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Medical Dictionary


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telolecithal (tel-o-les′i-thal)
Denoting an ovum in which a large amount of deuteroplasm or yolk accumulates at the vegetative pole, as in the eggs of birds and reptiles. [G. telos, end, + G. lekithos, yolk]

telomerase (tel-o′mer-as)
A reverse transcriptase comprising an RNA template, which acts as a die for the TTAGGG sequence, and a catalytic protein component that is not found in normal, aging somatic cells. T. mediates the repair or preservation of telomere regions (terminal sequences) of chromosomes.The aging process that takes place in normal somatic cells, and the natural limit on the number of times such cells can undergo mitosis, involves a sequential shortening of telomeres due to failure of terminal sequences to be replicated during mitosis. Cells in which this shortening does not occur (cancer cells, germ cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and others) display a transient expression of t., which not only delays the erosion of telomeres but actually adds DNA bases to telomeres. Experimental transfection of a gene for the catalytic component of t. into normal, aging cells results in extension of telomeres. Restoring telomere length appears to reset gene expression, cell morphology, and the replicative life span. It has therefore been suggested that such procedures may permit therapeutic modification of the cellular mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, macular degeneration, and Alzheimer dementia. Cellular aging is but one element of clinical aging, however, others being heredity and environment. Although t. expression is an important marker of malignancy, it is not itself the cause of cancer. T. expression and telomere lengthening apparently do not alter normal cell cycle control, chromosome complement, or cell morphology.

telomere (tel′o-mer)
The distal end of a chromosome arm. [G. telos, end, + meros, part]

telopeptide (tel-o-pep′tid)
A peptide covalently bound in or on a protein, protruding therefrom and therefore subject to enzyme attack and maturation modification or cross-linking, and conferring immunogenic specificity.

telophase (tel′o-faz)
The final stage of mitosis or meiosis that begins when migration of chromosomes to the poles of the cell has been completed; the chromosomes progressively lengthen while the nuclear membranes of the two daughter nuclei are reconstructed and a cell membrane at the equator complete the separation of the two daughter cells. SYN: telokinesia. [G. telos, end, + phasis, appearance]

Telosporea (tel-o-spo′re-a)
SYN: Sporozoea.

Telosporidia (tel′o-spo-rid′e-a)
A former order of Sporozoea. [G. telos, end, + sporos, seed]

telotism (tel′o-tizm)
The perfect performance of a function, as that of sight or hearing. [G. telos, end]

TEM
Abbreviation for triethylenemelamine.

temazepam (te-maz′e-pam)
A benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic primarily used to relieve insomnia.

temper
1. Disposition; in general, any characteristic or particular state of mind. SYN: temperament (2) . 2. A display of irritation or anger. See tantrum. 3. To treat metal by application of heat, as in annealing or quenching.

temperament (tem′per-a-ment)
1. The psychological and biological organization peculiar to the individual, including one's character or personality predispositions, that influence the manner of thought and action and general views of life. 2. SYN: temper (1) . [L. temperamentum, proper measure, moderation, disposition]

temperance (tem′per-ans)
Moderation in all things; especially, abstinence from the use of alcoholic beverages. [L. temperantia, moderation]

temperate (tem′per-at)
Moderate; restrained in the indulgence of any appetite or activity.

temperature (tem′per-a-chur)
The sensible intensity of heat of any substance; the manifestation of the average kinetic energy of the molecules making up a substance due to heat agitation. SEE ALSO: scale. [L. temperatura, due measure, t., fr. tempero, to proportion duly] absolute t. (T) t. reckoned in Kelvins from absolute zero. basal body t. the t. at rest, usually obtained on arising in the morning, without any influences that might increase it; can give indirect evidence of ovulation. critical t. the t. of a gas above which it is no longer possible by use of any pressure, however great, to convert it into a liquid. denaturation t. of DNA that t. at which, under a given set of conditions, double-stranded DNA is changed (50%) to single-stranded DNA; under standard conditions, the base composition of the DNA can be estimated from the denaturation t., since the greater the denaturation t., the greater the guanine-plus-cytosine content ( i.e., GC content) of the DNA. SYN: melting t. of DNA. effective t. a comfort index or scale which takes into account the t. of air, its moisture content, and movement. equivalent t. the t. of a thermally uniform enclosure in which, under still air conditions, a “sizable” black body loses heat at the same rate as in the nonuniform environment. eutectic t. the t. at which a eutectic mixture becomes fluid (melts). fusion t. (wire method) 1. the recorded t. at which a 20-gauge metal wire will collapse under a 3-ounce load. 2. the recorded t. at which porcelain becomes glazed. maximum t. in bacteriology, denoting a t. above which growth will not take place. mean t. the average atmospheric t. in any locality for a designated period of time, as a month or a year. melting t. SYN: t. midpoint. melting t. of DNA SYN: denaturation t. of DNA. t. midpoint (Tm, tm) the midpoint in the change in optical properties (absorbance, rotation) of a structured polymer ( e.g., DNA) with increasing t.. SYN: melting t.. minimum t. in bacteriology, denoting a t. below which growth will not take place. optimum t. the t. at which any operation, such as the culture of any special microorganism, is best carried on. room t. (RT, rt) the ordinary t. (65°F to slightly less than 80°F, 18.3°C–26.7°C) of the atmosphere in the laboratory; a culture kept at room t. is one kept in the laboratory, not in an incubator. sensible t. the atmospheric t. as felt by the individual, supposed to be that recorded by the wet-bulb thermometer. standard t. a t. of 0°C or 273.15° absolute (Kelvin).

template (tem′plat)
1. A pattern or guide that determines the shape of a substance. 2. Metaphorically, the specifying nature of a macromolecule, usually a nucleic acid or polynucleotide, with respect to the primary structure of the nucleic acid or polynucleotide or protein made from it in vivo or in vitro. 3. In dentistry, a curved or flat plate utilized as an aid in setting teeth. 4. An outline used to trace teeth, bones, or soft tissue in order to standardize their form. 5. A pattern or guide that determines the specificity of antibody globulins. [Fr. templet, temple of a loom, fr. L. templum, small timber] surgical t. 1. a thin, transparent, resin base shaped to duplicate the form of the impression surface of an immediate denture, used as a guide for surgically shaping the alveolar process to fit an immediate denture; 2. a guide for various osteotomy procedures; 3. a guide for duplicating size and shape for an autogenic (free) gingival graft.

temple (tem′pl)
1. [TA] The area of the temporal fossa on the side of the head above the zygomatic arch. 2. The part of a spectacle frame passing from the rim backward over the ear. [L. tempus (tempor-), time, t.]

tempolabile (tem-po-la′bil, -bil)
Undergoing spontaneous change or destruction during the passage of time. [L. tempus, time, + labilis, perishable]

tempora (tem′po-ra)
The temples. [L. pl. of tempus]

temporal (tem′po-ral)
1. Relating to time; limited in time; temporary. 2. Relating to the temple. See t. region of head. [L. temporalis, fr. tempus (tempor-), time, temple]

temporalis (tem-po-ra′lis)
SYN: t. (muscle). [L.]

temporo-
Temporal (2). [L. temporalis, temporal]

temporoauricular (tem′po-ro-aw-rik′u-lar)
Relating to the temporal region and the auricle.

temporohyoid (tem′po-ro-hi′oyd)
Relating to the temporal and the hyoid bones or regions.

temporomalar (tem′po-ro-ma′lar)
SYN: temporozygomatic.

temporomandibular (tem′po-ro-man-dib′u-lar)
Relating to the temporal bone and the mandible; denoting the joint of the lower jaw. SYN: temporomaxillary (2) .

temporomaxillary (tem′po-ro-mak′si-lar′e)
1. Relating to the regions of the temporal and maxillary bones. 2. SYN: temporomandibular.

temporo-occipital (tem′po-ro-ok-sip′i-tal)
Relating to the temporal and the occipital bones or regions.

temporoparietal (tem′po-ro-pa-ri′e-tal)
Relating to the temporal and the parietal bones or regions.

temporopontine (tem-po-ro-pon′tin)
Referring to the projection fibers from the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex to the basilar part of the pons.

temporosphenoid (tem′po-ro-sfe′noyd)
Relating to the temporal and sphenoid bones.

temporozygomatic (tem′po-ro-zi′go-mat′ik)
Relating to the temporal and zygomatic bones or regions. SYN: temporomalar.

tempostabile, tempostable (tem-po-sta′bil, -sta′bl)
Not subject to spontaneous alteration or destruction. [L. tempus, time + stabilis, stable]

temps utile (temp′ oo-tel′)
SYN: utilization time. [Fr. service or utilization time]

tempus, gen. temporis, pl .tempora (tem′pus, -po-ris, -po-ra)
1. The temple. 2. SYN: time. [L. time]

TEN
Abbreviation for toxic epidermal necrolysis.

tenacious (te-na′shus)
Sticky; denoting tenacity. [L. tenax (tenac-), fr. teneo, to hold]

tenacity (te-nas′i-te)
Adhesiveness;the character or property of holding fast. [L. tenacitas, fr. teneo, to hold] cellular t. the inherent property of all cells to persist in a given form or direction of activity.

tenaculum, pl .tenacula (te-nak′u-lum, -la)
A surgical clamp designed to hold or grasp tissue during dissection, commonly used to grasp the cervix. [L. a holder, fr. teneo, to hold] tenacula tendinum a tendinous restraining structure, such an extensor or flexor retinaculum; historically applied to the vincula of tendon which are not however, restraining structures.

tenalgia (te-nal′je-a)
Obsolete term for pain referred to a tendon. SYN: tenodynia. [G. tenon, tendon, + algos, pain] t. crepitans SYN: tenosynovitis crepitans.

tenascin (ten-as′sin)
A protein that is present in the mesenchyme that surrounds epithelia in organs undergoing development in embryos; believed to participate in inducing differentiation of epithelia.

tender
Sensitive or painful as a result of pressure or contact that is not sufficent to cause discomfort in normal tissues. [L. tener, soft, delicate]

tenderness (ten′der-nes)
The condition of being tender. pencil t. strictly localized t., elicited by pressure with the rubber tip of a pencil, e.g., in cases of incomplete or subperiosteal fracture. rebound t. t. felt when pressure, particularly pressure on the abdomen, is suddenly released.

tendinitis (ten-di-ni′tis)
SYN: tendonitis.

tendinoplasty (ten′din-o-plas-te)
Reparative or plastic surgery of the tendons. SYN: tenontoplasty, tenoplasty. [Mediev. L. tendo (tendin-), tendon, + G. plastos, formed]

tendinosuture (ten′di-no-soo′choor)
SYN: tenorrhaphy.

tendinous (ten′di-nus)
Relating to, composed of, or resembling a tendon.

tendo, gen. tendinis, pl .tendines (ten′do, -di-nis, -di-nez) [TA]
SYN: tendon.For histologic description, see tendon. [Mediev. L., fr. L. t., to stretch out, extend] t. Achillis SYN: calcaneal tendon, calcaneal tendon. t. calcaneus [TA] SYN: calcaneal tendon. t. calcaneus communis hamstring (2) . t. conjunctivus inguinal falx. t. cricoesophageus [TA] SYN: cricoesophageal tendon. t. oculi SYN: medial palpebral ligament. t. palpebrarum SYN: medial palpebral ligament.

tendo-
A tendon. SEE ALSO: teno-. [L. tendo]

tendolysis (ten-dol′i-sis)
SYN: tenolysis. [tendo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

tendomucin, tendomucoid (ten-do-mu′sin, -mu′koyd)
A form of mucin found in tendons.

tendon (ten′don) [TA]
A nondistensible fibrous cord or band of variable length that is the part of the muscle that connects the fleshy (contractile) part of muscle with its bony attachment or other structure; it may unite with the fleshy part of the muscle at its extremity or may run along the side or in the center of the fleshy part for a longer or shorter distance, receiving the muscular fibers along its border; when determining the length of a muscle, the t. length is included as well as the fleshy part; it consists of fascicles of very densely arranged, almost parallel collagenous fibers, rows of elongated fibrocytes, and a minimum of ground substance. SYN: tendo [TA] , sinew. [L. tendo] Achilles t. SYN: calcaneal t.. calcaneal t. [TA] the thick t. of insertion of the triceps surae (gastrocnemius and soleus) into the tuberosity of the calcaneus. SYN: tendo calcaneus [TA] , Achilles t., chorda magna, heel t., tendo Achillis. central t. of diaphragm [TA] a three-lobed fibrous sheet comprising the center of the diaphragm; superiorly it is fused with the fibrous pericardium that provides attachment (insertion) for the moving end of the muscle fibers. SYN: centrum tendineum diaphragmatis [TA] , trefoil t.. central t. of perineum [TA] the fibromuscular mass between the anal canal and the urogenital diaphragm in the median plane onto which several perineal muscles insert (bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, superficial, and deep transverse perineal muscles); midline episiotomies extend into this structure. SYN: centrum tendineum perinei [TA] , perineal body, Savage perineal body. conjoined t. SYN: inguinal falx. conjoint t. inguinal falx. SEE ALSO: aponeurosis of internal oblique muscle. coronary t. SYN: (right and left) fibrous rings of heart, under ring. cricoesophageal t. [TA] longitudinal fiber of the esophagus that attaches to the posterior aspect of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx. SYN: tendo cricoesophageus [TA] , Gillette suspensory ligament, suspensory ligament of esophagus. Gerlach annular t. SYN: fibrocartilaginous ring of tympanic membrane. hamstring t. hamstring. heel t. SYN: calcaneal t.. Todaro t. an inconstant tendinous structure that extends from the right fibrous trigone of the heart toward the valve of the inferior vena cava. trefoil t. SYN: central t. of diaphragm. Zinn t. SYN: common tendinous ring of extraocular muscles.

tendonitis (ten-do-ni′tis)
Inflammation of a tendon. SYN: tendinitis, tenonitis (2) , tenontitis.

tendophony (ten-dof′o-ne)
SYN: tenophony.

tendosynovitis (ten′do-si-no-vi′tis)
SYN: tenosynovitis.

tendotomy (ten-dot′o-me)
SYN: tenotomy.

tendovaginal (ten-do-vaj′i-nal)
Relating to a tendon and its sheath. [tendo- + L. vagina, sheath]

tendovaginitis (ten′do-vaj-i-ni′tis)
SYN: tenosynovitis. [tendo- + L. vagina, sheath, + G. -itis, inflammation] radial styloid t. SYN: de Quervain disease.

tenectomy (te-nek′to-me)
Resection of part of a tendon. SYN: tenonectomy. [G. tenon, tendon, + ektome, excision]

tenesmic (te-nez′mik)
Relating to or marked by tenesmus.

tenesmus (te-nez′mus)
A painful spasm of the urogenital diaphragm with an urgent desire to evacuate the bowel or bladder, involuntary straining, and the passage of little fecal matter or urine. [G. teinesmos, ineffectual effort to defecate, fr. teino, to stretch]

ten Horn
C., Dutch surgeon. See ten Horn sign.

tenia, pl .teniae (te′ne-a, te′ne-e)
1. Any anatomic bandlike structure. 2. SYN: taenia (2) . [L. fr. G. tainia, band, tape, a tapeworm] taeniae acusticae SYN: medullary striae of fourth ventricle, under stria. t. choroidea [TA] the somewhat thickened line along which a choroid membrane or plexus is attached to the rim of a brain ventricle. SYN: choroid line [TA] , t. telae. teniae coli [TA] the three bands in which the longitudinal muscular fibers of the large intestine, except the rectum, are collected; these are the mesocolic t. (t. mesocolica [TA]), situated at the place corresponding to the mesenteric attachment; the free t. (t. libera [TA]), opposite the mesocolic t.; and the omental t. (t. omentalis [TA]), at the place corresponding to the site of adhesion of the greater omentum to the transverse colon. SYN: bands of colon, colic teniae, teniae of Valsalva. colic teniae SYN: teniae coli. t. fimbriae SYN: t. fornicis. t. fornicis [TA] the line of attachment of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle to the fornix. SYN: t. fimbriae, t. of the fornix. t. of the fornix SYN: t. fornicis. t. of fourth ventricle SYN: t. ventriculi quarti. free t. [TA] See teniae coli. SYN: t. libera [TA] . t. hippocampi SYN: fimbria hippocampi. t. libera [TA] SYN: free t.. See teniae coli. medullary teniae SYN: medullary striae of fourth ventricle, under stria. mesocolic t. See teniae coli. SYN: t. mesocolica [TA] . t. mesocolica [TA] SYN: mesocolic t.. omental t. [TA] See teniae coli. SYN: t. omentalis [TA] . t. omentalis [TA] SYN: omental t.. See teniae coli. t. semicircularis SYN: terminal stria. Tarin t. SYN: terminal stria. t. tecta indusium griseum. t. telae SYN: t. choroidea. t. terminalis SYN: crista terminalis of right atrium. t. thalami [TA] the sharp edge or angle between the superior and medial surfaces of the thalamus on either side; to it is attached the epithelial lamina forming the roof of the third ventricle. SYN: t. ventriculi tertii, thalamic t.. thalamic t. SYN: t. thalami. teniae of Valsalva SYN: teniae coli. t. ventriculi quarti the line of attachment of the choroid roof to the rim of the fourth ventricle. SYN: t. of fourth ventricle. t. ventriculi tertii SYN: t. thalami.

teniacide (te′ne-a-sid)
An agent destructive to tapeworms. SYN: tenicide. [L. taenia, tapeworm, + caedo, to kill]




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