Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


sweating (swet′ing)
SYN: perspiration (1) .

sweep (swep)
The travel of the beam of a cathode ray oscilloscope from left to right, representing the time axis, produced by an artificially generated sawtooth voltage.

Robert Douglas, 20th century English dermatologist. See S. disease.

See Gordon and S. stain.

swelling (swel′ing)
1. An enlargement, e.g., a protuberance or tumor. 2. In embryology, a primordial elevation that develops into a fold, ridge, or prominence. albuminous s. SYN: cloudy s.. arytenoid s. paired primordial elevations, on either side of the embryonic larynx, within which the arytenoid cartilages are formed. brain s. a pathologic entity, localized or generalized, characterized by an increase in bulk of brain tissue, due to expansion of the intravascular (congestion) or extravascular (edema) compartments that may coexist or may occur separately and be clinically indistinguishable; clinical manifestations depend on disturbed neuronal function due to local s., shifting of intracranial structures, and the effects of intracranial hypertension or circulatory disturbance. Calabar s. SYN: loiasis. cloudy s. s. of cells due to injury to the membranes affecting ionic transfer; causes an accumulation of intracellular water. SYN: albuminous s., granular degeneration, hydropic degeneration, parenchymatous degeneration. fugitive s. SYN: loiasis. genital swellings paired primordial elevations flanking the genital tubercle and the urogenital orifice of the embryo; they develop into the labioscrotal folds, which become the labia majora in the female and unite to form the scrotal pouch of the male. SYN: labioscrotal swellings. hunger s. starvation edema caused by many factors, primarily reduced serum albumin. labial s. the female embryonic genital s. which elongates to become the definitive labium majus. SEE ALSO: genital swellings. labioscrotal swellings SYN: genital swellings. lateral lingual swellings in the embryo, paired oval elevations that appear in the floor of the mouth at the mandibular arch level; the primordial elevations, composed of mesenchyme covered by ectoderm of stomodeal origin, merge to form the greater part of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. levator s. SYN: torus levatorius. Neufeld capsular s. increase in opacity and visibility of the capsule of capsulated organisms exposed to specific agglutinating anticapsular antibodies. SYN: Neufeld reaction, quellung phenomenon, quellung reaction (1) , quellung test. scrotal s. the s. formed after the embryonic genital swellings have fused together, become spherical, and positioned at the base of the penis; just before birth the testis comes to lie within it. Spielmeyer acute s. a form of degeneration of nerve cells in which the cell body and its processes swell and stain palely and diffusely.

switching (swich′ing)
1. Making a shift or exchange. 2. The movement of a defined region of DNA within a genome. class s. a change in the expression of the C region of an immunoglobulin heavy chain.

Paul R., U.S. pediatrician, *1921. See S.-James syndrome, S.-James-MacLeod syndrome.

sycosis (si-ko′sis)
A pustular folliculitis, particularly of the bearded area. [G. sykosis, fr. sykon, fig, + -osis, condition]

Thomas, English physician, 1624–1689. See S. chorea, S. disease.

Sydney crease
See under crease.

Sydney line
See under line.

syllable-stumbling (sil′a-bl-stum′bling)
A form of stuttering in which halting occurs at certain syllables that are difficult for the individual to enunciate. SYN: dyssyllabia. [L. syllabe, several letters or sounds taken together]

sylvatic (sil-vat′ik)
Occurring in or affecting wild animals. [L. silva, woods]

Ejnar, Norwegian physician, 1880–1931. See S. disease.

sylvian (sil′ve-an)
Relating to Franciscus or Jacobus Sylvius or to any of the structures described by either of them.

Jacobus (Jacques), French anatomist, 1478–1555. See caro quadrata sylvii, os sylvii.

Le Böe, Franciscus (François), Dutch physician, anatomist, and physiologist, 1614–1672. See sylvian angle, sylvian aqueduct, sylvian fissure, sylvian line, sylvian point, sylvian valve, sylvian ventricle, fossa of S., vallecula sylvii.

See syn-.

symballophone (sim-bal′o-fon)
A stethoscope having two chest pieces, designed to lateralize sound and produce a stereophonic effect. [G. symballo, to throw together, + phone, sound]

symbion, symbiont (sim′be-on, -ont)
An organism associated with another in symbiosis. SYN: mutualist, symbiote. [G. s., neut. of symbios, living together]

symbiosis (sim-be-o′sis)
1. The biological association of two or more species to their mutual benefit. Cf.:commensalism, mutualistic s., parasitism. 2. The mutual cooperation or interdependence of two persons, as mother and infant, or husband and wife; sometimes used to denote excessive or pathological interdependence of two persons. [G. s., state of living together, fr. sym- + bios, life, + -osis, condition] dyadic s. s. between a child and one parent. mutualistic s. s. in which all partners obtain an advantage. triadic s. s. between a child and both parents.

symbiote (sim′be-ot)
SYN: symbion.

symbiotic (sim-be-ot′ik)
Relating to symbiosis.

symblepharon (sim-blef′a-ron)
Adhesion of one or both eyelids to the eyeball, partial or complete, resulting from burns or other trauma but rarely congenital. SYN: atretoblepharia. [sym- + G. blepharon, eyelid] anterior s. union between the lid and eyeball by a fibrous band not involving the fornix. posterior s. adhesion between the eyeball and eyelid involving the fornix.

symbol (sim′bol)
1. A conventional sign serving as an abbreviation. 2. In chemistry, an abbreviation of the name of an element, radical, or compound, expressing in chemical formulas one atom or molecule of that element ( e.g., H and O in H2O); in biochemistry, an abbreviation of trivial names of molecules used primarily in combination with other similar symbols to construct larger assemblies ( e.g., Gly for glycine, Ado for adenosine, Glc for glucose). 3. In psychoanalysis, an object or action that is interpreted to represent some repressed or unconscious desire, often sexual. 4. A philosophical-linguistic sign. SEE ALSO: conventional signs, under sign. [G. symbolon, a mark or sign, fr. sym-ballo, to throw together]

symbolia (sim-bo′le-a)
The capability of recognizing the form and nature of an object by touch. [G. symbolon, a mark or sign]

symbolism (sim′bo-lizm)
1. In psychoanalysis, the process involved in the disguised representation in consciousness of unconscious or repressed contents or events. 2. A mental state in which a person regards everything that happens as symbolic of the person's own thoughts. 3. The description of the emotional life and experiences in abstract terms.

symbolization (sim′bo-li-za′shun)
An unconscious mental mechanism whereby one object or idea is represented by another.

symbrachydactyly (sim-brak′i-dak′ti-le)
Condition in which abnormally short fingers are joined or webbed in their proximal portions. [sym- + G. brachys, short, + daktylos, finger]

James, Scottish surgeon, 1799–1870. See S. amputation, S. operation.

Johnson, Scottish anatomist, 1851–1924. See S. anococcygeal body.

symmelia (si-me′le-a)
SYN: sirenomelia. [sym- + G. melos, limb]

W. St. C., British pathologist, 1863–1937. See S. clay pipestem fibrosis.

symmetry (sim′e-tre)
Equality or correspondence in form of parts distributed around a center or an axis, at the extremities or poles, or on the opposite sides of any body. [G. symmetria, fr. sym- + metron, measure] inverse s. correspondence of the right or left side of an asymmetrical individual to the left or right side of another.

sympath-, sympatheto-, sympathico-, sympatho-
The sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. [see sympathetic]

sympathectomy (sim-pa-thek′to-me)
Excision of a segment of a sympathetic nerve or of one or more sympathetic ganglia. SYN: sympathetectomy, sympathicectomy. [sympath- + G. ektome, excision] chemical s. destruction of the periareterial sympathetic nerves, as in Doppler operation, by a corrosive such as phenol. periarterial s. sympathetic denervation by arterial decortication. SYN: histonectomy, Leriche operation. presacral s. SYN: presacral neurectomy.

sympathetectomy (sim-pa-the-tek′to-me)
SYN: sympathectomy.

sympathetic (sim-pa-thet′ik)
1. Relating to or exhibiting sympathy. 2. Denoting the s. part of the autonomic nervous system. SYN: sympathic. [G. sympathetikos, fr. sympatheo, to feel with, sympathize, fr. syn, with, + pathos, suffering]

sympathetoblast (sim-pa-thet′o-blast)
SYN: sympathoblast.

sympathic (sim-path′ik)
SYN: sympathetic.

sympathicectomy (sim-path′i-sek′to-me)
SYN: sympathectomy.

See sympath-.

sympathicoblast (sim-path′i-ko-blast)
SYN: sympathoblast.

sympathiconeuritis (sim-path′i-ko-noo-ri′tis)
Inflammation of the autonomic nerves.

sympathicopathy (sim-path-i-kop′a-the)
A disease resulting from a disorder of the autonomic nervous system. [sympathico- + G. pathos, suffering]

sympathicotonia (sim-path′i-ko-to′ne-a)
A condition in which there is increased tonus of the sympathetic system and a marked tendency to vascular spasm and high blood pressure; opposed to vagotonia. [sympathico- + G. tonos, tone, tension]

sympathicotonic (sim-path′i-ko-ton′ik)
Relating to or characterized by sympathicotonia.

sympathicotripsy (sim-path′i-ko-trip′se)
Operation of crushing the sympathetic ganglion. [sympathico- + G. tripsis, a rubbing]

sympathin (sim′pa-thin)
The substance diffusing into circulation from sympathetic nerve terminals when they are active. The term was introduced by W.B. Cannon, who thought that this substance differed from the mediator produced by the nerve ending (now known to be incorrect); the mediator itself (norepinephrine) diffuses into circulation. SYN: sympathetic hormone.

sympathism (sim′pa-thizm)
SYN: suggestibility. [G. sympatheia, sympathy]

sympathizer (sim′pa-thi-zer)
1. An eye affected with sympathetic ophthalmia. 2. One who exhibits sympathy.

See sympath-.

sympathoadrenal (sim′pa-tho-a-dre′nal)
Relating to the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system and the medulla of the adrenal gland, as the postganglionic neurons.

sympathoblast (sim′pa-tho-blast)
A primitive cell derived from the neural crest glia; with the pheochromoblasts, sympathoblasts enter into the formation of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. SYN: sympathetoblast, sympathicoblast. [sympatho- + G. blastos, germ]

sympathogonia (sim′pa-tho-go′ne-a)
The completely undifferentiated cells of the sympathetic nervous system. [sympatho- + G. gone, seed]

sympatholytic (sim′pa-tho-lit′ik)
Denoting antagonism to or inhibition of adrenergic nerve activity. SEE ALSO: adrenergic blocking agent, antiadrenergic. [sympatho- + G. lysis, a loosening]

sympathomimetic (sim′pa-tho-mi-met′ik)
Denoting mimicking of action of the sympathetic system. SEE ALSO: adrenomimetic. [sympatho- + G. mimikos, imitating]

sympathy (sim′pa-the)
1. The mutual relation, physiologic or pathologic, between two organs, systems, or parts of the body. 2. Mental contagion, as seen in mass hysteria or in the yawning induced by seeing another person yawn. 3. An expressed sensitive appreciation or emotional concern for and sharing of the mental and emotional state of another person. Cf.:empathy (1) . [G. sympatheia, fr. sym- + pathos, suffering]

symperitoneal (sim′per-i-to-ne′al)
Relating to the surgical induction of adhesion between two portions of the peritoneum.

symphalangism, symphalangy (sim-fal′an-jizm, sim-fal′an-je)
1. SYN: syndactyly. 2. Ankylosis of the finger or toe joints. [sym- + phalanx]

symphysial, symphyseal (sim-fiz′e-al)
Grown together; relating to a symphysis; fused. SYN: symphysic.

symphysic (sim-fiz′ik)
SYN: symphysial.

symphysion (sim-fiz′e-on)
A craniometric point, the most anterior point of the alveolar process of the mandible.

symphysiotome, symphyseotome (sim-fiz′e-o-tom)
Instrument for use in symphysiotomy.

symphysiotomy, symphyseotomy (sim-fiz-e-ot′o-me)
Division of the pubic joint to increase the capacity of a contracted pelvis sufficiently to permit passage of a living child. SYN: synchondrotomy. [symphysis + G. tome, incision]

symphysis, gen. symphyses (sim′fi-sis, -sez) [TA]
1. [NA] Form of cartilaginous joint in which union between two bones is effected by means of fibrocartilage. SYN: amphiarthrosis. 2. A union, meeting point, or commissure of any two structures. 3. A pathologic adhesion or growing together. SYN: secondary cartilaginous joint [TA] . [G. a growing together] intervertebral s. [TA] the union between adjacent vertebral bodies composed of the nucleus pulposus, annular ligament, and the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. SYN: s. intervertebralis [TA] . s. intervertebralis [TA] SYN: intervertebral s.. s. mandibulae [TA] SYN: mandibular s.. mandibular s. [TA] the fibrocartilaginous union of the two halves of the mandible in the fetus; it becomes an osseous union during the first year. SYN: s. mandibulae [TA] , mental s., s. mentalis, s. menti. manubriosternal s. [TA] the later union, by fibrocartilage, of the manubrium and the body of the sternum; it begins as a synchondrosis and becomes a s., occasionally fusing to become a synostosis. SYN: s. manubriosternalis [TA] , sternomanubrial junction. s. manubriosternalis [TA] SYN: manubriosternal s.. mental s. SYN: mandibular s.. s. mentalis SYN: mandibular s.. s. menti SYN: mandibular s.. pericardial s. adhesion between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium. pubic s. [TA] the firm fibrocartilaginous joint between the two pubic bones. SYN: s. pubica [TA] , s. pubis. s. pubica [TA] SYN: pubic s.. s. pubis SYN: pubic s.. s. sacrococcygea SYN: sacrococcygeal joint. s. xiphosternalis [TA] SYN: xiphisternal joint.

symplasmatic (sim-plaz-mat′ik)
Relating to the union of protoplasm as in giant cell formation. [G. sym- plasso, to mold together]


. . . Feedback