|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
submedial, submedian (sub-me′de-al, sub-me′de-an)
Almost, but not exactly in the middle.
Partly or nearly membranous.
Beneath the chin.
In dentistry, describing a field of operation covered by saliva.
See s. chromosome.
Smaller than 1 micron in size.
Too minute to be visible with a light microscope. SYN: amicroscopic, ultramicroscopic.
Neither definitely amorphous nor definitely crystalline, denoting the structure of certain calculi.
A layer of tissue beneath a mucous membrane; the layer of connective tissue beneath the tunica mucosa. SYN: tela s., tunica s..
Beneath a mucous membrane.
Under the nose.
The point of the angle between the septum of the nose and the surface of the upper lip.
Below the neural axis.
A basic nitrate; a salt of nitric acid having one or more atoms of the base still capable of combining with the acid.
Below the normal standard of some quality.
A subnormal state or condition.
Lying beneath the notochord.
A secondary nucleus.
Below the occiput or the occipital bone.
Below or less than the optimum.
In biologic classification, a division between order and family.
That one of a series of oxides containing the least oxygen. SYN: protoxide.
Below or beneath any structure called parietal: bone, lobe, layer of a serous membrane, etc.
1. Deep to the patella. 2. SYN: infrapatellar.
Beneath the pectoralis muscle.
Beneath the pelvic, as distinguished from the abdominal, peritoneum. SYN: subperitoneopelvic.
Beneath the pericardium.
Beneath the periosteum.
Beneath the peritoneum.
1. Denoting the inferior petrosal. 2. Denoting a dural venous sinus.
Below the pharynx.
In biologic classification, a division between phylum and class.
Beneath the pia mater.
Beneath the placenta; denoting the decidua basalis.
Beneath the pleura.
Below or beneath any plexus.
Beneath the prepuce.
Beneath the pubic arch; denoting a ligament, the arcuate pubic ligament, connecting the two pubic bones below the arch.
Below the lungs.
1. Below any pyramid; denoting especially the tympanic sinus. 2. Nearly pyramidal in shape.
1. Between the sensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. 2. Between the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid.
A basic salt; a salt in which the base has not been completely neutralized by the acid.
Beneath the sartorius muscle; denoting a nerve plexus and a fascia.
1. Deep to the scapula. 2. SYN: infrascapular.
See s. (muscle).
Beneath the sclera of the eye, i.e., on the choroidal side of this layer. SYN: subsclerotic (1) .
1. SYN: subscleral. 2. Partly or slightly sclerotic or sclerosed.
The part of a prescription preceding the signature, in which are the directions for compounding. [L. subscriptio, fr. subscribo, pp. -scriptus, to write under, subscribe]
The layer of connective tissue beneath a serous membrane such as that of the periconeum or pericardium. SYN: tela s. [TA] , subserous layer&star.
subserous, subserosal (sub-se′rus, sub-se-ro′sal)
Beneath a serous membrane.
Rarely used term denoting a rale with a quality between blowing and whistling.
Sinking or settling in bone, as of a prosthetic component of a total joint implant.
In cephalometrics, the most posterior midline point on the premaxilla between the anterior nasal spine and the prosthion. SYN: point A.
1. SYN: infraspinous. 2. Tendency to spininess.
An attachment to a microscope, below the stage, supporting the condenser or other accessory.
Stuff; material. SYN: substantia [TA] , matter. [L. substantia, essence, material, fr. sub- sto, to stand under, be present] alpha s. SYN: reticular s. (1) . anterior perforated s. [TA] a region at the base of the brain through which numerous small branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (lenticulostriate arteries) enter the depth of the cerebral hemisphere; it is bordered medially by the optic chasm and anterior half of the optic tract, rostrally and laterally by the lateral olfactory stria; its anteromedial part corresponds to the olfactory tubercle. SYN: substantia perforata anterior [TA] , locus perforatus anticus, olfactory area, substantia perforata rostralis. autacoid s. SYN: autocoid. bacteriotropic s. opsonin or other s. that alters bacterial cells in such a manner that they are more susceptible to phagocytic action. basophil s. SYN: Nissl s.. basophilic s. SYN: Nissl s.. blood group s. SYN: blood group antigen. blood group-specific substances A and B solution of complexes of polysaccharides and amino acids that reduces the titer of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins in serum from group O persons; used to render group O blood reasonably safe for transfusion into persons of group A, B, or AB, but does not affect any incompatibility that results from various other factors, such as Rh. cementing s. a deposit of amorphous mineralized matrix surrounding the osteons of compact bone. central gray s. 1. in general: the predominantly small-celled gray matter adjoining or surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord and the third and fourth ventricles of the brainstem; 2. in particular: the thick sleeve of gray matter surrounding the cerebral sylvian aqueduct in the midbrain, rostrally continuous with the posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus; in sections stained for myelin it stands out from the adjoining tectum and tegmentum by the poverty of its myelinated fibers. SYN: substantia grisea centralis [TA] , periaqueductal gray s.. central and lateral intermediate substances the central gray matter of the spinal cord surrounding the central canal. SYN: anterior gray column, Stilling gelatinous s., substantia gelatinosa centralis. chromidial s. SYN: granular endoplasmic reticulum. chromophil s. SYN: Nissl s.. compact s. SYN: compact bone. controlled s. a s. subject to the Controlled Substances Act (1970), which regulates the prescribing and dispensing, as well as the manufacturing, storage, sale, or distribution of substances assigned to five schedules according to their 1) potential for or evidence of abuse, 2) potential for psychic or physiologic dependence, 3) contribution to a public health risk, 4) harmful pharmacologic effect, or 5) role as a precursor of other controlled substances. cortical s. SYN: cortical bone. exophthalmos-producing s. (EPS) a factor found in crude extract of pituitary tissue that produced exophthalmos in laboratory animals (especially fish). Its existence and role in producing exophthalmopathy in Graves disease is questioned. filar s. SYN: reticular s. (1) . gelatinous s. [TA] the apical part of the posterior horn (dorsal horn; posterior gray column) of the spinal cord's gray matter, composed largely of very small nerve cells; its gelatinous appearance is due to its very low content of myelinated nerve fibers; spinal lamina II (of Rexed). SYN: substantia gelatinosa [TA] , lamina spinalis II&star, spinal lamina II&star, Rolando gelatinous s., Rolando s.. glandular s. of prostate the glandular tissue of the prostate as distinct from the stroma and capsule. SYN: substantia glandularis prostatae. gray s. [TA] SYN: gray matter. ground s. the amorphous material in which structural elements occur; in connective tissue, it is composed of proteoglycans, plasma constituents, metabolites, water, and ions present between cells and fibers. SYN: substantia fundamentalis. H s. designation given by Sir Thomas Lewis to a diffusible s. in skin, indistinguishable in action from histamine, that is liberated by injury and causes the triple response. SYN: released s.. innominate s. [TA] the region of the forebrain that lies ventral to the anterior half or so of the lentiform nucleus, extending in the frontal plane from the lateral preopticohypothalamic zone laterally over the optic tract to the amygdala (amygdaloid body); rostrally it tapers off over the dorsal border of the olfactory tubercle, caudally it ends where the internal capsule reaches the surface to form the cerebral peduncle or pes pedunculi. Notable among its polymorphic cell population is the large-celled basal nucleus of Meynert. These magnocellular elements within the i. substantia are present in the medial septum and the diagonal band of Broca, but occur in largest numbers ventral to the globus pallidus. Histochemical evidence indicates that magnocellular elements distribute cholinergic fibers widely in the cerebral cortex and that these cells undergo selective degeneration in Alzheimer disease. SYN: substantia innominata [TA] . Kendall s. SYN: Kendall compounds, under compound. s. of lens of eye [TA] that which constitutes the lens of the eye, composed of a nucleus and a cortex and covered by an epithelium. SYN: substantia lentis [TA] . medullary s. 1. the lipid material present in the myelin sheath of nerve fibers; SYN: Schwann white s.. 2. medulla of bones and other organs. SYN: substantia medullaris (2) . müllerian inhibiting s. (MIS) a 535-amino acid glycoprotein secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testis. It is related to inhibin. SYN: anti-müllerian hormone, müllerian inhibiting factor. muscular s. of prostate the smooth muscle in the stroma of the prostate. SYN: musculus prostaticus, substantia muscularis prostatae. neurosecretory s. the secretion of nerve cell bodies located in the hypothalamus; the s. is transported by way of hypothalamo-hypophysial tract fibers into the neurohypophysis where the terminals of the nerve fibers contain the secretion. As seen in the fibers and terminals with a light microscope, the s. appears as Herring bodies or hyaline bodies of the pituitary. See hyaline bodies of pituitary, under body. Nissl s. the material consisting of granular endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes that occurs in nerve cell bodies and dendrites. SYN: basophil s., basophilic s., chromophil s., Nissl bodies, Nissl granules, substantia basophilia, tigroid bodies, tigroid s.. s. P a peptide neurotransmitter composed of 11 amino acid residues (with the carboxyl group amidated), normally present in minute quantities in the nervous system and intestines of humans and various animals and found in inflamed tissue, that is primarily involved in pain transmission and is one of the most potent compounds affecting smooth muscle (dilation of blood vessels and contraction of intestine) and thus presumed to play a role in inflammation. periaqueductal gray s. SYN: central gray s.. P s. of Lewis SYN: factor P. posterior perforated s. [TA] the bottom of the interpeduncular fossa at the base of the midbrain, extending from the anterior border of the pons forward to the mamillary bodies, and containing numerous openings for the passage of perforating branches of the posterior cerebral arteries. SYN: substantia perforata posterior [TA] , locus perforatus posticus, Malacarne space. pressor s. SYN: pressor base. proper s. substantia propria of cornea, substantia propria membranae tympani, substantia propria of sclera. Reichstein s. one of several steroids; e.g., Reichstein s. F (cortisone), Reichstein s. H (corticosterone), Reichstein s. M (cortisol), Reichstein s. Q (cortexone), and Reichstein s. S (cortexolone). SYN: Reichstein compound. released s. SYN: H s.. reticular s. 1. a filamentous plasmatic material, beaded with granules, demonstrable by means of vital staining in the immature red blood cells; SYN: alpha s., filar mass, filar s., substantia reticularis (1) , substantia reticulofilamentosa. 2. SYN: reticular formation. Rolando gelatinous s., Rolando s. SYN: gelatinous s.. Schwann white s. SYN: medullary s. (1) . slow-reacting s. (SRS) , slow-reacting s. of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) a liproprotein of low molecular weight composed of leucotrienes that is released in anaphylactic shock and produces slower and more prolonged contraction of muscle than does histamine; it is active in the presence of antihistamines (but not epinephrine) and seems not to occur preformed in mast cells, but as a result of an antigen-antibody reaction on the granules; it induces the effect observed in anaphylactic reactions. Cf.:peptidyl leukotrienes. SYN: slow-reacting factor of anaphylaxis. soluble specific s. (SSS) SYN: specific capsular s.. specific capsular s. a soluble type-specific polysaccharide produced during active growth of virulent pneumococci comprising a large part of the capsule. SYN: pneumococcal polysaccharide, soluble specific s., specific soluble polysaccharide, specific soluble sugar. spongy s. SYN: substantia spongiosa. standard s. a pure, authentic s. used for identification purposes. Stilling gelatinous s. SYN: central and lateral intermediate substances. threshold s. any material ( e.g., glucose) that is excreted in the urine only when its plasma concentration exceeds a certain value, termed its threshold. SYN: threshold body. tigroid s. SYN: Nissl s.. vasodepressor s. an incompletely characterized chemical, apparently produced during liver damage, that tends to decrease vascular pressures and relax arterial walls. white s. SYN: white matter. zymoplastic s. SYN: thromboplastin.
substantia, pl .substantiae (sub-stan′she-a, -she-e) [TA]
SYN: substance. [L.] s. adamantina SYN: enamel. s. alba SYN: white matter. basal s. [TA] basal structures associated with the amygdaloid complex and its connections; includes the basal nucleus [TA] (nucleus basalis [TA]) also called the nucleus of Ganser, the sublenticular extended nucleus [TA] (pars sublenticularis amygdalae [TA]), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [TA] (nucleus stria terminalis [TA]). SYN: s. basalis [TA] . s. basalis [TA] SYN: basal s.. s. basophilia SYN: Nissl substance. s. cinerea SYN: gray matter. s. compacta [TA] SYN: compact bone. s. compacta ossium SYN: compact bone. s. corticalis [TA] SYN: cortical bone. s. eburnea SYN: dentine. s. ferruginea SYN: locus caeruleus. s. fundamentalis SYN: ground substance. s. gelatinosa [TA] SYN: gelatinous substance. s. gelatinosa centralis SYN: central and lateral intermediate substances, under substance. s. glandularis prostatae SYN: glandular substance of prostate. s. grisea [TA] SYN: gray matter. s. grisea centralis [TA] SYN: central gray substance. s. innominata [TA] SYN: innominate substance. s. intermedia centralis [TA] See central and lateral intermediate substances, under substance. s. intermedia lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral intermediate substance. See central and lateral intermediate substances, under substance. s. lentis [TA] SYN: substance of lens of eye. s. medullaris 1. SYN: medulla. 2. SYN: medullary substance. s. muscularis prostatae SYN: muscular substance of prostate. s. nigra [TA] a large cell mass, crescentic on transverse section, extending forward over the dorsal surface of the crus cerebri from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region; it is composed of a dorsal stratum of closely spaced pigmented ( i.e., melanin-containing) cells, the pars compacta [TA], a larger ventral region of widely scattered cells, the pars reticulata [TA], and smaller less distinct regions, the pars lateralis [TA] and pars retrorubralis [TA], the pars compacta in particular includes numerous cells that project forward to the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and contain dopamine, which acts as the transmitter at their synaptic endings; other, apparently nondopaminergic cells of the s. nigra project to a rostral part of the ventral nucleus of thalamus, to the middle layers of the superior colliculus, and to restricted parts of the reticular formation of the midbrain; the nigrostriatal projection is reciprocated by a massive striatonigral fiber system with multiple neurotransmitters, chief among which is γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); s. n. receives smaller afferent projections from the subthalamic nucleus, the lateral segment of the globus pallidus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, and the pedunculopontine nucleus of the midbrain. The pars reticulata forms part of the output system for the striate body. The s. n. is involved in the metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. SYN: locus niger, nucleus niger, Soemmerring ganglion. s. ossea dentis SYN: cement (1) . s. perforata anterior [TA] SYN: anterior perforated substance. s. perforata rostralis SYN: anterior perforated substance. s. perforata posterior [TA] SYN: posterior perforated substance. s. propria of cornea proper substance of cornea, modified transparent connective tissue, between the layers of which are open spaces or lacunae nearly filled with the corneal cells or corpuscles. SYN: s. propria corneae. s. propria corneae SYN: s. propria of cornea. s. propria membranae tympani proper substance of tympanic membrane, the layer of radial and circular collagenous fibers of the tympanic membrane. s. propria of sclera [TA] proper substance of the sclera, the dense white fibrous tissue arranged in interlacing bundles that forms the main mass of the sclera, continuous anteriorly with the s. propria of the cornea. SYN: s. propria sclerae [TA] . s. propria sclerae [TA] SYN: s. propria of sclera. s. reticularis 1. SYN: reticular substance (1) . 2. SYN: reticular formation. s. reticulofilamentosa SYN: reticular substance (1) . s. spongiosa [TA] bone in which the spicules or trabeculae form a three-dimensional latticework (cancellus) with the interstices filled with embryonal connective tissue or bone marrow. SYN: spongy bone (1) [TA] , s. trabecularis&star, trabecular bone&star, cancellous bone, spongy substance. s. trabecularis s. spongiosa. s. vitrea SYN: enamel.
1. Deep to the sternum. 2. SYN: infrasternal.
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