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Medical Dictionary


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staphylococcosis, pl .staphylococcoses (staf′i-lo-kok-o′sis, -sez)
Infection by species of the bacterium Staphylococcus.

Staphylococcus (staf′i-lo-kok′us)
A genus of nonmotile, nonspore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Micrococcaceae) containing Gram-positive, spherical cells, 0.5–1.5 μm in diameter, which divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. These organisms are chemoorganotrophic, and their metabolism is respiratory and fermentative. Under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid is produced from glucose; under aerobic conditions, acetic acid and small amounts of CO2 are produced. Coagulase-positive strains produce a variety of toxins and are therefore potentially pathogenic and may cause food poisoning. These organisms are usually susceptible to antibiotics such as the β-lactam and macrolide antibiotics, tetracyclines, novobiocin, and chloramphenicol but are resistant to polymyxin and polyenes. They are susceptible to antibacterials such as phenols and their derivatives, surface-active compounds, salicylanilides, carbanilides, and halogens (chlorine and iodine) and their derivatives, such as chloramines and iodophors. They are found on the skin, in skin glands, on the nasal and other mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals, and in various food products. The type species is S. aureus. [staphylo- + G. kokkos, a berry] S. aureus a common species found especially on nasal mucous membrane and skin (hair follicles); bacterial species that produces exotoxins including those that cause toxic shock syndrome, with resulting skin rash, and renal, hepatic, and central nervous system disease, and an enterotoxin associated with food poisoning; it causes furunculosis, cellulitis, pyemia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, suppuration of wounds, other infections; also a cause of infection in burn patients; humans are the chief reservoir. The type species of the genus S.. SYN: S. pyogenes aureus. S. epidermidis a species of bacteria, the most common of the coagulase-negative S. group. S. haemolyticus coagulase-negative s. indigenous to human and mammalian hosts. S. hominis coagulase-negative s. indigenous to human and mammalian hosts. S. pyogenes albus a name formerly applied to the organisms that are now regarded as the mutants of S. aureus that form white colonies. S. pyogenes aureus SYN: S. aureus. S. saprophyticus a coagulase negative species that causes urinary tract infections. S. simulans coagulase-negative s. indigenous to human and mammalian hosts. S. species, coagulase-negative includes a group of species present as normal flora of human skin, respiratory, and mucous membrane surfaces. Although a normal commensal, strains are prominent causes of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with implanted intravenous access devices; some strains are abscess forming and cause diverse infections including sinusitis, wound infections, and osteomyelitis.

staphylococcus, pl .staphylococci (staf′i-lo-kok′us, kok′si)
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus S..

staphylodialysis (staf′i-lo-di-al′i-sis)
SYN: uvuloptosis. [staphylo- + G. dialysis, a separation]

staphylohemia (staf′i-lo-he′me-a)
Obsolete term for staphylococcemia.

staphylohemolysin (staf′i-lo-he-mol′i-sin)
A mixture of hemolysins (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), included in staphylococcal exotoxin; the α hemolysin has a marked effect on vascular muscle.

staphylokinase (staf′i-lo-ki′nas)
A microbial metalloenzyme from Staphylococcus aureus, with action similar to that of urokinase and streptokinase, that can convert plasminogen to plasmin but requires Ca2+; separated in forms A, B, and C.

staphylolysin (staf-i-lol′i-sin)
1. A hemolysin elaborated by a staphylococcus. 2. An antibody causing lysis of staphylococci. SYN: staphylococcolysin.

staphyloma (staf-i-lo′ma)
A bulging of the cornea or sclera containing uveal tissue. [staphylo- + G. -oma, tumor] anterior s. a bulging near the anterior pole of the eyeball. SYN: corneal s.. anular s. a s. extending around the periphery of the cornea. ciliary s. scleral s. occurring in the region of the ciliary body. corneal s. SYN: anterior s.. equatorial s. a s. occurring in the area of exit of the vortex veins. SYN: scleral s.. intercalary s. a scleral s. occurring between the insertion of the ciliary body and the root of the iris. posterior s. a bulging near the posterior pole of the eyeball due to degenerative changes in severe myopia. SYN: Scarpa s., sclerochoroiditis posterior. Scarpa s. SYN: posterior s.. scleral s. SYN: equatorial s.. uveal s. seldom-used term for protrusion of the iris through a rupture of the sclera.

staphylomatous (staf-i-lo′ma-tus)
Relating to or marked by staphyloma.

staphylopharyngorrhaphy (staf′i-lo-far-in-gor′a-fe)
Surgical repair of defects in the uvula or soft palate and the pharynx. SYN: palatopharyngorrhaphy. [staphylo- + pharynx + G. rhaphe, suture]

staphyloplasty (staf′i-lo-plas-te)
SYN: palatoplasty. [staphylo- + G. plasso, to form]

staphyloptosis (staf′i-lop-to′sis)
SYN: uvuloptosis. [staphylo- + G. ptosis, a falling]

staphylorrhaphy (staf-i-lor′a-fe)
SYN: palatorrhaphy. [staphylo- + G. rhaphe, suture]

staphylotoxin (staf′i-lo-tok′sin)
The toxin elaborated by any species of Staphylococcus. SEE ALSO: staphylohemolysin. [staphylo- + G. toxikon, poison]

stapling (stap′ling)
Use of a s. device that unites two tissues, such as the two ends of bowel, by applying a row or circle of staples. gastric s. partitioning of the stomach by rows of staples; used to treat severe obesity.

star (star)
Any s.-shaped structure. SEE ALSO: aster, astrosphere, stella, stellula. [A.S. steorra] daughter s. one of the figures forming the diaster. SYN: polar s.. lens stars 1. SYN: radii of lens, under radius. 2. congenital cataracts with opacities along the suture lines of the lens; may be anterior or posterior, or both. mother s. SYN: monaster. polar s. SYN: daughter s.. venous s. a small, red nodule formed by a dilated vein in the skin; caused by increased venous pressure. Verheyen stars SYN: venulae stellatae, under venula. Winslow stars SYN: stellulae winslowii, under stellula.

starch
A high molecular weight polysaccharide built up of d-glucose residues in α-1,4 linkage, differing from cellulose in the presence of α- rather than β-glucoside linkages, that exists in most plant tissues; converted into dextrin when subjected to the action of dry heat, and into dextrin and d-glucose by amylases and glucoamylases in saliva and pancreatic juice; used as a dusting powder, an emollient, and an ingredient in medicinal tablets, and is an important raw material for the manufacture of alcohol, acetone, n-butanol, lactic acid, citric acid, glycerine, and gluconic acid by fermentation; chief storage carbohydrate in most higher plants. SYN: amylum. [A.S. stearc, strong] animal s. SYN: glycogen. liver s. SYN: glycogen. moss s. SYN: lichenin. rice s. rice product used as a supplement in many media formulations used for the culture of intestinal protozoa ( e.g., Entamoeba histolytica). soluble s. a high molecular weight, water-soluble dextrin produced by the partial acid hydrolysis of s.; useful in iodimetry, as it gives an easily visible purple-black end point in the presence of free iodine.

starch-eating
SYN: amylophagia.

stare (star)
1. To look intently or fixedly. 2. An intent gaze. [A.S. starian]

Stargardt
Karl, German ophthalmologist, 1875–1927. See S. disease.

Starling
Ernest H., English physiologist, 1866–1927. See S. curve, S. hypothesis, S. law, S. reflex, Frank-S. curve.

Starr
Albert, U.S. physician, *1926. See S.-Edwards valve.

Starry
See Warthin-S. silver stain.

starter (start′er)
SYN: primer (1) .

starvation (star-va′shun)
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food.

starve
1. To suffer from lack of food. 2. To deprive of food so as to cause suffering or death. 3. Formerly, to die of cold. [A.S. steorfan, to die]

Stas
Jean-Servais, Belgian chemist, 1813–1891. See S.-Otto method.

stasimorphia (stas-i-mor′fe-a)
Dysmorphogenesis due to arrested development. [G. stasis, a standing still, + morphe, shape]

stasis, pl .stases (sta′sis, stas′is; -ez)
Stagnation of the blood or other fluids. [G. a standing still] intestinal s. SYN: enterostasis. papillary s. obsolete term for papilledema. pressure s. SYN: traumatic asphyxia. venous s. congestion and slowing of circulation in veins due to blockage by either obstruction or high pressure in the venous system, usually best seen in the feet and legs.

stat.
Abbreviation for L. statim, at once, immediately.

stat-
Prefix applied to electrical units in the CGS-electrostatic system to distinguish them from units in the CGS-electromagnetic system (prefix ab-) and those in the metric system or SI (no prefix).

-stat
An agent intended to keep something from changing, flowing, or moving. [G. states, stationary]

statampere (stat-am′per)
The electrostatic unit of current; the flow of 1 electrostatic unit of charge (1 statcoulomb) per second; equal to 3.335641 × 10−10 ampere. [G. statos, standing (stationary), + ampere]

statcoulomb (stat-koo′lom)
The electrostatic unit of charge, such that two objects, each carrying such a charge and separated (center to center) by 1 cm in a vacuum, will repel each other with a force of 1 dyne (or 10−5 newton); equal to 3.335641 × 10−10 coulomb. [G. statos, standing (stationary), + coulomb]

state (stat)
A condition, situation, or status. [L. status, condition, s.] absent s. SYN: dreamy s.. activated s. SYN: excited s.. anxiety tension s. a milder form of an anxiety disorder. See anxiety disorders, under disorder. apallic s. 1. diffuse, bilateral cerebral cortical degeneration caused by head injury, anoxia, or encephalitis; 2. a s. of persistent unresponsiveness, such as akinetic mutism, caused by brain damage. SEE ALSO: vegetative. SYN: apallic syndrome, apallic. carrier s. the s. of being a carrier of pathogenic organisms; i.e., one who is infected but free of disease. central excitatory s. the building up of excitatory influences produced by individual impulses finally causes firing of the next neuron. convulsive s. SYN: epilepsy. decerebrate s. SYN: decerebrate rigidity. decorticate s. SYN: decorticate rigidity. dreamy s. the semiconscious s. associated with an epileptic attack. SYN: absent s.. eunuchoid s. an imprecisely delineated condition of a male manifesting signs of inadequate androgen secretion during adolescent growth, regardless of the cause; usually referring to long legs, short trunk, and boyish beardless faces. excited s. the condition of an atom or molecule after absorbing energy, which may be the result of exposure to light, electricity, elevated temperature, or a chemical reaction; such activation may be a necessary prelude to a chemical reaction or to the emission of light. SYN: activated s.. ground s. the normal, inactivated s. of an atom from which, on activation, the singlet, triplet, and other excited states are derived. hypnoid s. a drowsy or sleeplike s. artificially induced by a hypnotist in individuals of higher than average levels of suggestibility. See hypnosis. hypnotic s. SYN: hypnosis. hypometabolic s. a rare s. of reduced metabolism with symptoms resembling hypothyroidism but with some tests for thyroid gland function normal; also used to describe the reduced metabolic activity seen in true hypothyroidism. imperfect s. in fungi, the s. or stage at which only asexual spores such as conidia are formed; most such species are classified as Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti). lacunar s. the presence of lacunes in the brain. One of the major factors underlying cerebrovascular disease; high correlation with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Symptomatic forms include pure motor hemiplegia and pure hemisensory syndrome; multiple lacunar infarcts are the most common cause of pseudobulbar palsy. local excitatory s. increased irritability of a nerve fiber or muscle fiber which is produced by a subthreshold electrical stimulus; summation of the stimuli may occur, resulting in a propagated impulse if two or more subliminal stimuli are applied in rapid succession. multiple ego states various psychological organizational states reflecting different personas or life experiences. perfect s. in fungi, that portion of the life cycle in which spores are formed after nuclear fusion. persistent vegetative s. (PVS) vegetative s. (q.v.) of prolonged duration (defined in different sources as duration of greater than 1 month, 1 year, or 2 years); usually permanent. SEE ALSO: vegetative. post–steady s. any period of time, particularly in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, after the steady-s. interval; e.g., when the rate of product formation is declining in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. pre–steady s. those conditions and the time interval prior to establishment of steady s.. refractory s. subnormal excitability immediately following a response to previous excitation; the s. is divided into absolute and relative phases. singlet s. a transient, excited s. of a molecule ( e.g., of chlorophyll, upon absorbing light) that can release energy as heat or light (fluorescence) and thus return to the initial (ground) s.; it may alternatively assume a slightly more stable, but still excited s. (triplet s.), with an electron still dislocated as before but with reversed spin. steady s. (ss, s) 1. a s. obtained in moderate muscular exercise, when the removal of lactic acid by oxidation keeps pace with its production, the oxygen supply being adequate, and the muscles do not go into debt for oxygen; 2. any condition in which the formation or introduction of substances just keeps pace with their destruction or removal so that all volumes, concentrations, pressures, and flows remain constant; 3. in enzyme kinetics, conditions such that the rate of change in the concentration of any enzyme species ( e.g., free enzyme or the enzyme-substrate binary complex) is zero or much less than the rate of formation of product. [often subscript s or ss] triplet s. a second excited s. of a molecule ( e.g., chlorophyll) produced by absorption of light to produce the singlet s., then loss of some energy (fluorescence) to arrive at the longer-lived triplet s. The molecule may remain sufficiently long in the triplet s. for a second activating light quantum to be effective in producing a “second triplet” s., obviously at still a higher level of excitation, hence reactivity. Alternatively, it may lose the triplet s. energy directly and return to the ground s.. twilight s. a condition of disordered consciousness during which actions may be performed without the conscious volition of the individual and with no memory of such actions. Cf.:somnambulic epilepsy. vegetative s. a clinical condition in which there is complete absence of awareness of the self and the environment, accompanied by sleep-wake cycles, but with either partial or complete preservation of hypothalamic and brainstem autonomic functions; may be transient or permanent. There are multiple causes, all involving the brain, including traumatic and nontraumatic injuries, metabolic and degenerative disorders, and congenital malformations.

statfarad (stat-fa′rad)
An electrostatic unit of capacitance, equal to 1.112650 × 10−12 farad.

stathenry (stat-hen′re)
An electrostatic unit of inductance, equal to 8.987552 × 1011 henry.

stathmokinesis (stath′mo-ki-ne′sis)
Condition of arrested mitosis after treatment with an agent, such as colchicine, which effectively alters the mitotic spindle to prevent typical rearrangement of the chromosomes preceding cell division. [G. stathmos, standing place, + kinesis, motion]

statim (sta′tim)
At once; immediately. [L.]

statins (stat′ins)
SYN: releasing factors.

station
The degree of descent of the presenting part of the fetus through the maternal pelvis, as measured in relation to the ischial spines of the maternal pelvis.

statistical significance
Statistical methods allow an estimate to be made of the probability of the observed degree of association between variables, and from this the s. can be expressed, commonly in terms of the P value.

statistics (sta-tis′tiks)
1. A collection of numerical values, items of information, or other facts which are numerically grouped into definite classes and subject to analysis, particularly analysis of the probability that the resulting empirical findings are due to chance. 2. The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. descriptive s. numerical values such as mean, median, and mode which describe the chief features of a group of scores, without regard to a larger population. inferential s. s. from which an inference is made about the nature of a population; the purpose is to generalize about the population, based upon data from the sample selected from the population. vital s. systematically tabulated information concerning births, marriages, divorces, separations, and deaths, based on the numbers of official registrations of these vital events; the branch of s. concerned with such data.

statoacoustic (stat′o-a-koo′stik)
Relating to equilibrium and hearing. SYN: vestibulocochlear (2) . [G. statos, standing, + akoustikos, acoustic]

statoconia, gen. statoconium (stat′o-ko′ne-a, -ne-um) [TA]
SYN: otoliths. [L. fr. G. statos, standing, konis, dust]

statokinetic (stat′o-ki-net′ik)
Pertaining to statokinetics.

statokinetics (stat′o-ki-net′iks)
The adjustment made by the body in motion to maintain stable equilibrium. [G. statos, standing, + kinesis, movement]

statoliths (stat′o-liths)
SYN: otoliths. [G. statos, standing, + lithos, stone]

statometer (sta-tom′e-ter)
SYN: exophthalmometer. [G. statos, standing, + metron, measure]

statosphere (stat′o-sfer)
SYN: centrosphere.

stature (statch′er)
The height of a person. [L. statura, fr. statuo, pp. statutus, to cause to stand]

status (sta′tus, stat′us)
A state or condition. [L. a way of standing] s. anginosus prolonged angina pectoris refractory to treatment. s. arthriticus obsolete term for gouty diathesis or predisposition. s. asthmaticus a condition of severe, prolonged asthma. s. choleraicus the cold stage of shock and depression in cholera, due to fluid and electrolyte loss and resulting hypovolemia; characterized by weak pulse, cold clammy skin, confusion, and depression. s. choreicus a very severe form of chorea in which the persistence of the movements prevents sleep and the patient may die of exhaustion. s. cribrosus a condition marked by dilations of the perivascular spaces in the brain. s. criticus a very severe and persistent form of crisis in tabes dorsalis. s. dysmyelinisatus SYN: Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. s. dysraphicus a condition in which there is failure of fusion of midline structures, especially failure of neural tube closure. SYN: arrhaphia. s. epilepticus repeated seizure or a seizure prolonged for at least 30 min; may be convulsive (tonic-clonic), nonconvulsive (absence or complex partial), partial (epilepsia partialis continuans), or subclinical (electrographic s. epilepticus). s. hemicranicus a condition in which attacks of migraine succeed each other with such short intervals as to be almost continuous. s. hypnoticus rarely used term for hypnosis. s. lacunaris a condition, occurring in cerebral arteriosclerosis, in which there are numerous small areas of degeneration in the brain. s. lymphaticus SYN: s. thymicolymphaticus. s. marmoratus a congenital condition due to maldevelopment of the corpus striatum associated with choreoathetosis, in which the striate nuclei have a marblelike appearance caused by altered myelination. nonreassuring fetal s. abnormal fetal heart rate or rhythm on electronic monitoring, suggesting fetal ischemia. SYN: fetal distress. performance s. a measure of a patient's well-being defined as the amount of normal activity the patient can maintain. s. praesens obsolete term for the part of the history of a case describing the condition of the patient at initial observation. s. spongiosus multiple fluid-filled spaces of microscopic size in the cerebral white matter; seen in certain hypoxic, toxic, and metabolic diseases. s. sternuens a state of continual sneezing. s. thymicolymphaticus obsolete term for a syndrome of supposed enlargement of the thymus and lymph nodes in infants and young children, formerly believed to be associated with unexplained sudden death; it was also erroneously believed that pressure of the thymus on the trachea might cause death during anesthesia. Prominence of these structures is now considered normal in young children, including those who have died suddenly without preceding illnesses that might lead to atrophy of lymphoid tissue. SEE ALSO: sudden infant death syndrome. SYN: s. lymphaticus, s. thymicus. s. thymicus SYN: s. thymicolymphaticus. s. vertiginosus a condition in which attacks of vertigo occur in rapid succession. SYN: chronic vertigo.

statvolt (stat′volt)
An electrostatic unit of potential or electromotive force, equal to 299.7925 V. [G. statos, standing (stationary), + volt]

Staub
Hans, Swiss internist, 1890–1967. See S.-Traugott effect, S.-Traugott phenomenon.

staurion (staw′re-on)
A craniometric point at the intersection of the median and transverse palatine sutures. [G. dim. of stauros, cross]

STD
Abbreviation for sexually transmitted disease.

steal (stel)
Diversion of blood via alternate routes or reversed flow, from one vascular bed to another, often causing symptoms in the organ from which blood flow has been diverted. [M.E. stelen, fr. A.S. stelan] coronary s. a s. caused by anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. iliac s. the decrease in flow in one common iliac artery when an occlusion of the other common iliac artery is released. renal-splanchnic s. diversion of blood from the right renal artery via the inferior adrenal branch into splanchnic collaterals distal to a stenosis of the celiac axis. subclavian s. obstruction of the subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery; blood flow through the vertebral artery is reversed and the subclavian artery thus “steals” cerebral blood, causing symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (subclavian s. syndrome); manifest during vigorous use of an upper extremity.

steapsin (ste-ap′sin)
SYN: triacylglycerol lipase.

stear-
See stearo-.

stearal (ste′a-ral)
Octadecanal(dehyde);the aldehyde of stearic acid. SYN: stearaldehyde.




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