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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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sternalgia (ster-nal′je-a)
Pain in the sternum or the sternal region. SYN: sternodynia. [stern- + G. algos, pain]

sternalis (ster-na′lis)
See s. (muscle).

Sternberg
George M., U.S. bacteriologist, 1838–1915. See S. cell, S.-Reed cell, Reed-S. cell.

sternebra, pl .sternebrae (ster′ne-bra, -bre)
One of the four segments of the primordial sternum of the embryo by the fusion of which the body of the adult sternum is formed. [Mod. L. fr. stern(um) + (vert)ebra]

sternen
Relating to the sternum independent of any other structures. [stern- + G. en, in]

sterno-, stern-
The sternum, sternal. [G. sternon, chest]

sternochondroscapularis (ster′no-kon′dro-skap-u-la′ris)
See sternochondroscapular muscle. [Mod. L.]

sternoclavicular (ster′no-kla-vik′u-lar)
Relating to the sternum and the clavicle.

sternoclavicularis (ster′no-kla-vik′u-la′ris)
See sternoclavicular muscle.

sternocleidal (ster′no-kli′dal)
Relating to the sternum and the clavicle. [sterno- + G. kleis, key (clavicle)]

sternocleidomastoid (ster′no-kli′do-mas′toyd)
Relating to sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process.

sternocleidomastoideus (ster′no-kli′do-mas-to-id′-e-us)
See sternocleidomastoid (muscle). [Mod. L.]

sternocostal (ster′no-kos′tal)
Relating to the sternum and the ribs. [L. costa, rib]

sternodynia (ster-no-din′e-a)
SYN: sternalgia. [sterno- + G. odyne, pain]

sternofascialis (ster′no-fash-e-a′lis)
See musculus s..

sternoglossal (ster-no-glos′al)
Denoting muscular fibers that occasionally pass from the sternohyoid muscle to join the hyoglossal muscle.

sternohyoideus (ster′no-hi-oyd′e-us)
See sternohyoid (muscle). [Mod. L.]

sternoid (ster′noyd)
Resembling the sternum. [sterno- + G. eidos, resemblance]

sternomastoid (ster′no-mas′toyd)
Relating to the sternum and the mastoid process of the temporal bone; applied to the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

sternopagia (ster-no-pa′je-a)
Condition shown by conjoined twins united at the sterna or more extensively at the ventral walls of the chest. See conjoined twins, under twin. [sterno- + G. pagos, something fixed]

sternopericardial (ster′no-per′i-kar′de-al)
Relating to the sternum and the pericardium.

sternoschisis (ster-nos′ki-sis)
Congenital cleft of the sternum. [sterno- + G. schisis, a cleaving]

sternothyroideus (ster′no-thi-royd′e-us)
See sternothyroid (muscle). [Mod. L.]

sternotomy (ster-not′o-me)
Incision into or through the sternum. [sterno- + G. tome, incision] median s. incision through the midline of the sternum usually used to gain access to the heart, mediastinal structures, and great vessels.

sternotracheal (ster′no-tra′ke-al)
Relating to the sternum and the trachea.

sternotrypesis (ster′no-tri-pe′sis)
Trephining of the sternum. [sterno- + G. trypesis, a boring]

sternovertebral (ster′no-ver′te-bral)
Relating to the sternum and the vertebrae; denoting the true ribs, or the seven upper ribs on either side, which articulate with the vertebrae and with the sternum. SYN: vertebrosternal.

sternum, gen. sterni, pl .sterna (ster′num, -ni, -na) [TA]
A long flat bone, articulating with the cartilages of the first seven ribs and with the clavicle, forming the middle part of the anterior wall of the thorax; it consists of three portions: the corpus or body, the manubrium, and the xiphoid process. SYN: breast bone. [Mod. L. fr. G. sternon, the chest]

sternutation (ster′noo-ta′shun)
The act of sneezing. [L. sternutatio, fr. sternuo (sternuto), pp. sternutatus, to sneeze]

sternutator (ster′noo-ta-ter, -tor)
A substance, such as a gas, that induces sneezing. SYN: sneezing gas.

sternutatory (ster-noo′ta-tor-e)
1. Causing sneezing. 2. An agent that provokes sneezing. SYN: ptarmic.

steroid (ster′oyd, ster′oyd)
1. Pertaining to the steroids. SYN: steroidal. Cf.:steroids. 2. One of the steroids. SYN: sterid. 3. Generic designation for compounds closely related in structure to the steroids, such as sterols, bile acids, cardiac glycosides, androgens, estrogens, corticosteroids, and precursors of the D vitamins. anabolic s. a s. compound with the capacity to increase muscle mass; compounds with androgenic properties which increase muscle mass and are used in the treatment of emaciation. Sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase muscle size, strength, and endurance. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol. s. hydroxylases SYN: s. monooxygenases. s. 21-monooxygenase an enzyme catalyzing the reaction of a s., O2, and some reduced compound to produce water, the oxidized compound, and a 21-hydroxysteroid; a deficiency of this enzyme results in decreased cortisol synthesis, of which there are three types (salt-wasting, simple virilizing, and nonclassical). s. monooxygenases enzymes catalyzing addition of hydroxyl groups to the s. rings utilizing O2; differentiated into, for example, s. 11β-monooxygenase, s. 17α-monooxygenase, and s. 21-monooxygenase, in accordance with the position of the catalytically introduced hydroxyl group. SYN: s. hydroxylases. s. 5α-reductase an enzyme that uses NADPH to reduce certain steroids ( e.g., the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone); a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which genetic males have male genitals as well as female external genitalia. s. sulfatase deficiency SYN: X-linked ichthyosis.

steroidal (ster′oy-dal, ster′)
SYN: steroid (1) .

steroidogenesis (ster′oy-do-jen′e-sis, ster′)
The formation of steroids; commonly referring to the biological synthesis of steroid hormones, but not to the production of such compounds in a chemical laboratory. [steroid + G. genesis, production]

steroids (ster′oydz, ster-)
A large family of chemical substances, comprising many hormones, body constituents, and drugs, each containing the tetracyclic cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene skeleton. Stereoisomerism among s. is not only common but of critical biologic significance. The nomenclature conventions are that the nucleus is presented as if projected onto the plane of the paper, with groups then lying above that plane being denoted by thickened bonds and called β and those then lying below that plane being denoted by broken bonds and called α; the letter ξ indicates unknown or unspecified orientation. The principal classes of s., with the names for the unsubstituted, saturated hydrocarbon forms that are clearly related to physiologic functions or sources are: 1) gonanes (in which the methyl groups C-18 and C-19, have been replaced by H), 2) estranes (in which the C-19 methyl groups have been replaced by H), 3) androstanes (equivalent to Formula II), 4) norandrostanes (in which one of the methyl groups, typically C-18, has been replaced by H), 5) cholanes (with &cbond;CH(CH3)(CH2)2CH3 bonded to C-17), 6) cholestanes (with &cbond;CH(CH3)(CH2)3CH(CH3)2 at C-17, 7) ergostanes (with &cbond;CH(CH3)(CH2)2CH(CH3)CH(CH3)2 at C-17), and 8) stigmastanes (with &cbond;CH(CH3)(CH2)2CH(CH2CHCH3)CH(CH3)2 at C-17). In addition, each of the classes can be in a 5α or 5β series. The steroid derivatives known as cardanolides are androstanes with a 5-membered lactone linked to C-17. The squill-toad poisons known as the bufanolides are androstanes with a 6-membered lactone linked to C-17. Spirostans and furostans (the basic structures of many “genins,” including the sapogenins) are androstanes having certain cyclic ether moieties. The natural and synthetic derivatives are named by adding conventional chemical prefixes and suffixes for substituents; e.g., -ol for a hydroxyl group, -on(e) for a keto group, -al for an aldehyde group. “Nor” indicates loss of a –CH2&cbond; group; “homo,” the addition of a –CH2&cbond; group; each is preceded by the letter indicating which ring is contracted or expanded, respectively, or, in the case where the –CH2&cbond; is lost from a methyl group, the number of the carbon atom lost. “Seco” indicates fission of a ring with the addition of hydrogen atoms at the positions indicated by numerals preceding the term. Unsaturation is denoted, as usual, by substituting appropriate terms, e.g., -en(e), -yn(e), -adien(e), for the -ane or -an parts of the hydrocarbon or parent class names, with numerals indicating locations of the unsaturated bonds. The locations of double bonds are specified by the lower of the two (consecutive) numbers of the carbon atoms involved. When a double bond is formed between two nonconsecutive carbon atoms, the second is indicated in parentheses after the first; e.g., estriol and the estradiols possess three double bonds, between C-1 and C-2, between C-3 and C-4, and between C-5 and C-10, respectively. Steroid alkaloids may be named from the steroid parent, as above, or from trivial family names usually ending in -anine if the steroid is saturated or in -enine, -adienine, etc., if it is not saturated ( e.g., conanine, tomatanine).

sterol (ster′ol)
A steroid with one OH (alcohol) group; the systematic names contain either the prefix hydroxy- or the suffix -ol, e.g., cholesterol, ergosterol.

stertor (ster′tor)
A noisy inspiration occurring in coma or deep sleep, sometimes due to obstruction of the larynx or upper airways. [L. sterto, to snore] hen-cluck s. a breath sound like the clucking of a hen, sometimes heard in cases of retropharyngeal abscess.

stertorous (ster′tor-us)
Relating to or characterized by stertor or snoring.

steth-
See stetho-.

stethalgia (ste-thal′je-a)
Pain in the chest. [steth- + G. algos, pain]

stetharteritis (steth′ar-ter-i′tis)
Inflammation of the aorta or other arteries in the chest. [steth- + L. arteria, artery, + G. -itis, inflammation]

stetho-, steth-
Combining forms denoting the chest. [G. stethos]

stethograph (steth′o-graf)
An apparatus for recording the respiratory movements of the chest. [stetho- + G. grapho, to write]

stethomyitis (steth′o-mi-i′tis)
Inflammation of the muscles of the chest wall. SYN: stethomyositis. [stetho- + G. mys, muscle, + -itis, inflammation]

stethomyositis (steth′o-mi-o-si′tis)
SYN: stethomyitis.

stethoparalysis (steth′o-pa-ral′i-sis)
Paralysis of the respiratory muscles.

stethoscope (steth′o-skop)
An instrument originally devised by Laennec for aid in hearing the respiratory and cardiac sounds in the chest, but now modified in various ways and used in auscultation of any of vascular or other sounds anywhere in the body. [stetho- + G. skopeo, to view] binaural s. a s. in which the two ear pieces connect with a single bell. Bowles type s. a s. in which the chest piece is a shallow metal cup about 4.5 cm in diameter, the mouth of which is covered by a hard rubber or celluloid diaphragm. differential s. a s. having two chest pieces so that two sounds in different parts of the chest may be heard simultaneously and compared.

stethoscopic (steth-o-skop′ik)
1. Relating to or effected by means of a stethoscope. 2. Relating to an examination of the chest.

stethoscopy (ste-thos′ko-pe)
1. Examination of the chest by means of auscultation, either mediate or immediate, and percussion. 2. Mediate auscultation with the stethoscope.

Stevens
Albert M., U.S. pediatrician, 1884–1945. See S.-Johnson syndrome.

Stewart
Fred Waldorf, U.S. physician, 1894–1991. See S.-Treves syndrome.

Stewart
George N., Canadian-U.S. scientist, 1860–1930. See S. test, S.-Hamilton method.

Stewart
R.M., 20th century English neurologist. See S.-Morel syndrome.

Stewart
Thomas Grainger, 20th century English neurologist, 1877–1957. See S.-Holmes sign.

STH
Abbreviation for somatotropic hormone.

sthenia (sthe′ne-a)
A condition of activity and apparent force, as in an acute sthenic fever. [G. sthenos, strength, + -ia, condition]

sthenic (sthen′ik)
Active; marked by sthenia; said of a fever with strong bounding pulse, high temperature, and active delirium.

stheno-
Strength, force, power. [G. sthenos]

sthenometer (sthe-nom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring muscular strength. [stheno- + G. metron, measure]

sthenometry (sthe-nom′e-tre)
The measurement of muscular strength. [stheno- + G. metrin, to measure]

stibamine glucoside (stib′a-men)
A nitrogen glycoside of sodium p-aminobenzenestibonate; a pentavalent antimony compound; has been used in leishmaniasis (kala azar) and certain other tropical diseases, but is no longer marketed.

stibenyl (stib′e-nil)
The first pentavalent antimonial used in the treatment of leishmaniasis (kala azar).

stibialism (stib′e-a-lizm)
Chronic antimonial poisoning. [L. stibium, antimony]

stibiated (stib′e-a-ted)
Impregnated with or containing antimony.

stibiation (stib-e-a′shun)
Impregnation with antimony.

stibium (stib′e-um)
SYN: antimony. [L. fr. G. stibi]

stibocaptate (stib-o-kap′tat)
SYN: antimony dimercaptosuccinate.

stibogluconate sodium (stib-o-gloo′ko-nat)
1. Pentavalent sodium stibogluconate, used in the treatment of all types of leishmaniasis; toxic effects are frequent. SYN: antimony sodium gluconate. 2. Trivalent antimony sodium gluconate, used in the treatment of schistosomiasis; toxic effects are frequent. SYN: sodium antimonylgluconate.

stibonium (sti-bo′ne-um)
The hypothetical radical, SbH4+, analogous to ammonium.

stibophen (stib′o-fen)
An organic trivalent antimony compound, used in the treatment of schistosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and lymphogranuloma inguinale.




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