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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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thermohypesthesia (ther-mo-hip′es-the′ze-a, -hi′pes-the′ze-a)
Diminished perception of temperature differences. SYN: thermohypoesthesia. [thermo- + G. hypo, under, + aisthesis, sensation]

thermohypoesthesia (ther-mo-hi′po-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: thermohypesthesia.

thermoinhibitory (ther′mo-in-hib′i-tor-e)
Inhibiting or arresting thermogenesis.

thermointegrator (ther-mo-in′te-gra-ter, -tor)
Any device for assessing the effective warmth or coldness of an environment as it might be experienced by a living organism, taking into account radiation and convection as well as conduction. Conceived of as a thermal model of an organism, the device usually consists of a standard object ( e.g., sphere, cylinder), the surface temperature of which is measured while it is being heated internally at a standard rate.

thermojunction (ther-mo-jungk′shun)
SYN: thermocouple.

thermokeratoplasty (ther-mo-ker′a-to-plas-te)
A procedure in which the application of heat shrinks the collagen of the corneal stroma and flattens the cornea in the area of heat application. This tends to make the eye less myopic. See refractive keratoplasty. [thermo- + G. keras, horn, + plasso, to form]

thermolabile (ther-mo-la′bil, -bil)
Subject to alteration or destruction by heat. [thermo- + L. labilis, perishable]

thermology (ther-mol′o-je)
The science of heat. SYN: thermotics. [thermo- + G. logos, study]

thermolysis (ther-mol′i-sis)
1. Loss of body heat by evaporation, radiation, etc. 2. Chemical decomposition by heat. [thermo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

thermolytic (ther-mo-lit′ik)
1. Relating to thermolysis. 2. An agent promoting heat dissipation.

thermomassage (ther′mo-ma-sahzh′)
Combination of heat and massage in physical therapy.

thermometer (ther-mom′e-ter)
An instrument for indicating the temperature of any substance; often a sealed vacuum tube containing mercury, which expands with heat and contracts with cold, its level accordingly rising or falling in the tube, with the exact degree of variation of level being indicated by a scale, or, more recently, a device with an electronic sensor that displays the temperature without the use of mercury. SEE ALSO: scale. [thermo- + G. metron, measure] air t. gas t.. axilla t. t. used by placing it in the armpit, with the arm held closely to the side. SYN: axillary t.. axillary t. SYN: axilla t.. clinical t. a small, self-registering t., consisting of a simple scaled glass tube containing mercury, used for taking the temperature of the body. differential t. SYN: thermoscope. gas t. a t. filled with dry air or a gas, the expansion or increased pressure of which indicates the degree of heat; used to measure high temperatures. resistance t. a device measuring temperature by the change of the electrical resistance of a metal wire. SYN: resistance pyrometer. self-registering t. a t. in which the maximum or minimum temperature, during the period of observation, is registered by means of a special appliance; in the clinical t. only the highest temperature is registered, usually by a steel bar above the column of mercury or by a segment of the mercury separated from the main column by a bubble of air; after the maximum temperature is registered, the bar or segment of mercury remains in place as the column of mercury contracts. spirit t. a t. filled with alcohol, used to measure extreme degrees of cold. surface t. a t. in the form of a disk or strip that indicates the temperature of the portion of the skin to which it is applied. wet and dry bulb t. SYN: psychrometer.

thermometric (ther-mo-met′rik)
Relating to thermometry or to a thermometer reading.

thermometry (ther-mom′e-tre)
The measurement of temperature. [thermo- + G. metron, measure]

thermoneurosis (ther′mo-noo-ro′sis)
Elevation of the temperature of the body due to an emotional influence.

thermonuclear (ther-mo-noo′kle-er)
Pertaining to nuclear reactions brought about by nuclear fusion ( e.g., the fusion of hydrogen to helium at temperatures of over 100,000,000°C; the reaction in the “hydrogen bomb”).

thermopenetration (ther′mo-pen-e-tra′shun)
SYN: medical diathermy.

thermophile, thermophil (ther′mo-fil, -fil)
An organism that thrives at a temperature of 50°C or higher. [thermo- + G. phileo, to love]

thermophilic (ther-mo-fil′ik)
Pertaining to a thermophile.

thermophobia (ther-mo-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of heat. [thermo- + G. phobos, fear]

thermophore (ther′mo-for)
1. An arrangement for applying heat to a part; consists of a water heater, a tube conveying hot water to a coil, and another tube conducting the water back to the heater. 2. A flat bag containing certain salts that produce heat when moistened; used as a substitute for the hot-water bag. [thermo- + G. phoros, bearing]

thermophylic (ther-mo-fi′lik)
Resistant to heat, denoting certain microorganisms. [thermo- + G. phylaxis, protection]

thermopile (ther′mo-pil)
A thermoelectric battery, consisting usually of a series of bars of antimony and bismuth joined together, that generates a thermoelectric current when the junctions are heated; used as a thermoscope. SYN: thermoelectric pile. [thermo- + pile]

thermoplacentography (ther′mo-pla-sen-tog′ra-fe)
Obsolete method for determination of placental position by detection of infrared rays from the large amounts of blood flowing through the placenta. [thermo- + L. placenta, placenta, + G. grapho, to write]

Thermoplasma (ther′mo-plaz′ma)
A genus of bacteria (order Mycoplasmatales) which possess the same characteristics as the organisms in the genus Mycoplasma except that the thermoplasmas do not require sterol for growth, have an optimal temperature of 55–59°C, have an optimal pH of 1.0–2.0, and reproduce by budding. The type species is T. acidophilum. [thermo- + G. plasma, something formed] T. acidophilum a species found in a coal refuse pile which had undergone self-heating; it is also found in acid hot springs; it is the type species of the genus T..

thermoplasma, pl .thermoplasmata (ther′mo-plaz′ma, -plaz′mah-ta)
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus T..

thermoplastic (ther-mo-plas′tik)
A classification for materials that can be made soft by the application of heat and harden upon cooling.

thermoplegia (ther-mo-ple′je-a)
A rarely used term for sunstroke. [thermo- + G. plege, stroke]

thermoreceptor (ther′mo-re-sep′ter, -tor)
A receptor that is sensitive to heat.

thermoregulation (ther′mo-reg-u-la′shun)
Temperature control, as by a thermostat.

thermoregulator (ther-mo-reg′u-la-ter, -tor)
SYN: thermostat.

thermoscope (ther′mo-skop)
An instrument for indicating slight differences of temperature, without registering or recording them. SYN: differential thermometer. [thermo- + G. skopeo, to view]

thermoset (ther′mo-set)
A classification for materials that become hardened or cured by the application of heat.

thermostabile, thermostable (ther-mo-sta′bil, -sta′bl)
Not readily subject to alteration or destruction by heat. SYN: heat-stable. [thermo- + L. stabilis, stable]

thermostat (ther′mo-stat)
An apparatus for the automatic regulation of heat, as in an incubator. SYN: thermoregulator. [thermo- + G. statos, standing]

thermosteresis (ther′mo-ste-re′sis)
The abstraction or deprivation of heat. [thermo- + G. steresis, deprivation, loss]

thermostromuhr (ther-mo-strom′oor)
A stromuhr that consists of a heating element between two thermocouples, which are applied to the outside of a vessel; blood flow is calculated from the difference in temperatures recorded by the proximal and distal thermocouples.

thermosystaltic (ther′mo-sis-tal′tik)
Relating to thermosystaltism. [thermo- + G. systaltikos, contractile]

thermosystaltism (ther-mo-sis′tal-tizm)
Contraction, as of the muscles, under the influence of heat. [see thermosystaltic]

thermotactic, thermotaxic (ther-mo-tak′tik, tak′sik)
Relating to thermotaxis.

thermotaxis (ther-mo-tak′sis)
1. Reaction of living protoplasm to the stimulus of heat. Cf.:thermotropism. 2. Regulation of the temperature of the body. [thermo- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement] negative t. repulsion of a plant or animal from heat. positive t. attraction of a plant or animal to heat.

thermotherapy (ther′mo-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of disease by therapeutic application of heat. [thermo- + G. therapeia, treatment]

thermotic (ther-mot′ik)
Relating to thermotics.

thermotics (ther-mot′iks)
SYN: thermology. [G. thermotes, heat]

thermotonometer (ther′mo-to-nom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the degree of thermosystaltism, or muscular contraction under the influence of heat. [thermo- + G. tonos, tone, tension, + metron, measure]

thermotropism (ther-mot′ro-pizm)
The motion by a part of an organism ( e.g., leaves or stems) toward or away from a source of heat. Cf.:thermotaxis. [thermo- + G. trope, a turning]

theroid (the′royd)
Resembling an animal in instincts or propensities. [G. ther, a wild beast, + eidos, resemblance]

therology (the-rol′o-je)
The study of mammals. [G. ther, a wild beast, + logos, study]

thesaurismosis (the-saw-riz-mo′sis)
Rarely used term for a metabolic disorder in which a substance accumulates or is stored in certain cells, usually in large amounts. [G. thesauros, store, storehouse, + G. -osis, condition]

thesaurismotic (the′saw-riz-mot′ik)
Pertaining to thesaurismosis.

thesaurosis (the-saw-ro′sis)
Abnormal or excessive storage in the body of normal or foreign substances. [G. thesauros, store, storehouse]

thesis, pl .theses (the′sis, -sez)
1. Any theory or hypothesis advanced as a basis for discussion. 2. A proposition submitted by the candidate for a doctoral degree in some universities, which must be sustained by argument against any objections offered. 3. An essay on a medical topic prepared by the graduating student. [G. a placing, a position, t.]

theta (θ, Θ) (tha′ta)
1. The 8th letter in the Greek alphabet, &t.;. 2. The eighth in a series; denotes the position of a substituent located on the eighth atom from the carboxyl or other functional group. 3. Symbol for angle.

thetins (the′tinz)
Methyl sulfonium compounds, abundant in marine algae, in which the S-methyl group is “active,” and that therefore act as methyl donors in some plants; e.g., dimethylpropriothetin, (CH3)2S+–CH2–CH2–COO−.

THF
Abbreviation for tetrahydrofolate. See 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase.

thia-
The replacement of carbon by sulfur in a ring or chain. Cf.:thio-. [G. theion]

thiabendazole (thi-a-ben′da-zol)
A broad spectrum anthelmintic especially useful against Strongyloides stercoralis and, with corticosteroids, against Trichinella infection (trichina worm).

thiabutazide (thi-a-bu′ta-zid)
SYN: buthiazide.

thiacetazone (thi-a-set′a-zon, -a-se′ta-zon)
SYN: amithiozone.

thialbarbital (thi-al-bar′bi-tawl)
An ultra-short-acting thiobarbiturate for induction of general anesthesia by intravenous injection; used as the sodium salt.

thiambutosine (thi-am-bu′to-sen)
An antileprotic agent.

thiamin (thi′a-min)
A heat-labile and water-soluble vitamin contained in milk, yeast, and in the germ and husk of grains; also artificially synthesized; essential for growth; a deficiency of t. is associated with beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. SYN: aneurine, antiberiberi factor, antiberiberi vitamin, antineuritic factor, antineuritic vitamin, thiamine, vitamin B1. [thia- + vitamin] t. hydrochloride a coenzyme used in the prevention of beriberi and other conditions associated with a deficiency of t. in the diet. SYN: aneurine hydrochloride. t. mononitrate same action as t. hydrochloride. t. pyridinylase an enzyme catalyzing transfer of a pyridine or other bases into the position of the pyrimidine in t.; e.g., t. reacting with pyridine produces heteropyrithiamin and 4-methyl-5-(2′-hydroxyethyl)thiazole. SYN: pyrimidine transferase, thiaminase I. t. pyrophosphate (TPP) the diphosphoric ester of t., a coenzyme of several (de)carboxylases, transketolases, and α-oxoacid dehydrogenases. SYN: aneurine pyrophosphate, cocarboxylase, diphosphothiamin.

thiaminase (thi-am′i-nas)
1. An enzyme present in raw fish that destroys thiamin and may produce thiamin deficiency in animals on a diet largely composed of raw fish. 2. A hydrolase cleaving thiamin into a pyrimidine moiety ( i.e., 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine) and a thiazole moiety ( i.e., 4-methyl-5-(2′-hydroxyethyl)thiazole); the pyrimidine moiety may appear in the urine as pyramin. SYN: t. II. t. I SYN: thiamin pyridinylase. t. II SYN: t. (2) .

thiamine (thi′a-min, -men)
SYN: thiamin.

thiamphenicol (thi-am-fen′i-kol)
An antibiotic with uses and toxicity similar to those of chloramphenicol. SYN: thiophenicol.

thiamylal sodium (thi-am′i-lawl)
A short-acting barbiturate, prepared as a mixture with sodium bicarbonate, used intravenously to produce anesthesia.

Thiara (thi-ah′ra)
A widespread genus of operculate snails (family Thiaridae, subclass Prosobranchiata) found in fresh and brackish waters, chiefly in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. T. tuberculata is one of the initial intermediate hosts of the human lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani, and of several fish-borne heterophyid flukes of humans and fish-eating mammals.

thiazides (thi′a-zidz)
Abbreviated form of benzothiadiazides.

thiazin (thi′a-zin)
Parent substance of a family of biologic blue dyes; e.g., methylene blue, thionin, toluidine blue.

thiazolidinediones (thi′a-zol′i-din-di-onz)
SYN: glitazones.




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