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Medical Dictionary


synechia, pl .synechiae (si-nek′e-a, -ke-e; si-ne′ke-a)
Any adhesion; specifically, anterior or posterior s.. [G. synecheia, continuity, fr. syn, together, + echo, to have, hold] anterior s. adhesion of the iris to the cornea. anular s. adhesion of the entire pupillary margin of the iris to the capsule of the lens. peripheral anterior s. SYN: goniosynechia. posterior s. adhesion of the iris to the capsule of the lens. total s. adhesion of the entire surface of the iris to the lens capsule.

synechiotomy (si-nek′e-ot′o-me)
Division of the adhesions in synechia. [synechia + G. tome, incision]

synechotome (si-nek′o-tom)
A small knife for use in synechiotomy.

synectenterotomy (si-nek′ten-ter-ot′o-me)
Division of intestinal adhesions. [G. synektos, held together (see synechia), + enteron, intestine, + tome, incision]

synencephalocele (sin-en-sef′a-lo-sel)
Protrusion of brain substance through a defect in the skull, with adhesions preventing reduction. [syn- + G. enkephalos, brain, + kele, hernia]

syneresis (si-ner′e-sis)
1. The contraction of a gel, e.g., a blood clot, by which part of the dispersion medium is squeezed out. 2. Degeneration of the vitreous humor with loss of gel consistency to become partially or completely fluid. [G. synairesis, a taking or drawing together]

synergetic (sin-er-jet′ik)
SYN: synergistic.

synergia (si-ner′je-a)
SYN: synergism.

synergic (si-ner′jik)
SYN: synergistic.

synergism (sin′er-jizm)
Coordinated or correlated action of two or more structures, agents, or physiologic processes so that the combined action is greater than the sum of each acting separately. Cf.:antagonism. SYN: synergia, synergistic effect, synergy. [G. synergia, fr. syn, together, + ergon, work]

synergist (sin′er-jist)
A structure, agent, or physiologic process that aids the action of another. Cf.:antagonist.

synergistic (sin-er-jis′tik)
1. Pertaining to synergism. 2. Denoting a synergist. SYN: synergetic, synergic.

synergy (sin′er-je)
SYN: synergism.

synesthesia (sin-es-the′ze-a)
1. A condition in which a stimulus, in addition to exciting the usual and normally located sensation, gives rise to a subjective sensation of different character or localization; e.g., color hearing, color taste. 2. From a neurolinguistic perspective, stimulus-response conditioning such as seen in a phobia. [syn- + G. aisthesis, sensation] s. algica SYN: synesthesialgia.

synesthesialgia (sin′es-the-ze-al′je-a)
Painful synesthesia. SYN: synesthesia algica.

Syngamidae (sin-gam′i-de)
A family of nematodes (order Strongyloidea) parasitic in the respiratory system of birds and mammals. [see Syngamus]

Syngamus (sin′ga-mus)
A genus of bloodsucking, strongyle gapeworms of the family Syngamidae. S. laryngeus infestation of the larynx with nematodes of the S. genus causing cough, hemoptysis, foreign body sensation, and shortness of breath.

syngamy (sin′ga-me)
Conjugation of the gametes in fertilization. [syn- + G. gamos, marriage]

syngeneic (sin′je-ne′ik)
Relating to genetically identical individuals. SYN: isogeneic, isogenic, isologous, isoplastic, syngenic. [G. syngenes, congenital]

syngenesis (sin-jen′e-sis)
SYN: sexual reproduction. [syn- + G. genesis, origin]

syngenetic (sin-je-net′ik)
Relating to syngenesis.

syngenic (sin-jen′ik)
SYN: syngeneic.

syngnathia (sin-nath′e-a)
Congenital adhesion of the maxilla and mandible by fibrous bands. [syn- + G. gnathos, jaw]

syngraft (sin′graft)
A tissue or organ transplanted between genetically identical individuals. SYN: isogeneic graft, isograft, isologous graft, isoplastic graft, syngeneic graft.

synidrosis (sin-i-dro′sis)
A condition in which excessive sweating is part of the clinical manifestation. [syn- + G. hidrosis, sweating]

synizesis (sin-i-ze′sis)
1. Closure or obliteration of the pupil. 2. The massing of chromatin at one side of the nucleus that occurs usually at the beginning of synapsis. [G. collapse]

synkaryon (sin-kar′e-on)
The nucleus formed by the fusion of the two pronuclei in karyogamy. SYN: syncaryon. [syn- + G. karyon, kernel (nucleus)]

synkinesis (sin-ki-ne′sis)
Involuntary movement accompanying a voluntary one, as the movement of a closed eye following that of the uncovered one, or the movement occurring in a paralyzed muscle accompanying motion in another part. SYN: syncinesis. [syn- + G. kinesis, movement]

synkinetic (sin-ki-net′ik)
Relating to or marked by synkinesis.

synnematin B (sin-e-ma′tin, si-ne′ma-tin)
SYN: cephalosporin N.

synonychia (sin-o-nik′e-a)
Fusion of two or more nails of the digits, as in syndactyly. [sin- + G. onyx (onych-), nail]

synonym (sin′o-nim)
In biologic nomenclature, a term used to denote one of two or more names for the same species or taxonomic group (taxon). objective synonyms different names for the same organism, based on one and the same nomenclatural type, as when a species is transferred from one genus to another ( e.g., the transfer of Diplococcus pneumoniae to the genus Streptococcus as Streptococcus pneumoniae), in contrast to subjective synonyms. senior s. the earliest published of two or more available names for the same organism, usually used as the correct name (law of priority). subjective synonyms different names, based on different nomenclatural types, for organisms that were originally regarded as different but were later considered to be identical, or nearly so, as a matter of personal opinion, in contrast to objective synonyms.

synophrys (sin-of′ris)
Hypertrophy and fusion of the eyebrows. [syn- + G. ophrys, eyebrow]

synophthalmia (sin-of-thal′me-a)
SYN: cyclopia. [syn- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

synophthalmus (-mus)
SYN: cyclopia.

synoptophore (sin-op′to-for)
A modified form of Wheatstone stereoscope used in orthoptic training. [syn- + G. ops, eye, + phoros, bearing]

synorchidism, synorchism (sin-or′ki-dizm, sin-or′kizm)
Congenital fusion of the testes in the abdomen or scrotum. [syn- + G. orchis, testis]

synoscheos (sin-os′ke-os)
Partial or complete adhesion of the penis and scrotum, a malformation in hermaphroditism. [syn- + G. osche, scrotum]

synosteology (sin-os′te-ol′o-je)
SYN: arthrology. [syn- + G. osteon, bone, + logos, study]

synosteosis (sin-os-te-o′sis)
SYN: synostosis.

synostosis (sin-os-to′sis) [TA]
Osseous union between two bones that are not supposed to be united; commonly refers to formation of a bony bundle between the radius and ulna following fracture of these two bones. SYN: bony ankylosis, synosteosis, true ankylosis. [syn- + G. osteon, bone, + -osis, condition] sagittal s. SYN: scaphocephaly. tribasilar s. fusion in early life of the three bones at the base of the skull, resulting in interference with the development of the brain.

synostotic (sin-os-tot′ik)
Relating to synostosis.

synotia (si-no′she-a)
Fusion or abnormal approximation of the lobes of the ears in otocephaly. [syn- + G. ous, ear]

synovectomy (sin-o-vek′to-me)
Excision of a portion or all of the synovial membrane of a joint. [synovia + G. ektome, excision] radiopharmaceutical s. the treatment of abnormal synovial membranes by radiation derived from the instillation in the joint of a radiopharmaceutical, such as radiogold.

synovia (si-no′ve-a) [TA]
SYN: synovial fluid. [Mod. L., a word coined by Paracelsus, fr. G. syn, together, + oon (L. ovum), egg]

synovial (si-no′ve-al)
1. Relating to, containing, or consisting of synovia. 2. Relating to the membrana synovialis.

synoviparous (sin′o-vip′a-rus)
Producing synovia. [synovia + L. pario, to produce]

synovitis (sin-o-vi′tis)
Inflammation of a synovial membrane, especially that of a joint; in general, when unqualified, the same as arthritis. [synovia + G. -itis, inflammation] bursal s. SYN: bursitis. chronic hemorrhagic villous s. SYN: pigmented villonodular s.. dry s. s. with little serous or purulent effusion. SYN: s. sicca. filarial s. synovial inflammation often followed by fibrotic ankylosis due to microfilariae in the joint. pigmented villonodular s. diffuse outgrowths of synovial membrane of a joint, usually the knee, composed of synovial villi and fibrous nodules infiltrated by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells; the condition may be inflammatory, although recurrence is likely to follow incomplete removal. SYN: chronic hemorrhagic villous s.. purulent s. SYN: suppurative arthritis. serous s. s. with a large effusion of nonpurulent fluid. s. sicca SYN: dry s.. suppurative s. SYN: suppurative arthritis. tendinous s. SYN: tenosynovitis.

synovium (si-no′ve-um)
SYN: synovial membrane.

synpolydactyly (sin′pol-e-dak′ti-le)
Associated syndactyly and polydactyly.

syntactics (sin-tak′tiks)
A branch of semiotics concerned with the formal relations between signs, in abstraction from their meaning and their interpreters. [syn- + G. taxis, order]

syntality (sin-tal′i-te)
The consistent and predictable behavior of a social group. [prob. telescoped from syn- + mentality]

syntectic (sin-tek′tik)
Pertaining to or marked by syntexis.

syntenic (sin-ten′ik)
Pertaining to synteny.

synteny (sin′ten-e)
The relationship between two genetic loci (not genes) represented on the same chromosomal pair or (for haploid chromosomes) on the same chromosome; an anatomic rather than a segregational relationship. [syn- + G. tainia, ribbon]

syntexis (sin-tek′sis)
Emaciation or wasting. [G. syn-texis, a melting together]

synthase (sin′thas)
Trivial name used in the Enzyme Commission Report for a lyase reaction going in the reverse direction (NTP-independent). For individual synthases, see the specific names. SEE ALSO: synthetase.

synthermal (sin-ther′mal)
Having the same temperature. [syn- + G. therme, heat]

synthesis, pl .syntheses (sin′the-sis, -sez)
1. A building up, putting together, composition. 2. In chemistry, the formation of compounds by the union of simpler compounds or elements. 3. Stage in the cell cycle in which DNA is synthesized as a preliminary to cell division. [G. fr. syn, together, + thesis, a placing, arranging] s. of continuity healing of the edges of a wound or fracture. enzymatic s. s. by enzymes. See biosynthesis. Kiliani-Fischer s. a synthetic procedure for the extension of the carbon atom chain of aldoses by treatment with cyanide; hydrolysis of the cyanohydrins followed by reduction of the lactone yields the homologous aldose; with this method, d-glucose and d-mannose can be synthesized from d-arabinose. Merrifield s. the s. of peptides and proteins via an automated system on carrier polymers. protein s. the process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template.

synthesize (sin′the-siz)
To make something by synthesis, i.e., synthetically.

synthetase (sin′the-tas)
An enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of a specific substance. S. is limited, in the Enzyme Commission Report, to use as a trivial name for the ligases (EC class 6), which in turn are those synthesizing enzymes that require the cleavage of a pyrophosphate linkage in ATP or a similar compound. Reversal of lyase (EC class 4) reactions, producing a synthesis, is indicated (in trivial names) by synthase; such reactions do not involve pyrophosphate cleavage. For individual synthetases, see the specific names.

synthetic (sin-thet′ik)
Relating to or made by synthesis.

synthorax (sin-thor′aks)
SYN: thoracopagus.

syntonic (sin-ton′ik)
Having even tone or temperament; a personality trait characterized by a high degree of emotional responsiveness to the environment. [G. syntonos, in harmony, fr. syn, together, + tonos, tone]

syntrophism (sin′tro-fizm)
State of mutual dependence, with reference to food supply, of organs or cells of a plant or an animal. [syn- + G. trophe, nourishment]

syntrophoblast (sin-tro′fo-blast, -trof′o-)
SYN: syncytiotrophoblast.

syntropic (sin-trop′ik)
Relating to syntropy.

syntropy (sin′tro-pe)
1. The tendency sometimes seen in two diseases to coalesce into one. 2. The state of harmonious association with others. 3. In anatomy, a number of similar structures inclined in one general direction; e.g., the spinous processes of a series of vertebrae, the ribs. [syn- + G. trope, a turning] inverse s. a situation in which the presence of one disease tends to decrease the possibility of another.


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