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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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sulfabenzamide (sul-fa-ben′za-mid)
An antimicrobial of the sulfonamide group. SYN: N-sulfanilylbenzamide.

sulfacetamide (sul-fa-set′a-mid)
An antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group, primarily used topically; s. sodium has the same uses as s. and also is used locally for eye infections and for prevention of gonorrheal ophthalmia in newborn infants. SYN: N-sulfanilylacetamide.

sulfacid (sulf-as′id)
SYN: thioacid.

sulfacytine (sul-fa-si′ten)
A sulfonamide used as an oral antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections.

sulfadiazine (sul-fa-di′a-zen)
One of a group of diazine derivatives of sulfanilamide, the pyrimidine analog of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole; one of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixture. It is an inhibitor of bacterial folic acid synthesis, which has been highly effective against pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and streptococcal infections, against infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and in acute gonococcal arthritis; s. sodium has the same uses.

sulfadimethoxine (sul′fa-di-me-thok′sen)
A long-acting sulfonamide that is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and is slowly excreted by the kidney; it accumulates in the tissue and requires lower doses to attain effective tissue concentrations than do the other sulfonamides.

sulfadimidine (sul-fa-dim′i-den)
SYN: sulfamethazine.

sulfadoxine (sul-fa-dok′sen)
A long-acting sulfonamide, used with quinine and pyrimethamine to reduce the relapse rate of malaria. SYN: sulformethoxine.

sulfaethidole (sul-fa-eth′i-dol)
A sulfonamide used in the treatment of systemic and urinary tract infections.

sulfafurazole (sul-fa-fur′a-zol)
SYN: sulfisoxazole.

sulfaguanidine (sul-fa-gwahn′i-den)
The guanidine derivative of sulfanilamide. It is poorly absorbed from the gastroenteric tract; useful for bacterial infections of the lower intestinal tract and for preoperative sterilization of the intestinal tract; a goitrogen. SYN: sulfaguine.

sulfaguine (sul′fa-guin)
SYN: sulfaguanidine.

sulfalene (sul′fa-len)
A very long-acting sulfonamide that enhances, as do other sulfonamides and sulfones, the effectiveness of antimalarial agents such as pyrimethamine, chloroguanide, or cycloguanil.

sulfamerazine (sul-fa-mer′a-zen)
One of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixtures.

sulfameter (sulf′a-me-ter)
A slowly excreted sulfonamide once used in the treatment of acute and chronic urinary tract infections. SYN: sulfamethoxydiazine.

sulfamethazine (sul-fa-meth′a-zen)
One of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixture. SYN: sulfadimidine.

sulfamethizole (sul-fa-meth′i-zol)
A sulfonamide useful for the treatment of urinary tract infection, because of its high solubility.

sulfamethoxazole (sul′fa-meth-ok′sa-zol)
A sulfonamide related chemically to sulfisoxazole, with a similar antibacterial spectrum, but a slower rate of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and urinary excretion.

sulfamethoxydiazine (sul′fa-me-thok′si-di′a-zen)
SYN: sulfameter.

sulfamethoxypyridazine (sul′fa-me-thok′si-pi-rid′a-zen)
A long-acting sulfonamide that requires a single daily dose for maintaining effective tissue concentrations. S. acetyl is a preparation well suited for pediatric use because it is tasteless; it is also used to enhance the actions of quinine and other suppressants in the chemoprophylaxis of malaria.

sulfamoxole (sul-fa-mok′sol)
An antimicrobial agent of the sulfonamide group.

sulfanilamide (sul-fa-nil′a-mid)
The first sulfonamide used for its chemotherapeutic effect in infections caused by some β-hemolytic streptococci, meningococci, gonococci, Clostridium welchii, and in certain infections of the urinary tract, especially those due to Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris; less effective than sulfapyridine in the treatment of pneumococcic, staphylococcic, and Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Toxic manifestations include acidosis, cyanosis, hemolytic anemia, and agranulocytosis.

sulfaphenazole (sul-fa-fen′a-zol)
A long-acting sulfonamide that is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; one dose is sufficient to maintain effective tissue concentration for 24 hours.

sulfapyrazine (sul-fa-pir′a-zen)
An antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group.

sulfapyridine (sul-fa-pir′i-den)
An antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group.

sulfasalazine (sul-fa-sal′a-zen)
A sulfonamide (acid-azosulfa compound) with a marked affinity for connective tissues, especially for those rich in elastin, used in chronic ulcerative colitis; it is broken down in the body to aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine. SYN: salicylazosulfapyridine.

sulfatase (sul′fa-tas)
1. Trivial name for enzymes in EC group 3.1.6, the sulfuric ester hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfuric esters (sulfates) to the corresponding alcohols plus inorganic sulfate; includes aryl-, sterol, glycol-, chondroitin, choline-, cellulose, cerebroside, and chondro- sulfatases. 2. SYN: arylsulfatase. multiple s. deficiency an inherited disorder (autosomal recessive) in which there is a failure to hydrolyze sulfatides and sulfated mucopolysaccharides; this failure leads to their accumulation in neural and extraneural tissues, causing demyelination, sulfatiduria, facial and skeletal dysmorphism, etc.

sulfate (sul′fat)
A salt or ester of sulfuric acid. acid s. SYN: bisulfate. active s. SYN: adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate. s. adenylyltransferase an enzyme that catalyzes a step in the pathway for the synthesis of active s.; the enzyme reacts ATP with s. to produce pyrophosphate and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS). SYN: ATP sulfurylase. codeine s. a water-soluble salt of codeine, often used in solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. Also used in cough preparations, where the drug suppresses the cough reflex. dermatan s. an anticoagulant with properties similar to heparin and sharing with heparin a sulfated mucopolysaccharide structure; a repeating polymer of l-iduronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. O-Sulfation of iduronic acid residues at the C-2 position and of galactosamine residues at the C-4 and C-6 positions occurs to a variable extent. SYN: chondroitin s. B. iron s. a soluble iron salt frequently used as an iron supplement in tablets and liquid preparations as a hematinic. SYN: ferrous s.. polysaccharide s. esters s. esters of polysaccharides often found in cell walls.

sulfathiazole (sul-fa-thi′a-zol)
An antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group.

sulfatidates (sul′fa-ti-dats)
SYN: sulfatides.

sulfatides (sul′fa-tidz)
Cerebroside sulfuric esters containing one or more sulfate groups in the sugar portion of the molecule. SYN: sulfatidates.

sulfatidosis (sul′fa-ti-do′sis) [MIM*272200]
A combination of metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis caused by deficiency of sulfatase enzymes such as arylsulfatases A, B, and C, and steroid sulfatases; characterized by coarse facial features, ichthyosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and skeletal abnormalities, with increased urinary excretion of dermatan and heparan sulfates; autosomal recessive inheritance. SEE ALSO: metachromatic leukodystrophy.

sulfation (sul-fa′shun)
Addition of sulfate groups as esters to preexisting molecules.

sulfhemoglobin (sulf-he′mo-glo-bin)
SYN: sulfmethemoglobin.

sulfhemoglobinemia (sulf-he′mo-glo-bi-ne′me-a)
A morbid condition due to the presence of sulfhemoglobin in the blood; it is marked by a persistent cyanosis, but the blood count does not reveal any special abnormality in that fluid; it is thought to be caused by the action of hydrogen sulfide absorbed from the intestine.

sulfhydrate (sulf-hi′drat)
A compound (hydrosulfide) containing the ion HS−. SYN: sulfohydrate.

sulfhydryl (SH) (sulf-hi′dril)
The radical –SH; contained in glutathione, cysteine, coenzyme A, lipoamide (all in the reduced state), and in mercaptans (R–SH). SYN: thiel.

sulfide (sul′fid)
A compound of sulfur in which the sulfur has a valence of −2; e.g., Na2S, HgS; also, a thioether ( i.e., R&cbond;S&cbond;R′, such as lanthionine). SYN: sulfuret.

sulfikinase (sul′fo-kin′as)
SYN: sulfotransferase.

sulfindigotic acid (sul′fin-di-got′ik)
Formed by the action of sulfuric acid on indigo, a reaction that also yields indigo carmine.

sulfinpyrazone (sul-fin-pir′a-zon)
An analgesic and uricosuric agent, useful in gout, that promotes the excretion of uric acid, probably by interfering with the tubular reabsorption of uric acid.

sulfisomidine (sul-fi-so′mi-den)
The structural isomer of sulfamethazine, used in the treatment of systemic and urinary tract infections.

sulfisoxazole (sul-fi-sok′sa-zol)
A sulfonamide used chiefly in bacterial infections of the urinary tract. SYN: sulfafurazole. s. diolamine the 2,2′-iminodiethanol salt of s.; used for intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration.

sulfite (sul′fit)
A salt of sulfurous acid; elevated in cases of molybdenum cofactor deficiency. s. dehydrogenase an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of s. with 2ferricytochrome c and water to sulfate and 2ferrocytochrome c. s. oxidase a liver oxidoreductase (hemoprotein) catalyzing the reaction of inorganic s. ion with O2 and water to produce sulfate ion and H2O2; a lower activity of this enzyme is observed in cases of molybdenum cofactor deficiency. s. reductase oxidoreductase catalyzing reduction of s. to H2S using some reduced acceptor.

sulfituria (sulf′it-oor-e-a)
Elevated levels of sulfites in the urine.

sulfmethemoglobin (sulf-met-he′mo-glo-bin)
The complex formed by H2S (or sulfides) and ferric ion in methemoglobin. SYN: sulfhemoglobin.

sulfo-
See sulf-.

sulfoacid (sul′fo-as-id)
1. SYN: thioacid. 2. SYN: sulfonic acid.

3-sulfoalanine (sul-fo-al′a-nen)
SYN: cysteic acid.

sulfobromophthalein sodium (sul′fo-bro-mo-thal′e-in)
A triphenylmethane derivative excreted by the liver, used in testing hepatic function, particularly of the reticuloendothelial cells. SYN: bromosulfophthalein, bromsulfophthalein.

sulfocyanate (sul-fo-si′a-nat)
SYN: thiocyanate.

sulfocyanic acid (sul-fo-si-an′ik)
SYN: thiocyanic acid.

S-sulfocysteine (sul-fo-sis′te-en)
A sulfated derivative of cysteine that is elevated in individuals with a molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

3-sulfogalactosylceramide
A sulfatide that accumulates in individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

sulfogel (sul′fo-jel)
A hydrogel with sulfuric acid instead of water as the dispersion means.

sulfohydrate (sul-fo-hi′drat)
SYN: sulfhydrate.

sulfokinase (sul′fo-kin-as)
SYN: sulfotransferase.

sulfolysis (sul-fol′i-sis)
Lysis brought on or accelerated by sulfuric acid.

sulfomucin (sul-fo-mu′sin)
A mucin containing sulfuric esters in its mucopolysaccharides or glycoproteins.

sulfomyxin sodium (sul-fo-mik′sin)
A mixture of sulfomethylated polymyxin B and sodium bisulfite; an antibacterial agent.

sulfonamides (sul-fon′a-midz)
The sulfa drugs, a group of bacteriostatic drugs containing the sulfanilamide group (sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, and other sulfanilamide derivatives).

sulfonate (sul′fo-nat)
A salt or ester of sulfonic acid.

sulfone (sul-fon)
A compound of the general structure R′–SO2–R&dprime;.

sulfonic acid (sul-fon′ik)
Any of the compounds in which a hydrogen atom of a CH group is replaced by the s. group, –SO3H; general formula: R–SO3H. SYN: sulfoacid (2) .

sulfonium salts (sul-fo′ne-um)
Compounds containing sulfur covalently linked to three moieties; E.G., RS+(R′)R′′′, such as S-adenosyl-l-methionine.

sulfonylureas (sul′fo-nil-u-re′az)
Derivatives of isopropylthiodiazylsulfanilamide, chemically related to the sulfonamides, which possess hypoglycemic action. Belonging to this series are acetohexamide, azepinamide, chlorpropamide, fluphenmepramide, glymidine, hydroxyhexamide, heptolamide, indylamide, thiohexamide, tolazamide, and tolbutamide.

sulfoprotein (sul-fo-pro′ten)
A protein molecule containing sulfate groups.

6-sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (sul′fo-kwi′no-vo-sil, -kwin′o)
Quinovose containing an SO3H on C-6 and a doubly substituted glycerol on C-1; the sulfolipid occurring in all photosynthetic tissues.

sulforhodamine B (sul-fo-ro′da-men) [C.I. 45100]
A xanthene dye derivative, a fluorochrome used for tagging proteins by a sulfamido condensation; employed in immunofluorescence alone or in combination with fluorescein isothiocyanate for the simultaneous microscopic detection of two antigens in contrasting red and green colors. SYN: lissamine rhodamine B 200.

sulformethoxine (sul′for-me-thok′sen)
SYN: sulfadoxine.

sulfosalicylic acid (sul′fo-sal-i-sil′ik)
Used as a test for albumin and ferric ion. SYN: salicylsulfonic acid.

sulfosol (sul′fo-sol)
A hydrosol with sulfuric acid instead of water as the dispersion means.




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