florida and the Gulf of Mexico states. SYN: Diphyllobothrium mansonoides.

spirometry (spi-rom′e-tre)
Making pulmonary measurements with a spirometer. forced s. inspiration and more particularly expiration in which volume is plotted against time, giving a measure of pulmonary function. The amount of air expelled in one second (FEV) is often considered the single most important measurement in clinical respiratory physiology.

spironolactone (spi′ro-no-lak′ton)
A diuretic agent that blocks the renal tubular actions of aldosterone. It increases the urinary excretion of sodium and chloride, decreases the excretion of potassium and ammonium, and reduces the titratable acidity of the urine; most effectively used to potentiate the natriuretic action and reduce the potassium excretion produced by other diuretics.

spiroscope (spi′ro-skop)
A device for measuring the air capacity of the lungs. [L. spiro, to breathe, + G. skopeo, to view]

spirostan (spi′ro-stan)
A 16,22:22,26-diepoxycholestane.

spiruroid (spi′roo-royd)
Common name for a member of the superfamily Spiruroidea.

Spiruroidea (spi-roo-roy′de-a)
A superfamily of arthropod-borne nematode parasites of the alimentary tract, respiratory system, or orbital, nasal, or oral cavities of vertebrates. They are common and frequently pathogenic parasites of domestic mammals and birds, producing ulcerations from penetration of the anterior end of these spiny worms through the alimentary lining; includes the families Acuariidae, Gnathostomatidae, Rictulariidae, Seuratidae, Physalopteridae, Spiruridae, and Thelaziidae. [G. speiroeides, spiral]

spissitude (spis′i-tood)
The state of being inspissated; the condition of a fluid thickened almost to a solid by evaporation or inspissation. [L. spissitudo, fr. spissus, thick]

SYN: expectoration (2) .

spittle (spit′l)
SYN: saliva. [A.S. spatl]

Sophie, 20th century U.S. pathologist. See S. nevus.

Alexander, Austrian anatomist, 1868–1943. See S. theory.

Edward C., U.S. neurologist, 1852–1914. See S. nucleus, S. marginal tract, S. marginal zone, column of S.-Lissauer.

Johann B., German anatomist, 1781–1826. See S. spine.

Abbreviation for sound pressure level.

See splanchno-.

splanchnapophysial, splanchnapophyseal (splangk′na-po-fiz′e-al)
Relating to a splanchnapophysis.

splanchnapophysis (splangk′na-pof′i-sis)
An apophysis of the typical vertebra, on the side opposite to the neural apophysis, or any bony process, giving attachment to a viscus or part of the alimentary tract. [splanchn- + G. apophysis, offshoot]

splanchnectopia (splangk-nek-to′pe-a)
Displacement of any of the viscera. [splanchn- + G. ektopos, out of place]

splanchnesthesia (splangk-nes-the′ze-a)
SYN: visceral sense. [splanch- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

splanchnic (splangk′nik)
SYN: visceral.

splanchnicectomy (splangk-ni-sek′to-me)
Resection of the splanchnic nerves and usually of the celiac ganglion as well. [splanchni- + G. ektome, excision]

splanchnicotomy (splangk-ni-kot′o-me)
Section of a splanchnic nerve or nerves, a surgical procedure formerly used in the treatment of hypertension. [splanchni- + G. tome, incision]

splanchno-, splanchn-, splanchni-
The viscera. SEE ALSO: viscero-. [G. splanchnon, viscus]

splanchnocele (splangk′no-sel)
1. The primitive body cavity or celom in the embryo. [G. koilos, hollow] 2. Hernia of any of the abdominal viscera. [G. kele, hernia]

splanchnocranium (splangk-no-kra′ne-um)
SYN: viscerocranium.

splanchnography (splangk-nog′ra-fe)
A treatise on or description of the viscera. [splanchno- + G. grapho, to write]

splanchnolith (splangk′no-lith)
An intestinal calculus. [splanchno- + G. lithos, stone]


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