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Medical Dictionary


sulfotransferase (sul-fo-trans′fer-as)
Generic term for enzymes in EC sub-subclass 2.8.2 catalyzing the transfer of a sulfate group from 3′-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (active sulfate) to the hydroxyl group of an acceptor, producing the sulfated derivative and 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate. SYN: sulfikinase, sulfokinase.

sulfoxide (sul-fok′sid)
The sulfur analog of a ketone, R′–SO–R&dprime;.

sulfoxone sodium (sul-fok′son)
An antileprotic.

sulfur (S) (sul′fer)
An element, atomic no. 16, atomic wt. 32.066, that combines with oxygen to form s. dioxide (SO2) and s. trioxide (SO3), and these with water to make strong acids, and with many metals and nonmetallic elements to form sulfides; mildly laxative; has been used to treat rheumatism, gout, and bronchitis, and externally in the treatment of skin diseases. SYN: brimstone. [L. s., brimstone, s.] s. dioxide SO2;a colorless, nonflammable gas with a strong, suffocating odor; a powerful reducing agent used to prevent oxidative deterioration of food and medicinal products. SEE ALSO: sulfurous acid. SYN: sulfurous oxide. s. iodide has been used in the treatment of certain skin diseases. liver of s. SYN: sulfurated potash. precipitated s. sublimed s. boiled with lime water, the lime being removed from the precipitate by washing with diluted hydrochloric acid; used in preparing s. ointment and in the treatment of various skin disorders. SYN: lac sulfuris, milk of s.. roll s. sublimed s. melted and cast in cylindrical molds; sometimes called brimstone. soft s. an allotropic form obtained by dropping very hot melted s. into water; it is then temporarily of a viscid or waxy consistency. sublimed s. used in preparing s. ointment and in the treatment of various skin disorders. SYN: flowers of s.. s. trioxide SO3;forms sulfuric acid, H2SO4, by its reaction with water. SYN: sulfuric oxide. vegetable s. SYN: lycopodium. washed s. sublimed s. macerated in diluted ammonia water to remove the free acid; same therapeutic uses as sublimed s.. wettable s. s. prepared from calcium polysulfide solution containing a protective colloid such as casein; it is easily dispersed and suspended in water.

sulfur-35 (35S)
A radioactive sulfur isotope; a beta emitter with a half-life of 87.2 days; used as a tracer in the study of metabolism of cysteine, cystine, methionine, etc.; also used to estimate, with labeled sulfate, extracellular fluid volumes.

sulfuret (sul′fer-et)
SYN: sulfide.

sulfur group
The elements sulfur, selenium, and tellurium; they form dibasic acids with hydrogen, and their oxyacids are also dibasic.

sulfuric (sul-fu′rik)
Related to s. acid.

sulfuric acid (sul-fur′ik)
H2SO4;a colorless, nearly odorless, heavy, oily, corrosive liquid containing 96% of the absolute acid; used occasionally as a caustic. SYN: oil of vitriol. fuming s. SYN: Nordhausen s.. Nordhausen s. s. containing sulfurous acid gas in solution. SYN: fuming s.. [named for Nordhausen, a town in Saxony where it was first prepared]

sulfuric ether
SYN: diethyl ether.

sulfuric oxide
SYN: sulfur trioxide.

sulfurous (sul′fur-us)
Designating a sulfur compound in which sulfur has a valence of +4 as contrasted to sulfuric compounds in which sulfur has a valence of +6, or sulfides (−2).

sulfurous acid
A solution of about 6% sulfur dioxide in water; used chiefly as a disinfectant and bleaching agent; it has been used externally for its parasiticidal effect in various skin diseases.

sulfurous oxide
SYN: sulfur dioxide.

sulfuryl (sul′fur-il)
The bivalent radical, –SO2–.

sulfydrate (sul-fi′drat)
A compound of SH−.

sulindac (sul-in′dak)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic actions. S. is a prodrug which is reduced to an active drug.

sulisobenzone (soo-li′so-ben′zon)
A sunscreen agent.

Hirsh W., U.S. physician, *1906. See S. reagent.

sulph-, sulpho-
See sulf-.

sulpiride (sul′pir-id)
An antidepressant.

sulthiame (sul-thi′am)
Inhibits carbonic anhydrase; an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy and grand mal with psychomotor seizures; may cause ataxia, paresthesias, and psychotic episodes.

Marion B., U.S. dermatologist, 1895–1983. See Bloch-S. disease, syndrome, S.-Garbe disease, S.-Garbe syndrome.

summation (sum-a′shun)
The aggregation of a number of similar neural impulses or stimuli. [Mediev. L. summatio, fr. summo, pp. -atus, to sum up, fr. L. summa, sum] s. of stimuli cumulative muscular or neural effects produced by the frequent repetition of stimuli.

F.W., 20th century British surgeon. See S. sign.

sunburn (sun′bern)
Erythema with or without blistering caused by exposure to critical amounts of ultraviolet light, usually within the range of 260–320 nm in sunlight (UVB). SYN: erythema solare.

sundowning (sun′down-ing)
The onset or exacerbation of delirium during the evening or night with improvement or disappearance during the day; most often seen in mid and later stages of dementing disorders, such as Alzheimer disease.

sunflower seed oil (sun′flow-er)
Oil from the seeds of Helianthus annuus (family Compositae); the glycerides consist mainly of the mixed triglycerides, each containing one or two linoleic acid radicals; used as a food, and in dietary supplements.

sunscreen (sun′skren)
A topical product that protects the skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema and resists washing off; its use also reduces formation of solar keratoses and reduces ultraviolet-B-induced melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers and wrinkling.

sunstroke (sun′strok)
A form of heatstroke resulting from undue exposure to the sun's rays, probably caused by the action of actinic rays combined with high temperature; symptoms are those of heatstroke, but often without fever. SYN: heliosis, ictus solis, insolation (2) , siriasis, solar fever (2) .

In excess, above, superior, or in the upper part of; often the same usage as L. supra-. Cf.:hyper-. [L. super, above, beyond]

superabduction (soo-per-ab-duk′shun)
Abduction of a limb beyond the normal limit. SYN: hyperabduction.

superacidity (soo′per-a-sid′i-te)
An excess of acid; excessive acidity.

superacromial (soo-per-a-kro′me-al)
Above the acromion process. SYN: supra-acromial.

superactivity (soo-per-ak-tiv′i-te)
Abnormally great activity. SYN: hyperactivity (1) .

superacute (soo′per-a-kut′)
Extremely acute; marked by extreme severity of symptoms and rapid progress, as of the course of a disease.

superalimentation (soo′per-al′i-men-ta′shun)
SYN: hyperalimentation.

superanal (soo-per-a′nal)
SYN: supra-anal.

An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are induced by antigens that are presented in the antigen recognition site leading to the release of numerous cytokines. SEE ALSO: antigen.

superciliary (soo-per-sil′e-ar-e)
Relating to or in the region of the eyebrow. SYN: supraciliary.

supercilium, pl .supercilia (soo′per-sil′e-um, -a)
SYN: eyebrow. [L. fr. super, above, + cilium, eyelid]

SYN: superhelicity.

superdicrotic (soo-per-di-krot′ik)
SYN: hyperdicrotic.

superdistention (soo′per-dis-ten′shun)
SYN: hyperdistention.

superduct (sooper-dukt)
To elevate or draw upward. [L. super-duco, pp. -ductus, to lead over]

superego (soo-per-e′go)
In psychoanalysis, one of the three components of the psychic apparatus in the freudian structural framework, the other two being the ego and the id. It is an outgrowth of the ego that has identified itself unconsciously with important persons, such as parents, from early life, and which results from incorporating the values and wishes of these persons and subsequently societal norms as part of one's own standards to form the “conscience.”

Movement of a tooth beyond the normal plane of occlusion due to the loss of its antagonist(s).

superexcitation (soo′per-ek-si-ta′shun)
1. The act of exciting or stimulating unduly. 2. A condition of extreme excitement or stimulation.

superextension (soo-per-eks-ten′shun)
SYN: hyperextension.

superfatted (soo′per-fat′ed)
With additional fat added, as in the case of soap.

superfetation (soo′per-fe-ta′shun)
The presence of two fetuses of different ages, not twins, in the uterus, due to the impregnation of two ova liberated at successive periods of ovulation; an obsolete concept. SYN: hypercyesis, hypercyesia, multifetation, superimpregnation.

superficial (soo-per-fish′al) [TA]
1. Cursory; not thorough. 2. Pertaining to or situated near the surface. 3. SYN: superficialis. [L. superficialis, fr. superficies, surface]

superficialis (soo′per-fish-e-a′lis) [TA]
Situated nearer the surface of the body in relation to a specific reference point. Cf.:profundus. SYN: superficial (3) [TA] , sublimis (2) . [L.] s. volae SYN: superficial palmar branch of radial artery.

superficies (su-per-fish′i-ez)
Outer surface; facies. [L. the top surface, fr. super, above, + facies, figure, form]

superflexion (soo-per-flek′shun)
SYN: hyperflexion.

superfuse (soo-per-fus′)
To flush a fluid over the top of a tissue. Cf.:perfuse, perifuse.

superfusion (soo-per-fu′zhun)
The act of superfusing.

supergenual (soo-per-jen′u-al)
Above the knee or any genu.

superhelicity (soo′per-he-li′si-te)
Referring to native duplex DNA structure in which there is further twisting or coiling of the double helix. SYN: supercoiling.

superimpregnation (soo′per-im-preg-na′shun)
SYN: superfetation.

superinduce (soo′per-in-doos)
To induce or bring on in addition to something already existing.

superinfection (soo′per-in-fek′shun)
A new infection in addition to one already present.

superinvolution (soo′per-in-vo-loo′shun)
An extreme reduction in size of the uterus, after childbirth, below the normal size of the nongravid organ. SYN: hyperinvolution.

superior (soo-per′e-or)
1. Situated above or directed upward. 2. [NA] In human anatomy, situated nearer the vertex of the head in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of inferior. SYN: cranial (2) . [L. comparative of superus, above]

superlactation (soo′per-lak-ta′shun)
The continuance of lactation beyond the normal period. SYN: hyperlactation.

superligamen (soo-per-lig′a-men)
A retentive dressing; a bandage retaining a surgical dressing in place. [L. ligamen, bandage]

supermedial (soo-per-me′de-al)
Above the middle of any part.

supermotility (soo′per-mo-til′i-te)
SYN: hyperkinesis.

supernatant (soo-per-na′tant)
See s. fluid. [super- + L. natare, to swim]

supernumerary (soo-per-noo′mer-ar-e)
Exceeding the normal number. SYN: epactal. [super- + L. numerus, number]

supernutrition (soo′per-noo-trish′un)
Overeating leading to obesity. SYN: hypernutrition.

superolateral (soo-per-o-lat′er-al)
At the side and above.

superovulation (soo′per-o-vu-la′shun)
Ovulation of a greater than normal number of ova; usually the result of the administration of exogenous gonadotropins.

superoxide (soo-per-oks′id)
An oxygen free radical, O2−, which is toxic to cells. s. dismutase (SOD) an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation reaction, 2O2&chmpnt;− + 2H+ → H2O2 + O2; there are three isozymes of SOD: an extracellular form (ECSOD) that contains copper and zinc, a cytoplasmic form that also contains copper and zinc, and a mitochondrial form that contains manganese; a deficiency of SOD is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

superparasite (soo-per-par′a-sit)
A member of a large population of parasites living on a host, usually a parasitic hymenopteran larva in its insect host. SEE ALSO: parasitoid.

superparasitism (soo-per-par′a-si-tizm)
1. Association between parasitic Hymenoptera and their insect hosts. 2. An excess of parasites of the same species in a host, overtaxing the defense mechanism to the degree that disease or death results, in contrast to multiple parasitism.

superpetrosal (soo-per-pe-tro′sal)
Above or at the upper part of the petrous portion of the temporal bone.

supersaturate (soo-per-sach′u-rat)
To make a solution hold more of a salt or other substance in solution than it will dissolve when in equilibrium with that salt in the solid phase; such solutions are usually unstable with respect to precipitating the excess salt or substance and becoming saturated.

superscription (soo′per-skrip′shun)
The beginning of a prescription, consisting of the injunction, recipe, take, usually denoted by the sign ℞. [L. super-scribo, pp. -scriptus, to write upon or over]

supersonic (soo′per-son′ik)
1. Pertaining to or characterized by a speed greater than the speed of sound. SEE ALSO: hypersonic. 2. Pertaining to sound vibrations of high frequency, above the level of human audibility. SEE ALSO: ultrasonic. [super- + L. sonus, sound]

superstructure (soo-per-struk′choor)
A structure above the surface. implant denture s. the denture which is retained and stabilized by the implant denture substructure.

supertension (soo-per-ten′shun)
Extreme tension; incorrectly used as a synonym of high blood pressure, or hyperpiesis.

supervoltage (soo′per-vol′tij)
In radiation therapy, a descriptor for high-energy radiation above 1000 V.

supinate (soo′pi-nat)
1. To assume, or to be placed in, a supine (face upward) position. 2. To perform supination of the forearm or of the foot. [L. supino, pp. -atus, to bend backwards, place on back, fr. supinus, supine]

supination (soo′pi-na′shun) [TA]
The condition of being supine; the act of assuming or of being placed in a supine position. s. of the foot inversion and abduction of the foot, causing an elevation of the medial edge. s. of the forearm rotation of the forearm in such a way that the palm of the hand faces foreward when the arm is in the anatomical position, or upward when the arm is extended at a right angle to the body.

supinator (soo′pi-na-ter, -tor) [TA]
SYN: s. (muscle). See s. (muscle), biceps brachii (muscle).

supine (soo-pin′)
1. Denoting the body when lying face upward. 2. Supination of the forearm or of the foot. [L. supinus]

support (su-port′)
1. To add to in an attempt to give greater strength. 2. SYN: supporter. 3. In dentistry, a term used to denote resistance to vertical components of masticatory force. [L. supporto, to carry]

supporter (su-port′er)
An apparatus intended to hold in place a dependent or pendulous part, prolapsed organ, or joint. SYN: support (2) . [see support]

suppository (su-poz′i-tor-e)
A small solid body shaped for ready introduction into one of the orifices of the body other than the oral cavity ( e.g., rectum, urethra, vagina), made of a substance, usually medicated, which is solid at ordinary temperatures but melts at body temperature. S. bases usually used are theobroma oil, glycerinated gelatin, hydrogenated vegetable oils, mixtures of polyethylene glycols of various molecular weights, and fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol. [L. suppositorium, fr. suppositorius, placed underneath] glycerin s. a conical translucent dosage form for rectal administration intended for the relief of constipation; frequently used in young children. Contains glycerin and a stiffening agent such as sodium stearate (a soap). Action is produced by lubrication, water retention, and local irritation.

suppression (su-presh′un)
1. Deliberately excluding from conscious thought. Cf.:repression. 2. Arrest of the secretion of a fluid, such as urine or bile. Cf.:retention (2) . 3. Checking of an abnormal flow or discharge, as in s. of a hemorrhage. 4. The effect of a second mutation which overwrites a phenotypic change caused by a previous mutation at a different point on the chromosome. See epistasis. 5. Inhibition of vision in one eye when dissimilar images fall on corresponding retinal points. [L. subprimo (subp-), pp. -pressus, to press down] fixation s. the reduction in induced or spontaneous nystagmus that occurs with visual fixation. immune s. s. of the immune response by some compound or agent. intergenic s. See suppressor mutation (2) . intragenic s. See suppressor mutation (2) .

suppressor (soo-pres′or)
A compound that suppresses the effects of mutation or suppresses what would be a normal course of events. amber s. a mutant gene that codes for a tRNA whose anticodon has been altered so that the altered tRNA responds to UAG codons as well.

suppurant (sup′ur-ant)
1. Causing or inducing suppuration. 2. An agent with this action. [L. suppurans, causing suppuration]

suppurate (sup′yur-at)
To form pus. [L. sup-puro (subp-), pp. -atus, to form pus (pur), pus]

suppuration (sup′yu-ra′shun)
The formation of pus. SYN: pyesis, pyogenesis, pyopoiesis, pyosis. [L. suppuratio (see suppurate)]

suppurative (sup′yur-a-tiv)
Forming pus.

A position above the part indicated by the word to which it is joined; in this sense, the same as super-; opposite of infra-. [L. supra, on the upper side]

supra-acromial (soo-pra-a-kro′me-al)
SYN: superacromial.

supra-anal (soo-pra-a′nal)
Above the anus. SYN: superanal.

supra-auricular (soo-pra-aw-rik′u-lar)
Above the auricle or pinna of the ear.

supra-axillary (soo′pra-ak′si-lar′e)
Above the axilla.

suprabuccal (soo-pra-buk′al)
Above the cheek.

suprabulge (soo′pra-bulj)
The portion of the crown of a tooth that converges toward the occlusal surface of the tooth.

supracardinal (soo-pra-kar′di-nal)
Lying dorsal to the anterior or posterior cardinal veins in the embryo.


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