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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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thiazolsulfone (thi-a-zol-sul′fon)
It has the same uses as glucosulfone sodium, but is less toxic and also less effective in the treatment of leprosy.

thickness (thik′nes)
1. The measure of the depth of something, as opposed to its length or width. 2. A layer or stratum. Breslow t. maximal t. of a primary cutaneous melanoma measured in tissue sections from the top of the epidermal granular layer, or from the ulcer base (if the tumor is ulcerated), to the bottom of the tumor; metastatic rates correlate closely with tumor t..

thiel
SYN: sulfhydryl.

thiemia (thi-e′me-a)
The presence of sulfur in the circulating blood. [G. theion, sulfur, + haima, blood]

thienamycin (thi′en-a-mi′sin)
The first member of a family of des-thia-carbapenem nucleus antibiotics having a thioethylamine side chain on the enamine portion of the fused 5-membered ring.

thienyl (thi′en-il)
The radical of thiophene, SC4H3–. Cf.:thenyl.

thienylalanine (thi′e-nil-al′a-nen)
A compound structurally similar to phenylalanine that inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli, presumably by competitive inhibition of enzymes for which l-phenylalanine is the substrate.

Thier
Carl Jörg, German physician. See Weyers-T. syndrome.

Thiers
Joseph, French physician, *1885. See Achard-T. syndrome.

Thiersch
Karl, German surgeon, 1822–1895. See T. graft, T. canaliculi, under canaliculus, Ollier-T. graft.

thiethylperazine maleate (thi-eth′il-per′a-zen)
An antiemetic agent used to control nausea and vomiting associated with vertigo, the administration of general anesthetics, and with several other clinical conditions; also has weak hypotensive, spasmolytic, antihistaminic, and hypothermic actions.

thigh (thi) [TA]
The part of the inferior limb between the hip and the knee. SYN: femur (1) [TA] , os femoris&star, t. bone&star. Heilbronner t. in cases of organic paralysis, flattening and broadening of the t., when the patient lies supine on a hard mattress; absent in hysterical paralysis.

thigmesthesia (thig-mes-the′ze-a)
Sensibility to touch. [G. thigma, touch, + aisthesis, sensation]

thigmotaxis (thig-mo-tak′sis)
A form of barotaxis; denoting the reaction of plant or animal protoplasm to contact with a solid body. Cf.:thigmotropism. [G. thigma, touch, + taxis, orderly arrangement]

thigmotropism (thig-mot′ro-pizm)
A movement toward or away from a touch stimulus on the part of a portion of an organism, such as leaves or tendrils. Cf.:thigmotaxis. [G. thigma, touch, + trope, a turning]

thimerosal (thi-mer′o-sal)
An antiseptic. SYN: thiomersal, thiomersalate.

thinking
The act of reasoning. abstract t. t. in terms of concepts and general principles ( e.g., perceiving a table and a chair as furniture), as contrasted with concrete t.. archaic-paralogical t. SYN: prelogical t.. concrete t. t. of objects or ideas as specific items rather than as an abstract representation of a more general concept, as contrasted with abstract t. ( e.g., perceiving a chair and a table as individual useful items and not as members of the general class, furniture). creative t. productive t., with novel rather than routine elements and results. magical t. the irrational equating of t. with doing. prelogical t. a concrete type of t., characteristic of children and primitives, to which schizophrenic persons are sometimes said to regress. SYN: archaic-paralogical t., prelogical mind. t. through the psychologic process of understanding, with insight, one's own behavior.

thinning (thin′ing)
Causing a decrease in viscosity by dilution, including by chemical means, as by the addition of a solvent, or by mechanical means, as in shear t.. shear t. decreasing the viscosity of a polymer or macromolecule or gel by increasing the rate of shear; not ordinarily a function of time. SEE ALSO: thixotropy.

thio-
Prefix denoting the replacement of oxygen by sulfur in a compound. Cf.:thia-. [G. theion, sugar]

thioacid (thi-o-as′id)
An organic acid in which one or more of the oxygen atoms have been replaced by sulfur atoms; e.g., thiosulfuric acid. SYN: sulfacid, sulfoacid (1) .

thioalcohol (thi-o-al′ko-hol)
SYN: mercaptan (1) .

thioamide (thi-o-am′id)
An amide in which S replaces O.

thioate (thi′o-at)
A salt or ester of a -thioic acid.

thiobarbiturates (thi′o-bar-bich′ur-ats)
Hypnotics of the barbiturate group, e.g., thiopental, in which the oxygen atom at carbon-2 is replaced by sulfur.

thiocarbamide (thi-o-kar′ba-mid)
SYN: thiourea.

thiocarlide (thi-o-kar′lid)
A synthetic compound whose molecule contains the three antituberculous groups p-aminosalicylic acid, p-aminobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, and the thiocarbamide group; an antituberculous agent.

thiochrome (thi′o-krom)
A fluorescent compound, produced by the oxidation of thiamin; used in methods for detection and determination of thiamin.

thioctic acid (thi-ok′tik)
SYN: lipoic acid.

thiocyanate (thi-o-si′a-nat)
A salt of thiocyanic acid. SYN: rhodanate, sulfocyanate.

thiocyanic acid (thi-o-si-an′ik)
HS–CN;hydrogen thiocyanate. SYN: rhodanic acid, sulfocyanic acid.

thiodepsipeptide (thi-o-dep′-se-pep-tid)
Peptides that also contain one or more acylated thiol groups ( E.G., of cysteine). [thio- + G. depseo, to knead, blend, + peptide]

thiodiphenylamine (thi′o-di-fen′il-am′en)
SYN: phenothiazine.

thioester (thi-o-es′ter)
An acylated thiol; RCOSR′; E.G., acetyl-CoA. SYN: acylmercaptan.

thioesterase (thi-o-es-ter-as)
An enzyme that hydrolyzes thioesters; E.G., the deacylating activity at the end of fatty acid biosynthesis that releases palmitate. SYN: thiolesterase.

thioesters (thi′o-es′-terz)
In enzymology, an ester where the oxygen bridging the substrate or product carbonyl carbon and the enzyme is replaced by a sulfur (usually through a Cys residue); a high-energy intermediate in many enzymes.

thioethanolamine acetyltransferase (thi′o-eth-a-nol′a-men)
An enzyme transferring acetyl from acetyl-CoA to the sulfur atom of thioethanolamine, thus producing coenzyme A and S-acetylthioethanolamine. SYN: thiotransacetylase B.

thioether (thi-o-e′ther)
An organic sulfide; an ether in which the oxygen is replaced by sulfur; R&cbond;S&cbond;R′.

thioflavine S (thi-o-fla′vin) [C.I. 49010]
A methylated and sulfonated derivative of primulin; a yellowish dye used in fluorescence microscopy as a vital stain.

thioflavin T (thi-o-fla′vin) [C.I. 49005]
A yellow thiazole dye, used in histopathology as a fluorochrome for hyaline and amyloid.

thiofuran (thi′o-foor′an)
SYN: thiophene.

thioglucosidase (thi-o-gloo′ko-si-das)
An enzyme in mustard seed that converts thioglycosides into thiols plus sugars. SYN: myrosinase, sinigrase, sinigrinase.

thioglycerol (thi-o-glis′er-ol)
SYN: monothioglycerol.

thioglycolate, thioglycollate (thi-o-gli′ko-lat)
A salt or ester of thioglycolic acid; frequently used in bacterial media to reduce their oxygen content so as to create favorable conditions for the growth of anaerobes; the t. will also inactivate any mercurial that might be carried over with the inoculum.

thioglycolic acid (thi′o-gli-kol′ik)
Used as a reagent for the detection of metals such as iron, molybdenum, silver, and tin; the ammonium and sodium salts are used in home permanents, the calcium salt as a depilatory. SYN: mercaptoacetic acid.

thioguanine (thi-o-gwah′nen)
An antineoplastic agent used for leukemias and nephrosis.

-thioic acid
Suffix denoting the radical, –C(S)OH or –C(O)SH, the sulfur analog of a carboxylic acid, i.e., a thiocarboxylic acid.

thiokinase (thi-o-ki′nas)
Group term for enzymes that form acyl-CoA compounds from the corresponding fatty acids and CoA; the bond is through the sulfur atom of the CoA.

thiol (thi′ol)
1. The monovalent radical –SH when attached to carbon; a hydrosulfide; a mercaptan. 2. A mixture of sulfurated and sulfonated petroleum oils purified with ammonia; used in the treatment of skin diseases.

thiolase (thi′o-las)
SYN: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase.

thiole (thi′ol)
SYN: thiophene.

thiolesterase (thi′ol-es′ter-az)
SYN: thioesterase.

thiolhistidylbetaine (thi′ol-his′ti-dil-be′ta-en)
SYN: ergothioneine.

thioltransacetylase A (thi′ol-trans-a-set′i-las)
SYN: dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase.

thiolysis (thi-ol′i-sis)
The cleavage of a chemical bond with the addition of coenzyme A to one part; analogous to hydrolysis and phosphorolysis.

thiomersal (thi-o-mer′sal)
SYN: thimerosal.

thiomersalate (thi-o-mer′sa-lat)
SYN: thimerosal.

thiomethyladenosine (thi′o-meth′il-a-den′o-sen)
SYN: methylthioadenosine.

-thione
Suffix denoting the radical &dbond;C&dbond;S, the sulfur analog of a ketone, i.e., a thiocarbonyl group.

thionein (thi′o-nen)
The apoprotein of metallothionein.

thioneine (thi′o-ne′in)
SYN: ergothioneine.

thionic (thi-on′ik)
Relating to sulfur.

thionine (thi′o-nin) [C.I. 52000]
Amidophenthiazine;a dark-green powder, giving a purple solution in water; useful as a basic stain in histology for chromatin and mucin because of its metachromatic properties. SYN: Lauth violet.

thiono-
Prefix sometimes used for thioxo-.

thiopanic acid (thi-o-pan′ik)
SYN: pantoyltaurine.

thiopental sodium (thi-o-pen′tawl)
An ultra–short-acting barbiturate administered intravenously or rectally for induction of anesthesia.

thiophene (thi′o-fen)
The fundamental ring compound. SYN: thiofuran, thiole.

thiophenicol (thi-o-fen′i-kol)
SYN: thiamphenicol.

thiopropazate hydrochloride (thi-o-pro′pa-zat)
A phenothiazine derivative related chemically and pharmacologically to prochlorperazine and perphenazine; an antipsychotic.

thioproperazine (thi′o-pro-per′a-zen)
An antiemetic and antianxiety agent.

thioredoxin (thi-o-re-doks′in)
A protein that participates in the oxidation-reduction reactions associated with the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. t. reductase a flavoprotein that uses NADPH to re-reduce t. in the formation of deoxyribonucleotides.

thioridazine hydrochloride (thi-o-rid′a-zen)
An antipsychotic with action similar to that of chlorpromazine but with relatively stronger anticholinergic effects.

thiosemicarbazide (thi′o-sem′e-kar′ba-zid)
One of the group of thiosemicarbazones with a tuberculostatic action; used as a reagent in the detection of metals.




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