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Medical Dictionary


stomatocytosis (sto′ma-to-si-to′sis)
A hereditary deformation of red blood cells, which are swollen and cup-shaped, causing congenital hemolytic anemia. SEE ALSO: Rh null syndrome.

stomatodeum (sto′ma-to-de′um)
SYN: stomodeum (1) .

stomatodynia (sto′ma-to-din′e-a)
SYN: stomatalgia. [stomato- + G. odyne, pain]

stomatodysodia (sto′ma-to-di-so′de-a)
SYN: halitosis. [stomato- + G. dysodia, bad odor]

stomatognathic (sto′ma-tog-nath′ik)
Pertaining to the mouth and jaw. [stomato- + G. gnathos, jaw]

stomatologic (sto′ma-to-loj′ik)
Relating to stomatology.

stomatologist (sto-ma-tol′o-jist)
A specialist in diseases of the oral cavity.

stomatology (sto-ma-tol′o-je)
The study of the structure, function, and diseases of the mouth. [stomato- + G. logos, study]

stomatomalacia (sto′ma-to-ma-la′she-a)
Pathologic softening of any of the structures of the mouth. [stomato- + G. malakia, softness]

stomatomycosis (sto′ma-to-mi-ko′sis)
Disease of the mouth due to a fungus. [stomato- + G. mykes, fungus, + -osis, condition]

stomatonecrosis (sto′ma-to-ne-kro′sis)
SYN: noma. [stomato- + G. nekrosis, death]

stomatopathy (sto-ma-top′a-the)
Any disease of the oral cavity. SYN: stomatosis. [stomato- + G. pathos, suffering]

stomatoplasty (sto′ma-to-plas-te)
Old term for corrective operation of the mouth. [stomato- + G. plastos, formed]

stomatorrhagia (sto′ma-to-ra′je-a)
Bleeding from the gums or other part of the oral cavity. [stomato- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

stomatoscope (sto′ma-to-skop)
An apparatus for illuminating the interior of the mouth to facilitate examination. [stomato- + G. skopeo, to view]

stomatosis (sto-ma-to′sis)
SYN: stomatopathy. [stomato- + G. -osis, condition]

stomion (sto′me-on)
The median point of the oral slit when the lips are closed.

stomocephalus (sto′mo-sef′a-lus)
Malformed individual with an undeveloped jaw and a snoutlike mouth; likely to be combined with an ethmocephalic type of cyclopia. [G. stoma, mouth, + kephale, head]

stomodeal (sto′mo-de′al)
Relating to a stomodeum.

stomodeum (sto-mo-de′um)
1. A midline ectodermal depression ventral to the embryonic brain and surrounded by the mandibular arch; when the buccopharyngeal membrane disappears, it becomes continuous with the foregut and forms the mouth. SYN: stomatodeum. 2. The anterior portion of the insect alimentary canal, consisting of mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, crop (frequently a diverticulum), and the proventriculus. [Mod. L. fr. G. stoma, mouth, + hodaios, on the way, fr. hodos, a way]

Stomoxys calcitrans (sto-mok′sis kal′si-tranz)
The stable fly, a species of biting fly, resembling in size and general appearance the common housefly, which is an annoying pest of humans and domestic animals worldwide and is implicated in the mechanical transmission of diseases. [Mod. L., fr. C. stoma, mouth, + oxys, sharp; L. pres. p. of calcitro, to kick, fr. calx, the heel]

Artificial or surgical opening. See stomato-. [G. stoma, mouth]

stone (ston)
1. SYN: calculus. 2. An English unit of weight of the human body, equal to 14 pounds. [A.S. stan] artificial s. a specially calcined gypsum derivative similar to plaster of Paris, but stronger, because the grains are nonporous. bladder s. urinary tract calculi in the bladder. Throughout most of the history of humans, this was the predominant form of urinary tract s. disease, mentioned in the Hippocratic oath, and giving rise to the common ancient surgical procedure, lithotomy. In much of the world, bladder s. disease has become uncommon and renal and ureteral stones (which are usually of different origins) have become more common. Bladder stones are now typically seen in patients with neurogenic bladders, urinary tract reconstruction, or infravesical obstruction. SYN: bladder calculus. pulp s. SYN: endolith. tear s. SYN: dacryolith. vein s. SYN: phlebolith.

Byron P., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1887–1966. See S.-Scarff operation, Queckenstedt-S. test.

stool (stool)
1. A discharging of the bowels. 2. The matter discharged at one movement of the bowels. SYN: evacuation (2) . SYN: motion (3) , movement (2) . [A.S. stol, seat] butter stools fatty stools, occurring especially in steatorrhea. currant jelly s. feces that contain blood and products of inflammation, which cause it to resemble currant jelly in appearance; considered a sign of intussusception. fatty s. a s. containing excessive amounts of fat. rice-water s. a watery fluid containing whitish flocculi, discharged from the bowel in cholera and occasionally in other cases of serous diarrhea. spinach stools dark greenish porridge-like stools, resembling chopped spinach. Trélat stools glairy stools streaked with blood, occurring in proctitis.

Bends in, or wires soldered to, an archwire to limit passage through a bracket or tube.

storage (stor′ij)
The second stage in the memory process, following encoding and preceding retrieval, involving mental processes associated with retention of stimuli that have been registered and modified by encoding. See memory.

storax (stor′aks)
A liquid balsam obtained from the wood and inner bark of Liquidamber orientalis, a tree of Asia Minor, or L. styraciflua (family Hamamelidaceae); has been used in the treatment of chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes, and externally for scabies. SYN: styrax. [G. styrax, a sweet-smelling gum]

A revision of the TORCH acronym (q.v.) to include syphilis as a cause of congenital infections.

storiform (stor′i-form)
Having a cartwheel pattern, as of spindle cells with elongated nuclei radiating from a center. [L. storea, woven mat, + -formis, form]

storm (storm)
An exacerbation of symptoms or a crisis in the course of a disease. thyroid s. SYN: thyrotoxic crisis.

Stout wiring
See under wiring.

Abbreviation indicating that a gas volume has been expressed as if it were at standard temperature (0°C), standard pressure (760 mm Hg absolute), and dry; under these conditions a mole of gas occupies 22.4 L.

strabismal (stra-biz′mal)
Relating to or affected with strabismus. SYN: strabismic.

strabismic (stra-biz′-mik)
SYN: strabismal.

strabismologist (stra-biz-mol′ah-jist)
A physician subspecializing in pediatric ophthalmology with an emphasis on the management of strabismus and amblyopia.

strabismus (stra-biz′mus)
A manifest lack of parallelism of the visual axes of the eyes. SYN: crossed eyes, heterotropia, heterotropy, squint (1) . [Mod. L., fr. G. strabismos, a squinting] A-s. 1. s. in which esotropia is more marked in looking upward than downward; 2. s. in which exotropia is more marked on looking downward than upward. SYN: A-pattern s.. accommodative s. s. in which the severity of deviation varies with accommodation. alternate day s. SYN: cyclic esotropia. alternating s. a form of s. in which either eye fixes. A-pattern s. SYN: A-s.. comitant s. a condition in which the degree of s. is the same in all directions of gaze. SYN: concomitant s.. concomitant s. SYN: comitant s.. convergent s. SYN: esotropia. cyclic s. a s. that appears and disappears in rhythym, most frequently at 48-hour intervals. divergent s. SYN: exotropia. incomitant s. SYN: paralytic s.. kinetic s. s. due to spasm of an extraocular muscle. manifest s. evident deviation of one eye or the other; may be alternating or monocular. mechanical s. s. due to restriction of action of the ocular muscle within the orbit. paralytic s. s. due to weakness of an ocular muscle or muscles. SYN: incomitant s.. vertical s. a form of s. in which the visual axis of one eye deviates upward (s. sursum vergens) or downward (s. deorsum vergens). X-s. s. in which exotropia is more marked when looking upward or downward than when looking straight ahead.

strain (stran)
1. A population of homogeneous organisms possessing a set of defined characteristics; in bacteriology, the set of descendants that retains the characteristics of the ancestor; members of a s. that subsequently differ from the original isolate are regarded as belonging either to a substrain of the original s., or to a new s. 2. Specific host cell(s) designed or selected to optimize production of recombinant products. [A.S. streon, progeny] 3. To make an effort to the limit of one's strength. 4. To injure by overuse or improper use (usually refers to a muscle tear). 5. An act of straining. 6. Injury resulting from s. or overuse. [L. stringere, to draw tight] 7. The change in shape that a body undergoes when acted upon by an external force. 8. To filter; to percolate. auxotrophic strains strains which are derived from the prototrophic s. but which require extra growth factors. carrier s. a bacterial s. that is contaminated with a bacteriophage of low infectivity. SYN: pseudolysogenic s.. cell s. in tissue culture, cells derived from a primary culture or a single cell (clone) and possessing a specific feature such as a marker chromosome, antigen, or resistance to a virus. congenic s. an inbred s. of animals produced by continued crossing of a gene of one line onto another inbred (isogenic) line. HFR s., Hfr s. a s., or clone, in which a conjugative plasmid (such as an F′), integrated in the bacterial genome, is instrumental in the transfer (along with plasmid DNA) of integrated bacterial DNA in a sequential manner to a suitable recipient. [high freguency of recombination] hypothetical mean s. (HMS) a hypothetical s. that possesses the characteristics of a calculated mean organism. isogenic s. a s. of animals inbred for many generations and with high probability homozygous for certain specified genes. lysogenic s. a s. of bacterium that is infected with a temporate bacteriophage. See lysogeny. neotype s. a s. accepted by international agreement to replace a type s. which is no longer in existence or to serve as the type s. if a type s. was not designated and if no s. exists which can be designated as the type. SYN: neotype culture. prototrophic strains strains that have the same nutritional requirements as the wild-type s.. pseudolysogenic s. SYN: carrier s.. recombinant s. recombinant (1) . stock s. a bacterial or other microbial s. that has been maintained under laboratory conditions as representative of its type. type s. the nomenclatural type of a species or subspecies. wild-type s. a s. found in nature or a standard s.. SEE ALSO: auxotrophic strains, prototrophic strains.

strait (strat)
A narrow passageway. inferior s., apertura pelvis inferior; superior s., apertura pelvis superior. [M.E. streit thr. O. Fr. fr. L. strictus, drawn together, tight]

straitjacket (strat′jak-et)
A garmentlike device with long sleeves that can be secured to restrain a violently disturbed person. SYN: camisole.

stramonium (stra-mo′ne-um)
The dried leaves and flowering or fruiting tops with branches of Datura s. or D. tatula (family Solanaceae), a herb abounding in temperate and subtropical countries; it contains an alkaloid, daturine, identical with hyoscyamine. It is an antispasmodic and has been used in the treatment of asthma and parkinsonism; when abused or taken inadvertently, it may cause an atropine-like toxic psychosis. [Mod. L.]

In microbiology, a filamentous or threadlike structure. anticoding s. the s. of duplex DNA which is used as a template for the synthesis of mRNA. SYN: antisense s.. antiparallel s. a macromolecular s. that is oriented in the opposite direction of a neighboring s.. antisense s. SYN: anticoding s.. coding s. the s. of duplex DNA that has the same sequence as the mRNA (except that mRNA contains ribonucleotides instead of deoxyribonucleotides). SYN: sense s.. complementary s. replicative form. minus s. replicative form. plus s. replicative form. sense s. SYN: coding s.. viral s. replicative form.

James Victor., Swedish dermatologist, *1883. See Grönblad-S. syndrome.

strangalesthesia (strang′gal-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: zonesthesia. [G. strangale, halter, + aisthesis, sensation]

strangle (strang′gl)
To suffocate; to choke; to compress the trachea so as to prevent sufficient passage of air. [G. strangaloo, to choke, fr. strangale, a halter]

strangulated (strang′gu-la-ted)
Constricted so as to prevent sufficient passage of air, as through the trachea, or to cut off venous return and/or arterial flow so as to compromise viability, as in the case of a hernia. [L. strangulo, pp. -atus, to choke, fr. G. strangaloo, to choke (strangle)]

strangulation (strang′gu-la′shun)
The act of strangulating or the condition of being strangulated, in any sense: compression, constriction, herniation.

strangury (strang′gu-re)
Difficulty in micturition, with straining to void; urine may be passed intermittently with pain and tenesmus. [G. stranx (strang-), something squeezed out, a drop, + ouron, urine]

1. A strip of adhesive plaster. 2. To apply overlapping strips of adhesive plaster. [A.S. stropp]

Gustav A., German physiologist, *1848. See S. test.

stratification (strat′i-fi-ka′shun)
The process or result of separating a sample into subsamples according to specified criteria such as age or occupational groups. [L. stratum, layer, + facio, to make]

stratified (strat′i-fid)
Arranged in the form of layers or strata.

stratigraphy (stra-tig′ra-fe)
SYN: tomography. [L. stratum, layer, + G. graphe, a writing]

stratum, gen. strati, pl .strata (strat′um, ta; stra′tum; ti)
One of the layers of differentiated tissue, the aggregate of which forms any given structure, such as the retina or the skin. SEE ALSO: lamina, layer. [L. sterno, pp. stratus, to spread out, strew, ntr. of pp. as noun, s., a bed cover, layer] s. aculeatum obsolete term for s. spinosum. s. basale 1. the outermost layer of the endometrium which undergoes only minimal changes during the menstrual cycle; SYN: basal layer. 2. SYN: s. basale epidermidis. s. basale epidermidis the deepest layer of the epidermis, composed of dividing stem cells and anchoring cells. SYN: basal cell layer, columnar layer, germinative layer, palisade layer, s. basale (2) , s. cylindricum, s. germinativum. s. cerebrale retinae SYN: cerebral layer of retina. s. cinereum colliculi superioris SYN: gray layers of superior colliculus, under layer. s. circulare membranae tympani circular fibers deep to the radiate layer of the membrane that are more abundant near the periphery; not present in the pars flaccida. SYN: circular layer of tympanic membrane. s. circulare musculi detrusoris vesicae [TA] SYN: circular layer of detrusor (muscle) of urinary bladder. s. circulare tunicae muscularis [TA] SYN: circular layer of muscular coat. s. circulare tunicae muscularis coli circular layer of muscular coat of colon. s. circulare tunicae muscularis intestini tenuis [TA] SYN: circular layer of muscle coat of small intestine. s. circulare tunicae muscularis recti circular layer of muscular coat of rectum. s. circulare tunicae muscularis ventriculi circular layer of muscular coat of stomach. s. compactum the superficial layer of decidual tissue in the pregnant uterus, in which the interglandular tissue preponderates. SYN: compacta. s. corneum epidermidis the outer layer of the epidermis, consisting of several layers of flat keratinized non-nucleated cells. SYN: corneal layer of epidermis, horny layer of epidermis. s. corneum unguis the outer, horny layer of the nail. SYN: cornified layer of nail, horny layer of nail. s. cutaneum membranae tympani the thin layer of skin on the external surface of the tympanic membrane. SYN: cutaneous layer of tympanic membrane. s. cylindricum SYN: s. basale epidermidis. s. disjunctum the layer of partly detached cells on the free surface of the s. corneum, as seen in sections under the microscope; likely an artifact of fixation. s. fibrosum vaginae tendinis fibrous tendon sheath. s. fibrosum [TA] SYN: fibrous capsule. s. fibrosum capsulae articularis SYN: fibrous layer of joint capsule, fibrous capsule. s. fibrosum panniculi adiposi telae subcutaneae [TA] SYN: fibrous layer in or on deep aspect of fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue. s. functionale the endometrium except for the s. basale; formerly believed to be lost during menstruation but now considered to be only partially disrupted. s. ganglionare nervi optici SYN: ganglionic layer of optic nerve. s. ganglionicum [TA] SYN: ganglionic layer. s. germinativum SYN: s. basale epidermidis. s. germinativum unguis the deeper layer of the nail that is continuous with the s. germinativum of the surrounding skin and from which the nail plate is continuously formed. SYN: germinative layer of nail. s. granulare [TA] SYN: granular layer. See layers of dentate gyrus, under layer. s. granulosum corticis cerebelli [TA] SYN: granular layer of cerebellum. s. granulosum epidermidis SYN: granular layer of epidermis. s. granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi the layer of small cells that forms the wall of an ovarian follicle. SYN: granular layer of a vesicular ovarian follicle, granulosa, membrana granulosa, s. granulosum ovarii. s. granulosum ovarii SYN: s. granulosum folliculi ovarici vesiculosi. s. griseum colliculi superioris SYN: gray layers of superior colliculus, under layer. s. griseum intermedium [TA] gray layers of superior colliculus, under layer. s. griseum profundum [TA] See gray layers of superior colliculus, under layer. s. griseum profundum colliculis superioris [TA] SYN: deep gray layer of superior colliculus. s. griseum superficiale [TA] gray layers of superior colliculus, under layer. strata gyri dentati [TA] SYN: layers of dentate gyrus, under layer. s. helicoidale brevis gradus circular layer of muscle coat of small intestine. s. helicoidale longi gradus longitudinal layer of muscle coat of small intestine. strata hippocampi [TA] SYN: layers of hippocampus, under layer. s. interolivare lemnisci the medial region of the medulla oblongata between the left and right olivary nucleus, traversed longitudinally by the left and right medial lemniscus, and transversely by the decussating olivocerebellar fibers. s. lemnisci a largely fibrous (hence whitish) layer of the superior colliculus separating the middle gray layer of superior colliculus from the deep gray layer of superior colliculus and containing, among others, fibers from the spinal and trigeminal lemnisci. SYN: fillet layer. s. limitans externum [TA] SYN: outer limiting layer. s. limitans internum [TA] SYN: inner limiting layer. s. longitudinale tunicae muscularis [TA] SYN: longitudinal layer of muscular coat. s. longitudinale tunicae muscularis coli longitudinal layer of the muscular tunic of the colon. s. longitudinale tunicae muscularis intestini tenuis [TA] SYN: longitudinal layer of muscle coat of small intestine. s. longitudinale tunicae muscularis recti longitudinal layer of muscular coat of rectum. s. longitudinale tunicae muscularis ventriculi longitudinal layer of muscular coat of stomach. s. lucidum a layer of lightly staining corneocytes in the deepest level of the s. corneum; found primarily in the thick epidermis of the palmar and plantar skin. SYN: clear layer of epidermis. strata magnocellularia [TA] See lateral geniculate body. malpighian s. the living layer of the epidermis comprising the s. basale, s. spinosum, and s. granulosum. SYN: malpighian layer, malpighian rete. s. medullare intermedium [TA] SYN: intermediate white layer [TA] of superior colliculus. s. medullare profundum [TA] SYN: deep white layer of superior colliculus. s. moleculare SYN: molecular layer. s. moleculare corticis cerebelli [TA] SYN: molecular layer of cerebellar cortex. s. moleculare et substratum lacunosum [TA] SYN: lacunar-molecular layer. See layers of hippocampus, under layer. s. moleculare retinae SYN: molecular layer of retina. s. multiforme [TA] SYN: multiform layer. See layers of dentate gyrus, under layer. s. musculosum panniculi adiposi telae subcutaneae [TA] SYN: muscle layer in fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue. s. neuroepitheliale retinae SYN: neuroepithelial layer of retina. s. neurofibrarum [TA] SYN: layer of nerve fibers. s. neuronorum piriformium obsolete term for Purkinje cell layer. s. nucleare externum [TA] SYN: outer nuclear layer. s. nucleare internum [TA] SYN: inner nuclear layer. strata nuclearia externa et interna retinae SYN: nuclear layers of retina, under layer. s. opticum [TA] SYN: optic layer. s. oriens [TA] SYN: oriens layer. See layers of hippocampus, under layer. s. papillare corii the more superficial layer of the corium whose papillae interdigitate with the epidermis. SYN: corpus papillare, papillary layer. strata parvocellularia [TA] See lateral geniculate body. s. pigmenti bulbi SYN: pigmented layer of retina. s. pigmenti corporis ciliaris the continuation of the pigment layer of the retina onto the posterior aspect of the ciliary body. SYN: pigmented layer of ciliary body. s. pigmenti iridis the double layer of pigmented epithelium on the posterior surface of the iris. SYN: pigmented layer of iris. s. pigmenti retinae SYN: pigmented layer of retina. s. plexiforme externum SYN: plexiform layers of retina, under layer. s. plexiforme externum [TA] SYN: outer plexiform layer. s. plexiforme internum [TA] SYN: plexiform layers of retina, under layer. s. plexiforme internum [TA] SYN: inner plexiform layer. s. purkinjense corticis cerebelli [TA] SYN: Purkinje cell layer. s. pyramidale [TA] SYN: pyramidal layer. See layers of hippocampus, under layer. s. radiatum [TA] SYN: radiant layer. See layers of hippocampus, under layer. s. radiatum membranae tympani the connective tissue layer of the tympanic membrane beneath the s. cutaneum, the fibers of which radiate from the manubrium of the malleus to the peripheral fibrocartilaginous ring of the membrane; absent from the pars flaccida. SYN: radiate layer of tympanic membrane. s. reticulare corii the thicker deep layer of the corium consisting of dense irregularly arranged connective tissue. SYN: reticular layer of corium, s. reticulare cutis, tunica propria corii. s. reticulare cutis SYN: s. reticulare corii. s. segmentorum externorum et internorum [TA] SYN: layer of inner and outer segments. s. spinosum epidermidis the layer of polyhedral cells in the epidermis; shrinkage artifacts and adhesion of these cells at their desmosomal junctions gives a spiny or prickly appearance. SYN: prickle cell layer, spinous layer. s. spongiosum the middle layer of the endometrium formed chiefly of dilated glandular structures; it is flanked by the compacta on the luminal side and the basalis on the myometrial side. s. subcutaneum SYN: subcutaneous tissue. s. synoviale SYN: synovial membrane, synovial membrane. s. zonale [TA] SYN: zonular layer.

Isidore, French physician, 1845–1896. See S. reaction, S. sign.

Lotte, U.S. pathologist, *1913. See Churg-S. syndrome.

See Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome.

streak (strek)
A line, stria, or stripe, especially one that is indistinct or evanescent. [A.S. strica] angioid streaks calcification of lamina basalis choroideae visible in the peripapillary fundus oculi; associated with pseudoexanthoma elasticum, sickle cell disease, and Paget disease; predisposing to choroidal neovascularization. SYN: elastosis dystrophica, Knapp streaks, Knapp striae. germinal s. SYN: primitive s.. gonadal s. a form of aplasia in which the ovary is replaced by a functionless tissue, as found in Turner syndrome. SYN: s. gonad. Knapp streaks SYN: angioid streaks. meningitic s. a line of redness resulting from drawing a point across the skin, especially notable in cases of meningitis. SYN: Trousseau spot. Moore lightning streaks photopsia manifested by vertical flashes of light, seen usually on the temporal side of the affected eye, caused by the involutional shrinkage of vitreous humor. primitive s. ridge of epiblast in the midline at the caudal end of the embryonic disk from which arises the intraembryonic mesoderm and definitive endoderm; achieved by inward and then lateral migration of cells; in human embryos, it appears on day 15 and provides visual evidence of the cephalocaudal axis. SYN: germinal s..


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