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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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tactual (tak′chool)
Relating to or caused by touch.

TAD
Acronym for transient acantholytic dermatosis.

Taenia (te′ne-a)
A genus of cestodes that formerly included most of the tapeworms, but is now restricted to those species infecting carnivores with cysticerci found in tissues of various herbivores, rodents, and other animals of prey. SEE ALSO: tapeworm. [see t.] T. africana a tapeworm found in native Africans, the cysticercus of which is unknown. T. armata SYN: T. solium. T. crassicollis SYN: T. taeniaeformis. T. demerariensis former name for Davainea madagascariensis. T. dentata SYN: T. solium. T. equina SYN: Anoplocephala perfoliata. T. hominis unusual form of T. saginata. T. hydatigena a tapeworm of dogs, cats, wolves, foxes, and other carnivores; the larva is known as Cysticercus tenuicollis. T. madagascariensis former name for Davainea madagascariensis. T. minima former name for Hymenolepis nana. T. ovis a tapeworm of dogs and foxes whose larval form is found in the muscles of sheep; heavy larval infections in sheep can have severe economic consequences due to condemnation of carcasses at meat inspection. T. philippina atypical form of T. saginata. T. pisiformis a common tapeworm of dogs, foxes, and other carnivores; the larval form is Cysticercus pisiformis. T. quadrilobata SYN: Anoplocephala perfoliata. T. saginata the beef, hookless, or unarmed tapeworm of humans, acquired by eating insufficiently cooked flesh of cattle infected with Cysticercus bovis. T. solium the pork, armed, or solitary tapeworm of humans, acquired by eating insufficiently cooked pork infected with Cysticercus cellulosae; hatching of ova within the human intestine may result in establishment of cysticerci in human tissues, resulting in cysticercosis. SYN: T. armata, T. dentata. T. taeniaeformis one of the common tapeworms of household cats; the larval form is called Cysticercus fasciolaris. SYN: Hydatigera taeniaeformis, T. crassicollis.

taenia (te′ne-a)
1. A coiled bandlike anatomic structure. See tenia (1) . 2. Common name for a tapeworm, especially of the genus T.. SYN: tenia (2) . [L., fr. G. tainia, band, tape, a tapeworm]

Taeniarhynchus (te′ne-a-ring′kus)
A genus established for the Taenia species having a rudimentary rostellum but lacking the rostellar hooklets typical of Taenia. The best known example is T. saginatus, but the older name, Taenia saginata, is more commonly used. [G. tainia, band, + rhynchos, snout]

taeniasis (te-ne-i′a-sis)
Infection with cestodes of the genus Taenia.

taeniid (te-ne′id)
Common name for a member of the family Taeniidae.

Taeniidae (te-ne′i-de)
A family of parasitic cestodes (order Cyclophyllidea) that includes the genera Taenia, Taeniarhynchus, Multiceps, and Echinococcus.

taenioid (te′ne-oyd)
Denoting members of the genus Taenia.

Taeniorhynchus (te-ne-o-ring′kus)
A genus and subgenus of mosquitoes now considered synonymous with Mansonia. [G. tainia, band, + rhynchos, snout]

Taenzer
Paul R., German dermatologist, 1858–1919. See T. stain, Unna-T. stain.

TAF
Abbreviation for tumor angiogenic factor.

tag
1. See label, tracer. 2. A small outgrowth or polyp. 3. In magnetic resonance imaging, a band of saturation that can be followed to detect tissue motion. anal skin t. a fibrous polyp of the skin just outside the anus. epiploic tags SYN: omental appendices, under appendix. sentinel t. projecting edematous skin at the lower end of an anal fissure. skin t. 1. a polypoid outgrowth of both epidermis and dermal fibrovascular tissue; 2. in embryology, skin-covered projection that may or may not contain cartilage; typically located in a line between the tragus and corner of the mouth and associated with external ear anomalies. SYN: acrochordon, fibroepithelial polyp, fibroma molle, papilloma molle, soft papilloma.

tagatose (tag′a-tos)
A ketohexose; d-t. is epimeric with d-fructose.

tagliacotian (tal-yah-co′she-an)
Pertaining to or described by Tagliacozzi.

Tagliacozzi
Gaspare, Italian surgeon, 1546–1599.

tail (tal) [TA]
1. Any t., or taillike structure, or tapering or elongated extremity of an organ or other part. SYN: cauda [TA] . 2. In veterinary anatomy, a free appendage representing the caudal end of the vertebral column; covered by skin and hair, feathers, or scales. [A.S. taegl] t. of caudate nucleus [TA] the elongated posterior extension of the caudate nucleus that parallels the body and inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. SYN: cauda nuclei caudati [TA] , cauda striati. t. of dentate gyrus SYN: uncus band of Giacomini. t. of epididymis [TA] the inferior part of the epididymis that leads into the ductus deferens; part of the reservoir of spermatozoa. SYN: cauda epididymidis [TA] , cauda epididymis, globus minor. t. of helix [TA] a flattened process terminating the cartilage of the helix of the ear, posteriorly and inferiorly. SYN: cauda helicis [TA] . t. of pancreas [TA] the left extremity of the pancreas within the lienorenal ligament. SYN: cauda pancreatis [TA] .

tailgut (tal′gut)
SYN: postanal gut.

Tait
Robert L., English gynecologist, 1845–1899. See T. law.

Taka-diastase (ta′ka-di′as-tas)
SYN: α-amylase.

Takahara
Shigeo, 20th century Japanese otolaryngologist. See T. disease.

Takayama
Masao, Japanese physician, *1872. See T. stain.

Takayasu (Takayashu)
Michishige, Japanese ophthalmologist, *1872. See T. arteritis, T. disease, T. syndrome.

take (tak)
A successful grafting operation or vaccination.

talalgia (ta-lal′je-a)
Pain in the ankle. [L. talus, ankle, G. algos, pain]

talar (ta′lar)
Relating to the talus.

Talbot
William Henry Fox, British scientist, 1800–1877. See Plateau-T. law.

talc (talk)
Native hydrous magnesium silicate, sometimes containing small proportions of aluminum silicate, purified by boiling powdered t. with hydrochloric acid in water; used in pharmacy as a filter aid, as a dusting powder, and in cosmetic preparations. SYN: French chalk, soapstone, talcum. [Ar. talq]

talcosis (tal-ko′sis)
A pulmonary disorder related to silicosis, occurring in workers exposed to talc mixed with silicates; characterized by restrictive or obstructive disorders of breathing or the two in combination. [talc + G. -osis, condition] pulmonary t. pneumoconiosis from inhaling talc dusts.

talcum (tal′kum)
SYN: talc. [L.]

talion (tal′e-on, tal′yun)
The principle of retribution in intrapsychic behavior. [Welsh tal, compensation] t. dread The symbolic anxieties that represent the unconscious dread of penalties for an act.

talipedic (tal-i-ped′ik)
Clubfooted.

talipes (tal′i-pez)
Any deformity of the foot involving the talus. [L. talus, ankle, + pes, foot] t. calcaneovalgus t. calcaneus and t. valgus combined; the foot is dorsiflexed, everted, and abducted. t. calcaneovarus t. calcaneus and t. varus combined; the foot is dorsiflexed, inverted, and adducted. t. calcaneus a deformity due to weakness or absence of the calf muscles, in which the axis of the calcaneus becomes vertically oriented; commonly seen in poliomyelitis. SYN: calcaneus (2) . t. cavus an exaggeration of the normal arch of the foot. SYN: contracted foot, pes cavus, t. plantaris. t. equinovalgus t. equinus and t. valgus combined; the foot is plantarflexed, everted, and abducted. SYN: equinovalgus, pes equinovalgus. t. equinovarus t. equinus and t. varus combined; the foot is plantarflexed, inverted, and adducted. SYN: clubfoot, equinovarus, pes equinovarus. t. equinus permanent plantar flexion of the foot so that only the ball rests on the ground; it is commonly combined with t. varus. t. plantaris SYN: t. cavus. t. planus SYN: pes planus. t. transversoplanus SYN: metatarsus latus. t. valgus permanent eversion of the foot, the inner side alone of the sole resting on the ground; it is usually combined with a breaking down of the plantar arch. SYN: pes abductus, pes pronatus, pes valgus. t. varus inversion of the foot, the outer side of the sole only touching the ground; usually some degree of t. equinus is associated with it, and often t. cavus. SYN: pes adductus, pes varus.

tallow (tal′o)
The rendered fat from mutton suet. prepared mutton t. SYN: prepared suet.

talo-
The talus. [L. talus, ankle, ankle bone]

talocalcaneal, talocalcanean (ta-lo-kal-ka′ne-al, ta-lo-kal-ka′ne-an)
Relating to the talus and the calcaneus.

talocrural (ta′lo-kroo′ral)
Relating to the talus and the bones of the leg; denoting the ankle joint.

talofibular (ta′lo-fib′u-lar)
Relating to the talus and the fibula.

talonavicular (ta′lo-na-vik′u-lar)
Relating to the talus and the navicular bone. SYN: astragaloscaphoid, taloscaphoid.

taloscaphoid (ta′lo-skaf′oyd)
SYN: talonavicular.

talose (tal′os)
An aldohexose, isomeric with glucose; d-t. is epimeric with d-galactose.

talotibial (ta′lo-tib′e-al)
Relating to the talus and the tibia.

talus, gen. tali (ta′lus, -li) [TA]
The bone of the foot that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint. SYN: ankle bone, ankle (3) . [L. ankle bone, heel]

tamarind (tam′a-rind)
The pulp of the fruit of Tamarindus indica (family Leguminosae), a large tree of India; mildly laxative. [Mediev. L. fr. Ar. tamr]

tambour (tahm-bur′)
The recording part of a graphic apparatus, such as a sphygmograph, consisting of a membrane stretched across the open end of a cylinder and the recording stylus attached to it. [Fr. drum]

Tamm
Igor, U.S. virologist, *1922. See T.-Horsfall mucoprotein, T.-Horsfall protein.

tamoxifen citrate (ta-mok′si-fen)
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen antagonist used in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.By competing with naturally occurring estrogen for binding sites on tissue cells, tamoxifen inhibits the stimulant effect of estrogen on breast cancers. Tumors that have been shown by biochemical assay to be rich in estrogen receptors are most likely to respond to treatment. Since 1985, tamoxifen has been used in patients who have undergone surgery or irradiation for breast cancer, to delay or prevent relapse. The drug has been found effective in reducing the risk of cancer recurrence or disease progression in women with or without axillary node metastasis. In women with extensive disease, tamoxifen therapy has been as effective as oophorectomy in retarding progression. In 1992, the National Cancer Institute's Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) enrolled more than 13,000 women in the U.S. and Canada to study the preventive value of tamoxifen. All participants were considered at high risk of breast cancer because of age (>60), strong family history, or a prior diagnosis of lobular carcinoma in situ. By March 1998 the difference in incidence of breast cancer between treated and placebo groups was so great that researchers concluded that the ethical need to inform participants of the clear benefits of active drug prophylaxis outweighed any possible benefits of further controlled study. Women in the highest risk categories showed 45% reduction in breast cancer. However, this study demonstrated no effect on mortality, and in two similar trials in Europe, tamoxifen failed to show a statistically significant protective effect. Women taking tamoxifen are at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cataracts. The danger of these adverse consequences is greatest in women over 50. Long-term use of the drug is associated with recurrent vaginal candidiasis. It is contraindicated during pregnancy because of the risk of fetal harm.

tampon
1. A cylinder or ball of cotton-wool, gauze, or other loose substance; used as a plug or pack in a canal or cavity to restrain hemorrhage, absorb secretions, or maintain a displaced organ in position. 2. To insert such a plug or pack. [O. Fr.] Corner t. a plug of omentum stuffed into a wound of the stomach or intestine as a temporary t..

tamponade, tamponage (tam-po-nad′, tam′po-nij)
1. Pathologic compression of an organ. 2. SYN: tamponing. cardiac t. compression of the heart due to critically increased volume of fluid in the pericardium. SYN: heart t.. chronic t. cardiac compression over long periods due to pathologically increased fluid in the pericardial sac. heart t. SYN: cardiac t..

tamponing, tamponment (tam′pon-ing, tam-pon′ment)
The act of inserting a tampon. SYN: tamponade (2) , tamponage.

tanacetol, tanacetone (ta-nas′tol, tan-a-se′ton)
SYN: thujone.

tandem (tan′dem)
Term used to describe multiple copies of the same sequence in a polynucleic acid that lie adjacent to one another.

tangentiality (tan-jen′she-al′i-te)
A disturbance in the associative thought process in which one tends to digress readily from one topic under discussion to other topics which arise in the course of associations; observed in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and certain types of organic brain disorders. Cf.:circumstantiality. [off on a tangent, fr. L. tango, to touch]

tangle (tang′l)
A small irregular knot. neurofibrillary t. intraneuronal accumulations of helical filaments that assume twisted contorted patterns; found in cells of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in individuals with Alzheimer disease.

tank
A device made to receive and/or hold liquids. Hubbard t. a large t., usually filled with warm water, used for therapeutic exercises in a program of physiotherapy.

tannase (tan′as)
Tannin acylhydrolase, an enzyme produced in cultures of Penicillium glaucum and found in certain tannin-forming plants; it hydrolyzes digallate to gallate, and also acts on ester links in other tannins.

tannate (tan′at)
A salt of tannic acid.

Tanner growth chart
See under chart.

Tanner stage
See under stage.

tannic (tan′ik)
Relating to tan (tan-bark) or to tannin.

tannic acid
A tannin, C76H52O46, that occurs in many plants, particularly in the bark of oaks and other members of the Fagaceae; used as a styptic and astringent, and in the treatment of diarrhea; available also as t. glycerite. Sometimes used synonymously with tannin.

tannin (tan′in)
Any one of a group of complex nonuniform plant constituents that can be classified into hydrolyzable tannins (esters of a sugar, usually glucose, and one or several trihydroxybenzenecarboxylic acids) and condensed tannins (derivatives of flavonols). Tannins are used in tanning, dyeing, photography, and as clarifying agents for beer and wine. Sometimes used synonymously with tannic acid. Tannins form black stains in the presence of iron.

tannylacetate (tan-il-as′e-tat)
SYN: acetyltannic acid.

tantalum (Ta) (tan′ta-lum)
A heavy metal of the vanadium group, atomic no. 73, atomic wt. 180.9479; used in surgical prostheses because of its noncorrosive properties. [G. mythical king of Lydia, Tantalus]

tantrum (tan′trum)
A fit of bad temper, especially in children.

tanycyte (tan′i-sit)
A variety of ependymal cell found principally in the walls of the third ventricle of the brain; the tanycytes may have branched or unbranched processes, some of which end on capillaries or neurons.




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