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Medical Dictionary


sudamen, pl .sudamina (soo-da′men, -dam′i-na)
A minute vesicle due to retention of fluid in a sweat follicle, or in the epidermis. [Mod. L., fr. L. sudo, to sweat]

sudamina (soo-dam′i-na)
1. Plural of sudamen. 2. SYN: miliaria crystallina.

Sudan III [C.I. 26100]
A red stain, used for neutral fat in histologic technique; it also stains the fatty envelope of the tubercle bacillus. SYN: Sudan red III.

Sudan IV [C.I. 26105]
SYN: scarlet red.

Sudan black B [C.I. 26150]
A diazo dye, used as a stain for fats.

Sudan brown [C.I. 12020]
A brown stain, derived from α-naphthylamine and used as a stain for fats.

sudanophilia (soo-dan-o-fil′e-a)
1. Affinity for an oil-soluble or Sudan dye. 2. A condition in which leukocytes contain minute fat droplets that take a brilliant red stain when treated with 0.2% Sudan III and 0.1% cresyl blue in absolute alcohol.

sudanophilic (soo-dan-o-fil′ik)
Staining easily with Sudan dyes, usually referring to lipids in tissues.

sudanophobic (soo-dan-o-fo′bik)
Denoting tissue that fails to stain with a Sudan or fat-soluble dye.

Sudan red III
SYN: Sudan III.

Sudan yellow
Metadioxyazobenzene;a yellow stain for fats.

sudation (soo-da′shun)
SYN: perspiration (1) . [L. sudatio, fr. sudo, pp. -atus, to sweat]

Paul H.M., German surgeon, 1866–1938. See S. atrophy, S. critical point, S. syndrome.

sudomotor (soo-do-mo′ter)
Denoting the autonomic (sympathetic) nerves that stimulate the sweat glands to activity. [L. sudor, sweat, + motor, mover]

sudor (soo′dor)
SYN: perspiration (3) . [L.] s. anglicus SYN: English sweating disease.

Sweat, perspiration. [L. sudor]

sudoresis (soo-do-re′sis)
Profuse sweating. [sudor- + G. -esis, condition]

sudoriferous (soo-do-rif′er-us)
Carrying or producing sweat. [sudor- + L. fero, to bear]

sudorific (soo-do-rif′ik)
Causing sweat. [sudor- + L. facio, to make]

sudorometer (soo-do-rom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the amount of perspiration. [sudor- + G. metron, measure]

sudorrhea (soo-do-re′a)
SYN: hyperhidrosis. [sudor- + G. rhoia, a flow]

suet (soo′et)
The hard fat around the kidneys of cattle and sheep; when rendered it yields tallow. prepared s. the internal fat of the abdomen of the sheep, Ovis aries, purified by melting and straining; formerly used in pharmacy in making ointments. SYN: prepared mutton tallow.

sufentanil citrate (soo-fen′ta-nil)
An injectable narcotic with short duration of effect resembling fentanil; used in “balanced anesthesia.”

suffocate (suf′o-kat)
1. To impede respiration; to asphyxiate. 2. To be unable to breathe; to suffer from asphyxiation. [L. suffoco (subf-), pp. -atus, to choke, strangle]

suffocation (suf-o-ka′shun)
The act or condition of suffocating or of asphyxiation.

suffusion (su-fu′zhun)
1. The act of pouring a fluid over the body. 2. A reddening of the surface. 3. The condition of being wet with a fluid. 4. SYN: extravasate (2) . [L. suffusio, fr. suffundo (subf-), to pour out]

sugar (shu-ger)
One of the sugars, q.v., pharmaceutical forms are compressible s. and confectioner's s.. SEE ALSO: sugars. [G. sakcharon; L. saccharum] amino sugars sugars in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amino group; e.g., d-glucosamine. beechwood s. d-xylose. See xylose. beet s. d-sucrose. See sucrose. blood s. See d-glucose. brain s. d-galactose. See galactose. cane s. d-sucrose. See sucrose. corn s. See d-glucose. deoxy s. a s. containing fewer oxygen atoms than carbon atoms and in which, consequently, one or more carbons in the molecule lack an attached hydroxyl group. SYN: desoxy s.. desoxy s. SYN: deoxy s.. fruit s. d-fructose. See fructose. gelatin s. SYN: glycine. grape s. See d-glucose. invert s. a mixture of equal parts of d-glucose and d-fructose produced by hydrolysis of sucrose (inversion). s. of lead SYN: lead acetate. malt s. SYN: maltose. manna s. SYN: mannitol. maple s. sucrose extracted from the sap of the s. maple, Acer saccharinum. SYN: saccharum canadense. milk s. SYN: lactose. oil s. SYN: oleosaccharum. pectin s. d-arabinose. See arabinose. reducing s. a s., such as glucose in the urine, that has the property of reducing various inorganic ions, notably cupric ion to cuprous ion. specific soluble s. SYN: specific capsular substance. starch s. See d-glucose. wood s. d-xylose. See xylose.

sugar acids
Acids, such as gluconic, glycuronic, and saccharic acid, produced by the oxidation of glucose.

sugar alcohol
The polyalcohol resulting from the reduction of the carbonyl group in a monosaccharide to a hydroxyl group.

sugar aldehyde
A sugar that contains an internal acetal.

sugars (shug′erz)
Those carbohydrates (saccharides) having the general composition (CH2O)n and simple derivatives thereof. Although the simple monomeric s. (glycoses) are often written as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, e.g., HOCH2–(CHOH)4–CHO for aldohexoses ( e.g., glucose) or HOCH2–(CHOH)3–CO–CH2OH for 2-ketoses ( e.g., fructose), cyclization can give rise to varied structures as described below. S. are generally identifiable by the ending -ose or, if in combination with a nonsugar (aglycon), -oside or -osyl. s. especially d-glucose, are the chief source of energy by oxidation in nature, and they and their derivatives ( e.g., d-glucosamine, d-glucuronic acid), in polymeric form, are major constituents of mucoproteins, bacterial cell walls, and plant structural material ( e.g., cellulose). s. are often found in combination with steroids (steroid glycosides) and other aglycons. Fischer projection formulas of s. representations, by projection, of cyclic s., or derivatives thereof, in which the carbon chain is depicted vertically. The lowest-numbered asymmetric carbon atom (C-1 in aldoses; C-2 in 2-ketoses, e.g., fructose) is drawn at the top, and the rest of the carbon atoms of the chain are drawn in sequence below the top carbon atom. For each carbon atom, depicted in projection as lying in the plane of the paper, the carbon-to-carbon bond(s), which actually point away from the viewer, are drawn as vertical lines. The left-hand and right-hand bonds of each carbon atom, which actually point toward the viewer, are, in projection, depicted as horizontal lines. The conventions for the Fischer formulas of cyclic s. are as follows: 1) if the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon atom has its OH (or its replacement) lying to the right, as is the 2-OH of d-glyceraldehyde, the sugar has the d configuration; if the OH is to the left, the sugar has the l configuration; 2) on the anomeric carbon atom (C-1 in the aldoses; C-2 in the 2-ketoses), an OH or substituted OH that lies to the right, with the OH of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon atom also to the right, is defined to be α; if it is to the left, with the OH of the highest-numbered carbon atom still to the right, it is β; the reverse applies if the latter OH is to the left; 3) the orientation of a terminal CH2OH group in the aldoses carries no configurational significance, as it contains no asymmetric carbon atom. Haworth conformational formulas of cyclic s. for the pyranoses, these depict those shapes (conformations) on which none, one, or two ring-atoms lie outside the plane of the ring. If there are two such atoms para to each other, they can lie 1) on opposite sides of the plane (trans), giving chair forms, or 2) on the same side of the plane (cis), giving boat forms. Similarly, there are six boat conformations. If the two (trans) exoplanar atoms are meta to each other, the conformation is a skew form; if the two atoms are ortho to each other, the conformation is a half-chair form. For the furanoses, the envelope conformations have one ring-atom exoplanar. If there are three adjacent, coplanar ring-atoms (the two exoplanar ring-atoms on opposite sides of the plane), the conformations are twist forms. Haworth perspective formulas of cyclic s. perspective representations of furanose or pyranose structures as pentagons or hexagons, respectively, with the connecting bonds so shaded as to make them appear as though the plane of the ring is at an angle of 30° to the plane of the paper, and the bonds to H and OH at right angles to the plane of the ring. These formulas depict the planar conformation, a situation not usually met. Other conformational formulas, e.g., Haworth conformational formulas of cyclic s., attempt to depict the many deviations from planarity. The basic conventions in Haworth formulas of cyclic s. (cyclic glycoses) are as follows: 1) the lowest-numbered asymmetric ring-carbon atom is depicted at the right; 2) if the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon atom is d, the sugar is d; the formula of an l-glycose may be derived from that of its d-isomer by reversing the up or down direction of all groups attached to the ring-carbon atoms; 3) if the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon (C-1 in aldoses, C-2 in 2-ketoses) is below the plane of the ring of a d-glycose, it is α; if above, it is β; the reverse applies if the sugar is l. SEE ALSO: Fischer projection formulas of s..

suggestibility (sug-jes′ti-bil′i-te)
Responsiveness or susceptibility to a psychological process such as a hypnotic command whereby an idea is induced into, or adopted by, an individual without argument, command, or coercion. SYN: sympathism.

suggestible (sug-jes′ti-bl)
Susceptible to suggestion.

suggestion (sug-jes′chun)
The implanting of an idea in the mind of another by some word or act on one's part, the subject's conduct or physical condition being influenced to some degree by the implanted idea. SEE ALSO: autosuggestion. [L. sug-gero (subg-), pp. -gestus, to bring under, supply] hypnotic s. a directive to a subject in trance, which is carried out either during or after the trance. SEE ALSO: minor hypnosis. posthypnotic s. s. given to a subject under hypnosis for certain actions to be performed after the subject is “awakened” from the hypnotic trance.

suggestive (sug-jes′tiv)
Relating to suggestion.

suggillation (sug-ji-la′shun, suj-i-)
Obsolete term for a bruise or livedo. SEE ALSO: contusion. [L. sugillo, pp. -atus, to beat black and blue] postmortem s. SYN: postmortem livedo.

M., 20th century Japanese surgeon. See S. procedure.

Abbreviation for stress urinary incontinence.

suicide (soo′i-sid)
1. The act of taking one's own life. 2. A person who commits such an act. [L. sui, self, + caedo, to kill] physician-assisted s. voluntary termination of one's own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician. Physician-assisted s. is to be distinguished from the withholding or discontinuance of life-support measures in terminal or vegetative states so that the patient dies of the underlying illness, and from administration of narcotic analgesics in terminal cancer, which may indirectly hasten death. SEE ALSO: end-of-life care, advance directive.Questions and controversies about assisted s. have become widespread within the health care community and society at large. The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 9–0 decision, has ruled that citizens have no constitutional right to physician-assisted s., but has placed no obstacles to legalization of the practice by state legislatures. Under Oregon law any mentally competent resident of the state who has reached the age of 18, and who has a terminal illness that is expected to cause death within 6 months, may make a voluntary and informed decision to terminate life by taking a lethal overdose of oral medicine prescribed for that purpose by a physician. The physician is immune from civil or criminal prosecution. Despite the legalization of physician-assisted s. in at least one state, and the highly publicized activities of “death doctors” in other states, the American Medical Association and the American Nurses Association have issued official position statements opposing assisted s. in all circumstances. Among objections voiced by opponents of the legalization of physician-assisted s. and its integration into medical practice are the erosion of public trust in the health care professions; the radical change in the traditional physician-patient relationship; the concern that if physician-assisted s. were to become an accepted option for the “treatment” of certain illnesses, physicians might be required to present it to patients as an alternative, and managed-care or other third-party payers might favor it as least expensive; and the fear that, once legal, physician-assisted s. would be permitted for conditions not terminal, and that people other than the patient would eventually be empowered to make the decision. The debate over physician-assisted s. has drawn attention to shortcomings in the care of dying persons and to the preeminent obligation of health care professionals to provide responsible, respectful, appropriate, and ethically sound care.

suicidology (soo′i-si-dol′o-je)
A branch of the behavioral sciences devoted to the study of the nature, causes, and prevention of suicide. [suicide + G. logos, study]

suint (swint)
The natural grease in sheep's wool, from which the official wool fat (anhydrous lanolin) is extracted. [Fr. wool-grease]

suit (soot)
An outer garment designed for protection against specific environmental conditions. anti-G s. a garment with bladders that expand to apply external pressure to the abdomen and lower extremities during positive G maneuvers in flight or on a human centrifuge; the anti-G s. is worn to prevent the pooling of blood and serves to increase the wearer's ability to withstand exposure to higher G forces.

sulbactam (sul-bak′tam)
A β-lactamase inhibitor with weak antibacterial action; when used in conjunction with penicillins ( e.g., ampicillin) with little β-lactamase-inhibiting action, it greatly increases their effectiveness against organisms which would ordinarily not be susceptible.

sulbentine (sul-ben′ten)
SYN: dibenzthione.

sulcal (sul′kal)
Relating to a sulcus.

sulcate (sul′kat)
Grooved; furrowed; marked by a sulcus or sulci.

sulciform (sul′si-fom)
Having the form of a groove or sulcus.

sulculus, pl .sulculi (sul′ku-lus, -li)
A small sulcus. [Mod. L. dim. of L. sulcus, furrow]

sulcus, gen. and pl. sulci (sool′kus, sul′si)
1. [TA] One of the grooves or furrows on the surface of the brain, bounding the several convolutions or gyri; a fissure. SEE ALSO: fissure. 2. [NA] Any long narrow groove, furrow, or slight depression. SEE ALSO: groove. 3. A groove or depression in the oral cavity or on the surface of a tooth. [L. a furrow or ditch] alveolobuccal s. SYN: alveolobuccal groove. alveololabial s. SYN: alveololabial groove. alveololingual s. SYN: alveololingual groove. s. ampullaris [TA] SYN: ampullary groove. ampullary s. SYN: ampullary groove. s. angularis SYN: angular incisure. anterior intermediate s. a furrow occasionally seen in the adult between the anterior median fissure and the anterior lateral s. of the spinal cord but usually present only in the fetus. It indicates the lateral border of the anterior corticospinal fasciculus. SYN: anterior intermediate groove, s. intermedius anterior. anterior interventricular s. [TA] a groove on the anterosuperior surface of the heart, marking the location of the septum between the two ventricles. SYN: s. interventricularis anterior [TA] , anterior interventricular groove, crena cordis (1) . anterior parolfactory s. a fissure marking the anterior border of the parolfactory area. SYN: s. parolfactorius anterior. anterolateral s. an indistinct furrow on the ventral surface of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata, on either side marking the line of exit of the anterior nerve roots. SYN: s. anterolateralis [TA] , ventrolateral s.&star, anterolateral groove. s. anterolateralis [TA] SYN: anterolateral s.. s. anthelicis transversus SYN: transverse anthelicine groove. aortic s. SYN: aortic impression of left lung. s. aorticus SYN: aortic impression of left lung. s. arteriae occipitalis [TA] SYN: occipital groove. s. arteriae subclaviae costae primae [TA] SYN: groove of first rib for subclavian artery. s. arteriae temporalis mediae [TA] SYN: groove for middle temporal artery. s. arteriae vertebralis [TA] SYN: groove for vertebral artery. sulci arteriosi [TA] SYN: arterial grooves, under groove. atrioventricular s. SYN: coronary s.. s. for auditory tube SYN: s. for pharyngotympanic tube. s. auriculae anterior SYN: anterior notch of auricle. basilar s. [TA] SYN: basilar pontine s.. s. basilaris [TA] SYN: basilar pontine s.. basilar pontine s. a median groove on the ventral surface of the pons varolii in which lies the basilar artery. SYN: basilar s. [TA] , s. basilaris [TA] . s. bicipitalis lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral bicipital groove. s. bicipitalis medialis [TA] SYN: medial bicipital groove. s. bicipitalis radialis lateral bicipital groove. s. bicipitalis ulnaris medial bicipital groove. s. bulbopontis [TA] SYN: medullopontine s.. calcaneal s. [TA] the groove on the upper part of the calcaneus, which with a corresponding groove on the talus forms the sinus tarsi. SYN: s. calcanei [TA] , interosseous groove of calcaneus, interosseous groove (1) . s. calcanei [TA] SYN: calcaneal s.. calcarine s. [TA] a deep fissure on the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex, extending on an arched line from the isthmus of the fornicate gyrus back to the occipital pole, marking the border between the lingual gyrus below and the cuneus above it. The cortex in the depth of the s. corresponds to the horizontal meridian of the contralateral half of the visual field. SYN: s. calcarinus [TA] , calcarine fissure, fissura calcarina, posthippocampal fissure. s. calcarinus [TA] SYN: calcarine s.. callosal s. SYN: s. of corpus callosum. callosomarginal s. SYN: cingulate s.. s. callosomarginalis SYN: cingulate s.. s. caroticus [TA] SYN: cavernous groove. carotid s. SYN: cavernous groove. s. carpi [TA] SYN: carpal groove. central s. [TA] a double-S-shaped fissure extending obliquely upward and backward on the lateral surface of each cerebral hemisphere at the boundary between frontal and parietal lobes. SYN: s. centralis [TA] , fissure of Rolando. central s. of insula [TA] a s. traversing the insular cortex and dividing it into an anterior part, the gyri brevi and a posterior part, the gyri longi. SYN: s. centralis insulae [TA] . s. centralis [TA] SYN: central s.. s. centralis insulae [TA] SYN: central s. of insula. cerebellar sulci grooves between the folia cerebelli; commonly called fissures in cerebellum. cerebral sulci [TA] the grooves between the cerebral gyri or convolutions. SYN: sulci cerebri [TA] . sulci cerebri [TA] SYN: cerebral sulci. chiasmatic s. SYN: prechiasmatic s.. cingulate s. [TA] a fissure on the mesial surface of the cerebral hemisphere, bounding the upper surface of the cingulate gyrus (callosal convolution); the anterior portion is called the pars subfrontalis; the posterior portion which curves up to the superomedial margin of the hemisphere and borders the paracentral lobule posteriorly is the ramus marginalis. SYN: s. cinguli [TA] , callosomarginal fissure, callosomarginal s., s. callosomarginalis, s. of cingulum. s. cinguli [TA] SYN: cingulate s.. s. of cingulum SYN: cingulate s.. circular s. of insula [TA] a semicircular fissure demarcating the insula from the opercula above, below, and behind. SYN: s. circularis insulae [TA] , circular s. of Reil, limiting s. of Reil. s. circularis insulae [TA] SYN: circular s. of insula. circular s. of Reil SYN: circular s. of insula. collateral s. [TA] a long, deep sagittal fissure on the undersurface of the temporal lobe, marking the border between the fusiform gyrus laterally and the hippocampal and lingual gyri medially; the great depth of the collateral s. results in a bulging of the floor of the occipital and temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the collateral eminence. SYN: occipitotemporal s. [TA] , s. collateralis [TA] , s. occipitotemporalis [TA] , collateral fissure, fissura collateralis. s. collateralis [TA] SYN: collateral s.. s. coronarius [TA] SYN: coronary s.. coronary s. [TA] a groove on the outer surface of the heart marking the division between the atria and the ventricles. SYN: s. coronarius [TA] , atrioventricular groove, atrioventricular s., auriculoventricular groove, coronary groove. s. corporis callosi [TA] SYN: s. of corpus callosum. s. of corpus callosum [TA] the fissure between the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. SYN: s. corporis callosi [TA] , callosal s.. s. costae [TA] SYN: costal groove. s. costae arteriae subclaviae SYN: groove of first rib for subclavian artery. costophrenic s. the recess between the ribs and the lateral-most portion of the diaphragm, partially occupied by the most caudal part of the lung; seen on radiographs as the costophrenic angle. s. cruris helicis [TA] SYN: groove of crus of helix. sulci cutis [TA] SYN: skin sulci. dorsal intermediate s. SYN: posterior intermediate s.. dorsal median s. posterior median s. of medulla oblongata. dorsolateral s. posterolateral s.. s. ethmoidalis [TA] SYN: ethmoidal groove. external spiral s. SYN: outer spiral s.. fimbriodentate s. [TA] a shallow groove between the fimbria and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. SYN: s. fimbriodentatus [TA] . s. fimbriodentatus [TA] SYN: fimbriodentate s.. s. frontalis inferior [TA] SYN: inferior frontal s.. s. frontalis medius SYN: middle frontal s.. s. frontalis superior [TA] SYN: superior frontal s.. s. frontomarginalis middle frontal s.. gingival s. [TA] the space between the surface of the tooth and the free gingiva. SYN: s. gingivalis [TA] , gingival crevice, gingival groove, gingival space, subgingival space. s. gingivalis [TA] SYN: gingival s.. gingivobuccal s. SYN: alveolobuccal groove. gingivolabial s. SYN: alveololabial groove. gingivolingual s. SYN: alveololingual groove. s. gluteus [TA] SYN: gluteal fold. s. for greater palatine nerve SYN: greater palatine groove. habenular s. [TA] a small groove located between the habenular trigone and the adjacent dorsal thalamus. SYN: s. habenularis. s. habenularis SYN: habenular s.. s. hamuli pterygoidei [TA] SYN: groove for pterygoid hamulus. hippocampal s. [TA] a shallow groove between the dentate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus; the remains of a fissure extending deep into the hippocampus between the Ammon horn and the dentate gyrus which becomes obliterated during fetal development. SYN: s. hippocampalis [TA] , dentate fissure, fissura dentata, fissura hippocampi, hippocampal fissure. s. hippocampalis [TA] SYN: hippocampal s.. hypothalamic s. [TA] a groove in the lateral wall of the third ventricle on either side leading from the interventricular foramen to the apertura aqueductus mesencephali; the s.-demarcated boundary between dorsal thalamus and hypothalamus. SYN: s. hypothalamicus [TA] , Monro s.. s. hypothalamicus [TA] SYN: hypothalamic s.. inferior frontal s. [TA] a sagittal fissure on the lateral convex surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum demarcating the middle from the inferior frontal gyrus. SYN: s. frontalis inferior [TA] . inferior petrosal s. SYN: groove for inferior petrosal sinus. inferior temporal s. [TA] the s. on the basal aspect of the temporal lobe that separates the fusiform gyrus from the inferior temporal gyrus on its lateral side. SYN: s. temporalis inferior [TA] , Clevenger fissure. s. infraorbitalis [TA] SYN: infraorbital groove. infrapalpebral s. the hollow or furrow below the lower eyelid. SYN: s. infrapalpebralis. s. infrapalpebralis SYN: infrapalpebral s.. inner spiral s. [TA] a concavity in the floor of the cochlear duct formed by the overhanging vestibular lip. SYN: s. spiralis internus [TA] , internal spiral s.. s. intermedius anterior SYN: anterior intermediate s.. s. intermedius posterior [TA] SYN: posterior intermediate s.. internal spiral s. SYN: inner spiral s.. interparietal s. SYN: intraparietal s.. intertubercular s. [TA] a furrow running down the shaft of the humerus between the two tubercles, lodging the tendon of the long head of the biceps, and giving attachment in its floor to the latissimus dorsi muscle. SYN: intertubercular groove [TA] , s. intertubercularis [TA] , bicipital groove&star. s. intertubercularis [TA] SYN: intertubercular s.. s. interventricularis anterior [TA] SYN: anterior interventricular s.. s. interventricularis cordis anterior interventricular s., posterior interventricular s.. s. interventricularis posterior [TA] SYN: posterior interventricular s.. intragracile s. a fissure between the gracilis minor and gracilis posterior lobuli of the cerebellum. SYN: s. intragracilis. s. intragracilis SYN: intragracile s.. intraparietal s. [TA] a horizontal s. extending back from the postcentral s. over some distance, then dividing perpendicularly into two branches so as to form, with the postcentral s., a figure H. It divides the parietal lobe into superior and inferior parietal lobules. SYN: s. intraparietalis [TA] , interparietal s., intraparietal s. of Turner, Turner s.. s. intraparietalis [TA] SYN: intraparietal s.. intraparietal s. of Turner SYN: intraparietal s.. labial s. a furrow between the developing lip and gum. SYN: labiodental s., lip s., primary labial groove. labiodental s. SYN: labial s.. s. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal groove. lateral s. the deepest and most prominent of the cortical sulci, extending from the anterior perforated substance first laterally at the deep incisure between the frontal and temporal lobes, then caudal and slightly dorsal over the lateral aspect of the cerebral hemisphere; the superior temporal gyrus forms its lower bank, the insula its greatly expanded floor, and the frontal and parietal opervula its upper bank. The s. is composed of three portions, a large posterior ramus [TA] (ramus posterior [TA]) that is commonly called the lateral s., a short anterior ramus [TA] (ramus posterior [TA]) located between the pars orbitalis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and a short ascending ramus [TA] (ramus ascendens [TA]) located between the pars triangularis and pars opercularis. SYN: s. lateralis [TA] , fissura cerebri lateralis, lateral cerebral fissure, sylvian fissure, fissure of Sylvius. s. lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral s.. lateral occipital s. one of several variable sulci on the lateral aspect of the occipital lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, bounding the lateral occipital convolutions. SYN: s. occipitalis lateralis. s. limitans [TA] SYN: limiting s.. s. limitans ventriculi quarti [TA] SYN: limiting s. of fourth ventricle. limiting s. the medial longitudinal groove on the inner surface of the neural tube separating the alar and basal plates. SYN: s. limitans [TA] . limiting s. of fourth ventricle [TA] a lateral groove running the whole length of the floor of the rhomboid fossa on either side of the midline, representing the remains of the s. demarcating the alar (dorsal) from the basal (ventral) plate of the embryonic rhombencephalon; position of s. indicates the general separation of motor nuclei of cranial nerves (located medially) from sensory nuclei of cranial nerves (located laterally). SYN: s. limitans ventriculi quarti [TA] . limiting s. of Reil SYN: circular s. of insula. lip s. SYN: labial s.. longitudinal s. of heart anterior interventricular s., posterior interventricular s.. lunate s. a small, inconstant semilunar groove on the cortical convexity near the occipital pole, marking the anterior border of the striate cortex (area 17) and considered homologous with the major s. of the same name that is a more constant feature of the cerebral cortex in monkeys and apes. SYN: lunate fissure [TA] , s. lunatus [TA] , simian fissure. s. lunatus [TA] SYN: lunate s.. malleolar s. SYN: malleolar groove. s. malleolaris [TA] SYN: malleolar groove. marginal s. [TA] the s. located immediately caudal to the posterior paracentral gyrus: the posterior ascending portion of the cingulate s.; may also be considered the marginal ramus of the cingulate s.. SYN: ramus marginalis [TA] , s. marginalis [TA] , marginal branch [TA] of cingulate s.. s. marginalis [TA] SYN: marginal s.. s. matricis unguis the cutaneous furrow in which the lateral border of the nail is situated. SYN: groove of nail matrix, vallecula unguis. medial s. of crus cerebri SYN: oculomotor s. of mesencephalon. s. medialis cruris cerebri SYN: oculomotor s. of mesencephalon. median s. of fourth ventricle [TA] the shallow midline groove in the floor of the ventricle. SYN: s. medianus ventriculi quarti [TA] . median s. of tongue [TA] a slight longitudinal depression running forward on the dorsal surface of the tongue from the foramen cecum dividing the dorsum into right and left halves. SYN: s. medianus linguae [TA] , median groove of tongue, median longitudinal raphe of tongue, raphe linguae. s. medianus linguae [TA] SYN: median s. of tongue. s. medianus posterior medullae oblongatae [TA] SYN: posterior median s. of medulla oblongata. s. medianus posterior medullae spinalis [TA] SYN: posterior median s. of spinal cord. s. medianus ventriculi quarti [TA] SYN: median s. of fourth ventricle. medullopontine s. [TA] the transverse groove on the ventral aspect of the brainstem that demarcates the medulla from the pons and contains the emerging roots of the 6th, 7th, and 8th cranial nerves. SYN: s. bulbopontis [TA] . mentolabial s. the indistinct line separating the lower lip from the chin. SYN: mentolabial furrow, s. mentolabialis. s. mentolabialis SYN: mentolabial s.. middle frontal s. a relatively shallow sagittal fissure of the brain dividing the middle frontal convolution into an upper and lower part; this s. is found only in humans and anthropoid apes; at its anterior extremity it bifurcates, the two branches spreading out laterally and constituting the frontomarginal s.. SYN: s. frontalis medius. middle temporal s. the s. between the middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus. SYN: s. temporalis medius. s. for middle temporal artery SYN: groove for middle temporal artery. Monro s. SYN: hypothalamic s.. s. musculi subclavii [TA] SYN: subclavian groove. s. mylohyoideus [TA] SYN: mylohyoid groove. nasolabial s. [TA] a furrow between the wing of the nose and the lip. SYN: s. nasolabialis [TA] , nasolabial groove. s. nasolabialis [TA] SYN: nasolabial s.. s. nervi oculomotorii [TA] SYN: oculomotor s. of mesencephalon. s. nervi petrosi majoris [TA] SYN: groove for greater petrosal nerve. s. nervi petrosi minoris [TA] SYN: groove of lesser petrosal nerve. s. nervi radialis [TA] SYN: radial groove. s. nervi spinalis [TA] SYN: groove for spinal nerve. s. nervi ulnaris [TA] SYN: groove for ulnar nerve. nymphocaruncular s. a groove between the labium minor and the border of the remains of the hymen, in which is the opening of the duct of the greater vestibular gland on either side. SYN: nymphohymenal s., s. nymphocaruncularis. s. nymphocaruncularis SYN: nymphocaruncular s.. nymphohymenal s. SYN: nymphocaruncular s.. s. obturatorius [TA] SYN: obturator groove. s. of occipital artery SYN: occipital groove. s. occipitalis lateralis SYN: lateral occipital s.. s. occipitalis superior SYN: superior occipital s.. s. occipitalis transversus [TA] SYN: transverse occipital s.. occipitotemporal s. [TA] SYN: collateral s.. s. occipitotemporalis [TA] SYN: collateral s.. oculomotor s. of mesencephalon [TA] a groove in the lateral wall of the interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain from which the rootlets of the oculomotor nerve emerge. SYN: s. nervi oculomotorii [TA] , medial s. of crus cerebri, s. medialis cruris cerebri, s. of the oculomotor nerve. s. of the oculomotor nerve SYN: oculomotor s. of mesencephalon. s. olfactorius [TA] SYN: olfactory s.. s. olfactorius cavi nasi [TA] SYN: olfactory groove of nasal cavity. olfactory s. [TA] the sagittal s. on the inferior or orbital surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum, demarcating the straight gyrus from the orbital gyri, and covered on the orbital surface by the olfactory bulb and tract. SYN: s. olfactorius [TA] , olfactory groove. olfactory s. of nasal cavity SYN: olfactory groove of nasal cavity. orbital sulci [TA] a number of irregularly disposed, variable sulci dividing the inferior or orbital surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum into the orbital gyri. SYN: sulci orbitales [TA] . sulci orbitales [TA] SYN: orbital sulci. outer spiral s. [TA] a concavity in the outer wall of the cochlear duct between the spiral prominence and the spiral organ. SYN: s. spiralis externus [TA] , external spiral s.. sulci palatini [TA] SYN: palatine grooves, under groove. s. palatinus major [TA] SYN: greater palatine groove. s. palatovaginalis [TA] SYN: palatovaginal groove. paracentral s. [TA] a s. on the medial surface of the hemisphere, sometimes regarded as a branch of the cingulate s., located between the anterior portions of the paracentral lobule and the medial portions of the superior frontal gyrus. SYN: s. paracentralis [TA] . s. paracentralis [TA] SYN: paracentral s.. sulci paracolici [TA] SYN: paracolic gutters, under gutter. paraglenoid s. SYN: preauricular groove. s. paraglenoidalis SYN: preauricular groove. sulci paraolfactorii [TA] SYN: parolfactory sulci. parietooccipital s. [TA] a very deep, almost vertically oriented fissure on the medial surface of the cerebral cortex, marking the border between the precuneus portion of the parietal lobe and the cuneus of the occipital lobe; its lower part curves forward and fuses with the anterior extent of the calcarine fissure (s. calcarinus); the great depth of this combined fissure causes a bulge in the medial wall of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle, the calcar avis. SYN: s. parieto-occipitalis [TA] , fissura parietooccipitalis, parietooccipital fissure. s. parieto-occipitalis [TA] SYN: parietooccipital s.. s. parolfactorius anterior SYN: anterior parolfactory s.. s. parolfactorius posterior SYN: posterior parolfactory s.. parolfactory sulci [TA] small sulci found in the parolfactory area, which is located immediately rostral to the lamina terminalis; they frequently consist of anterior and posterior sulci. SEE ALSO: anterior parolfactory s.. SYN: sulci paraolfactorii [TA] . periconchal s. SYN: fossa antihelica. s. for pharyngotympanic tube [TA] a furrow on the inner surface of the posterior border of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, for the cartilaginous auditory tube. SYN: s. tubae auditoriae [TA] , groove for auditory tube, pharyngotympanic groove, s. for auditory tube. s. popliteus [TA] SYN: groove for popliteus. postcentral s. [TA] the s. that demarcates the postcentral gyrus from the superior and inferior parietal lobules. SYN: s. postcentralis [TA] . s. postcentralis [TA] SYN: postcentral s.. s. posterior auriculae [TA] SYN: posterior auricular groove. posterior intermediate s. [TA] a longitudinal furrow between the posterior median and the posterolateral sulci of the spinal cord in the cervical region, marking the gracile fasciculus from the cuneate fasciculus. SYN: s. intermedius posterior [TA] , dorsal intermediate s., posterior intermediate groove. posterior interventricular s. [TA] a groove on the diaphragmatic surface of the heart, marking the location of the septum between the two ventricles. SYN: s. interventricularis posterior [TA] , crena cordis (2) , posterior interventricular groove. posterior median s. of medulla oblongata [TA] the longitudinal groove marking the posterior midline of the medulla oblongata; continuous below with the posterior median s. of the spinal cord. SYN: s. medianus posterior medullae oblongatae [TA] , dorsal median s.&star, posterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata. posterior median s. of spinal cord [TA] a shallow furrow in the median line of the posterior surface of the spinal cord. SYN: s. medianus posterior medullae spinalis [TA] , posterior median fissure of spinal cord. posterior parolfactory s. [TA] a shallow groove on the medial surface of the hemisphere demarcating the subcallosal gyrus or precommissural septum from the parolfactory area. SYN: s. parolfactorius posterior. posterolateral s. [TA] a longitudinal furrow on either side of the posterior median s. of the spinal cord marking the line of entrance of the posterior nerve roots. SYN: s. posterolateralis [TA] , dorsolateral s.&star, posterolateral groove. s. posterolateralis [TA] SYN: posterolateral s.. preauricular s. SYN: preauricular groove. precentral s. [TA] an interrupted fissure anterior to and in general parallel with the central s., marking the anterior border of the precentral gyrus. SYN: s. precentralis [TA] , s. verticalis. s. precentralis [TA] SYN: precentral s.. prechiasmatic s. [TA] the groove on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone running transversely between the optic canals bounded anteriorly by the sphenoidal limbus and posteriorly by the tuberculum sellae; forms in relationship to the optic chiasm. SYN: s. prechiasmaticus [TA] , chiasmatic groove, chiasmatic s., optic groove. s. prechiasmaticus [TA] SYN: prechiasmatic s.. s. promontorii cavitatis tympanicae [TA] SYN: groove of promontory of labyrinthine wall of tympanic cavity. s. of promontory of tympanic cavity SYN: groove of promontory of labyrinthine wall of tympanic cavity. s. of pterygoid hamulus SYN: groove for pterygoid hamulus. s. pterygopalatinus SYN: greater palatine groove. s. pulmonalis [TA] SYN: pulmonary groove. pulmonary s. SYN: pulmonary groove. rhinal s. [TA] the shallow rostral continuation of the collateral s. that delimits the rostral part of the parahippocampal gyrus from the fusiform or lateral occipitotemporal gyrus. One of the oldest sulci of the pallium, it marks the border between the neocortex and the allocortical (olfactory). SYN: s. rhinalis [TA] , rhinal fissure. s. rhinalis [TA] SYN: rhinal s.. sagittal s. SYN: groove for superior sagittal sinus. s. of sclera SYN: s. sclerae. s. sclerae [TA] a slight groove on the external surface of the eyeball indicating the line of union of the sclera and cornea (corneoscleral junction or limbus of cornea). SYN: scleral s., s. of sclera. scleral s. SYN: s. sclerae. sigmoid s. SYN: groove for sigmoid sinus. s. sinus petrosi inferioris [TA] SYN: groove for inferior petrosal sinus. s. sinus petrosi superioris [TA] SYN: groove for superior petrosal sinus. s. sinus sagittalis superioris SYN: groove for superior sagittal sinus. s. sinus sigmoidei [TA] SYN: groove for sigmoid sinus. s. sinus transversi [TA] SYN: groove for transverse sinus. skin sulci [TA] the numerous grooves of variable depth on the surface of the epidermis. SYN: sulci cutis [TA] , skin furrows, skin grooves. s. spinosus SYN: stria spinosa. s. spiralis externus [TA] SYN: outer spiral s.. s. spiralis internus [TA] SYN: inner spiral s.. subclavian s. SYN: subclavian groove. s. subclavianus SYN: subclavian groove. s. subclavius SYN: groove of lung for subclavian artery. subparietal s. [TA] a s. continuing the direction of the cingulate s. from where the marginal part of that fissure bends upward; it forms the upper boundary of the posterior portion of the cingulate gyrus. SYN: s. subparietalis [TA] . s. subparietalis [TA] SYN: subparietal s.. superior frontal s. [TA] a sagittal fissure on the superior surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum starting from the precentral s.; it forms the lateral boundary of the superior frontal convolution. SYN: s. frontalis superior [TA] . superior longitudinal s. SYN: groove for superior sagittal sinus. superior occipital s. one of several small and variable sulci bordering the superior occipital gyri on the upper aspect of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum. SYN: s. occipitalis superior. superior petrosal s. SYN: groove for superior petrosal sinus. superior temporal s. [TA] the longitudinal s. that separates the superior and middle temporal gyri. SYN: s. temporalis superior [TA] , superior temporal fissure. supraacetabular s. SYN: supra-acetabular groove. s. supraacetabularis [TA] SYN: supra-acetabular groove. talar s. SYN: s. tali. s. tali [TA] the groove on the inferior surface of the talus, which with a corresponding groove on the calcaneus forms the sinus tarsi. SYN: interosseous groove of talus, interosseous groove (2) , talar s.. sulci temporales transversi SYN: transverse temporal s.. s. temporalis inferior [TA] SYN: inferior temporal s.. s. temporalis medius SYN: middle temporal s.. s. temporalis superior [TA] SYN: superior temporal s.. s. temporalis transversus [TA] SYN: transverse temporal s.. s. tendinis musculi fibularis longi [TA] SYN: groove for tendon of fibularis longus. s. tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi [TA] SYN: groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus. s. tendinis musculi peronei longi 1. groove for tendon of fibularis longus. 2. the groove distal to the tuberosity of the cuboid bone. terminal s. [TA] SYN: s. terminalis. s. terminalis cordis [TA] a groove on the surface of the right atrium of the heart, marking the junction of the primitive sinus venosus with the atrium. SYN: s. terminalis atrii dextri [TA] . s. terminalis [TA] groove demarcating the end of a structure (and usually the beginning of another). SYN: terminal s. [TA] . s. terminalis atrii dextri [TA] SYN: s. terminalis cordis. s. terminalis linguae [TA] SYN: terminal s. of tongue. terminal s. of tongue [TA] a V-shaped groove, with apex pointing backward, on the surface of the tongue, marking the separation between the anterior (oral or horizontal) and the posterior (pharyngeal or vertical) parts. SYN: s. terminalis linguae [TA] . tonsillolingual s. the space between the palatine tonsil and the tongue. transverse occipital s. the posterior, vertical limb of the intraparietal s.. SYN: s. occipitalis transversus [TA] . s. for transverse sinus SYN: groove for transverse sinus. transverse temporal s. [TA] the shallow s. that demarcates the transverse temporal gyri on the opercular surface of the superior temporal gyrus. This s. frequently consists of more than a single s., depending on the exact configuration of the transverse temporal gyrus (gyri). SYN: s. temporalis transversus [TA] , sulci temporales transversi. s. tubae auditoriae [TA] SYN: s. for pharyngotympanic tube. Turner s. SYN: intraparietal s.. tympanic s. [TA] the groove on the inner aspect of the tympanic part of the temporal bone in which the tympanic membrane is fixed. SYN: s. tympanicus [TA] , tympanic groove. s. tympanicus [TA] SYN: tympanic s.. s. of umbilical vein the s. on the fetal liver occupied by the umbilical vein. SYN: s. venae umbilicalis. s. for vena cava [TA] a groove on the posterior surface of the liver between the caudate lobe and the right lobe which gives passage to the inferior vena cava. SYN: s. venae cavae [TA] , fossa venae cavae, groove for inferior venae cava. s. venae cavae [TA] SYN: s. for vena cava. s. venae cavae cranialis SYN: groove for superior vena cava. s. venae subclaviae [TA] SYN: groove for subclavian vein. s. venae umbilicalis SYN: s. of umbilical vein. sulci venosi [TA] SYN: venous grooves, under groove. s. ventralis SYN: anterior median fissure of spinal cord. ventrolateral s. anterolateral s.. s. for vertebral artery SYN: groove for vertebral artery. s. verticalis SYN: precentral s.. vomeral s. SYN: vomerine groove. s. vomeralis SYN: vomerine groove, vomerine groove. s. vomeris [TA] SYN: vomerine groove. s. vomerovaginalis [TA] SYN: vomerovaginal groove.

sulf-, sulfo-
1. Prefix denoting that the compound to the name of which it is attached contains a sulfur atom. This spelling (rather than sulph-, sulpho-) is preferred by the American Chemical Society and has been adopted by the USP and NF, but not by the BP. 2. Prefix form of sulfonic acid or sulfonate.

sulfa (sul′fa)
Denoting the s. drugs, or sulfonamides.


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