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Medical Dictionary


topesthesia (top′es-the′ze-a)
The ability to localize a light touch applied to any part of the skin. [top- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

tophaceous (to-fa′shus)
Sandy; gritty; pertaining to or manifesting the features of a tophus. [L. tophaceus]

tophi (to′fi)
Plural of tophus.

tophus, pl .tophi (to′fus, to′fi)
1. See gouty t.. 2. A salivary calculus, or tartar. SYN: gouty pearl. [L. a calcareous deposit from springs, tufa] gouty t. a deposit of uric acid and urates in periarticular fibrous tissue, cartilage of the external ear, or kidney, in gout. SYN: arthritic calculus, uratoma.

topica (top′i-ka)
Remedies for local external use. [neut. pl. of Mod. L. topicus, local]

topical (top′i-kal)
Relating to a definite place or locality; local. [G. topikos, fr. topos, place]

Paul, French anthropologist, 1830–1911. See T. facial angle, T. line.

topistic (to-pis′tik)
Denoting an anatomically defined region in the nervous system. [G. topos, place]

topo-, top-
Place, topical. [G. topos]

topoanesthesia (top′o-an-es-the′ze-a, to′po-)
SYN: topagnosis. [topo- + anesthesia]

topognosis, topognosia (top-og-no′sis, -no′ze-a)
Recognition of the location of a sensation; in the case of touch, topesthesia. [topo- + G. gnosis, knowledge]

topogometer (top-o-gom′e-ter)
A movable fixation target attached to the front of a keratometer, used in fitting contact lenses to measure the curvatures of the cornea in its peripheral zones. [topo- + G. gonia, angle, + metron, measure]

topography (to-pog′ra-fe)
In anatomy, the description of any part of the body, especially in relation to a definite and limited area of the surface. [topo- + G. graphe, a writing]

topoisomerase (to′po-i-som′er-as)
A type of enzyme converting (isomerizing) one topological version of DNA into another; acts by catalyzing the breakage and reformation of DNA phosphodiester linkages. [topo- + isomerase]

Alfred, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1861–1960. See T. sign.

topology (to-pol′o-je)
1. SYN: regional anatomy. 2. The study of the dimensions of personality. [topo- + G. logos, study]

toponarcosis (top′o-nar-ko′sis)
A localized cutaneous anesthesia. [topo- + narcosis]

toponym (to′po-nim)
A regional term; one designating a region as distinguished from the name of a structure, system, or organ. [topo- + G. onyma, name]

toponymy (to-pon′i-me)
Topical or regional nomenclature, as distinguished from organonymy. [topo- + G. onyma, name]

topopathogenesis (to′po-path-o-jen′e-sis)
Topography of lesions related to their pathogenesis. [topo- + pathogenesis]

topophobia (to-po-fo′be-a)
A neurotic dread of or related to a particular place or locality. [topo- + G. phobos, fear]

topophylaxis (to′po-fi-lak′sis)
Prevention of arsphenamine shock by a tourniquet applied to the limb above the site of injection and its slow release five or six minutes later. [topo- + G. phylaxis, protection]

topotecan (to-po-tek′an)
A topoisomerase I inhibitor with antitumor activity used in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Acronym for toxoplasmosis, other infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, and herpes simplex. See T. syndrome.

torcular herophili (tor′ku-lar he-rof′i-li)
Archaic term for confluence of sinuses. [L. wine-press of Herophilus, fr. torqueo, to twist]

Franz J.A., U.S. surgeon, 1861–1938. See T. operation.

toric (to′rik)
Relating to, or having the curvature of, a torus.

Arne, Norwegian neurosurgeon, 1899–1968 . See T. shunt.

Gustavus Ludwig, German physician, 1843–1910. See T. abscess, T. cyst, T. disease, T. syndrome.

torose, torous (to′ros, -rus)
Bulging; knobby. [L. torosus, fleshy, fr. torus, a knot, bulge]

Torovirus (to-ro-vi-rus)
A genus in the family Coronaviridae that causes enteric infections in animals.

torpent (tor′pent)
1. SYN: torpid. 2. A benumbing agent. [L. torpeo, pres. p. -ens, to be sluggish]

torpid (tor′pid)
Inactive; sluggish. SYN: torpent (1) . [L. torpidus, fr. torpeo, to be sluggish]

torpidity (tor-pid′i-te)
SYN: torpor.

torpor (tor′per, por)
Inactivity, sluggishness. SYN: torpidity. [L. sluggishness, numbness]

torque (T) (tork)
1. A rotatory force. 2. In dentistry, a torsion force applied to a tooth to produce or maintain crown or root movement. [L. torqueo, to twist]

torr (tor)
A unit of pressure sufficient to support a 1-mm column of mercury at 0°C against the standard acceleration of gravity at 45° north latitude (980.621 cm/s2); equivalent to 1333.224 dynes/cm2, 1.333224 millibars, 1.35951 cm of H2O, 133.3224 newtons/m2 (or Pa); 1 atm equals 760 T.. [Evangelista Torricelli]

Douglas P., U.S. dermatologist, *1919. See T. syndrome, Muir-T. syndrome.

torrefaction (tor-e-fak′shun)
Parching or drying by heat; a pharmaceutical operation for rendering drugs friable. [L. torre-facio, pp. -factus, to make dry by heat, fr. torreo, to parch]

torrefy (tor′e-fi)
To parch.

Evangelista, Italian scientist, 1608–1647. See torr.

torsade de pointes (tor-sad de pwant′)
“Twisting of the points,” a form of ventricular tachycardia nearly always due to medications and characterized by a long QT interval and a “short-long-short” sequence in the beat preceding its onset. The QRS complexes during this rhythm tend to show a series of complexes points up followed by complexes points down, often with a narrow waist between and no definite T waves; at one time referred to as “cardiac ballet.” [Fr. torsade, fringe, twist, or coil, + pointe, point or tip (euphonious for “wave burst”)]

torsion (tor′shun)
1. A twisting or rotation of a part upon its long axis or on its mesentery; often associated with compromise of the blood supply. 2. Twisting of the cut end of an artery to arrest hemorrhage. 3. Rotation of the eye around its anteroposterior axis. SEE ALSO: intorsion, extorsion, dextrotorsion, levotorsion. [L. torsio, fr. torqueo, to twist] t. of appendage t. of testicular or epididymal appendix. extravaginal t. high t. above insertion of tunica vaginalis; tends to occur in neonatal period. intravaginal t. t. below insertion of tunica vaginalis, the most common type of testicular t.. See bell clapper deformity. perinatal t. tends to be extravaginal type. t. of testis rotation of spermatic cord producing ischemia of testis. t. of a tooth rotation of a tooth in its socket.

torsionometer (tor-shun-om′e-ter)
A device for measuring the degree of rotation of the spinal column.

torsiversion (tor-si-ver′shun)
A malposition of a tooth in which it is rotated on its long axis. SYN: torsive occlusion, torsoclusion (2) .

torso (tor′so)
The trunk; the body without relation to head or extremities. [It.]

torsoclusion (tor′so-kloo-zhun)
1. Obsolete term for acupressure performed by entering a needle in the tissues parallel with the artery, then turning it so that it crosses the artery transversely, and passing it into the tissues on the opposite side of the vessel. 2. SYN: torsiversion. [L. torqueo, to twist, + claudo or cludo, to close]

torticollar (tor-ti-kol′ar)
Relating to or marked by torticollis.

torticollis (tor-ti-kol′is)
A contraction, or shortening, of the muscles of the neck, chiefly those supplied by the spinal accessory nerve; the head is drawn to one side and usually rotated so that the chin points to the other side. SEE ALSO: dystonia. SYN: wry neck, wryneck. [L. tortus, twisted, + collum, neck] benign paroxysmal t. of infancy intermittent recurrent episodes of head tilt and t. usually associated with vomiting; the disorder usually appears between 2 and 8 months of age and resolves by age 3. congenital t. t. due to a unilateral fibrous tumor in the sternocleidomastoid muscle, present at birth as a swelling that may subside or may lead to t. by shortening of the muscle. SYN: muscular t.. dermatogenic t. painful stiff neck with limitation of motion due to extensive skin lesions in the area. dystonic t. SYN: spasmodic t.. fixed t. persistent contracture of cervical muscles on one side. hysterical t. t. believed to be psychosomatic in etiology. See hysteria. labyrinthine t. t. due to vestibular disorder. muscular t. SYN: congenital t.. ocular t. t. incident to paralysis of an extraocular muscle, especially an oblique muscle. psychogenic t. spasmodic contractions of the neck muscles, of psychosomatic origin. SEE ALSO: spasmodic t.. spasmodic t. a disorder of unknown cause, manifested as a restricted dystonia, localized to some of the neck muscles, especially the sternomastoid and trapezius; occurs in adults and tends to progress slowly; the head movements increase with standing and walking and decrease with contractual stimuli, e.g., touching the chin or neck. SYN: dystonic t., rotatory tic.

tortipelvis (tor-ti-pel′vis)
Twisted pelvis.

tortuous (tor′choo-us)
Having many curves; full of turns and twists. [L. tortuosus, fr. torqueo, to twist]

Torulopsis (tor-oo-lop′sis)
A genus of yeasts with smaller blastoconidia (2–4 nm) with a wide attachment to the parent cell; T. glabrata, now called Candida glabrata, is a cause of candidiasis in humans.

torulus, pl .toruli (tor′u-lus, -li)
A minute elevation or papilla. [L. dim. of torus, a protuberance, swelling] toruli tactiles [TA] SYN: tactile elevations, under elevation.

torus, pl .tori (to′rus, to′ri) [TA]
1. [TA] A rounded swelling, such as that caused by a contracting muscle. SYN: elevation [TA] . 2. A geometric figure formed by the revolution of a circle around the base of any of its arcs, such as the convex molding at the base of a pillar. [L. swelling, knot, bulge] t. frontalis a slight prominence on the frontal bone at the root of the nose. t. levatorius [TA] the bulge in the lateral wall of the nasopharynx, below the opening of the auditory tube, produced by the levator veli palatini muscle. SYN: elevation of levator palati, levator cushion, levator swelling. mandibular t., t. mandibularis an exostosis protruding from the lingual aspect of the mandible, usually opposite the premolar teeth. t. manus archaic term for the carpal bones. t. occipitalis an occasional ridge near the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone. palatine t., t. palatinus an exostosis protruding from the midline of the hard palate. t. tubarius [TA] a ridge in the nasopharyngeal wall posterior to the opening of the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube, caused by the projection of the cartilaginous portion of this tube. SYN: eustachian cushion, tubal prominence. t. uretericus SYN: interureteric crest. t. uterinus a transverse ridge on the back part of the cervix of the uterus, formed by the junction of the rectouterine folds.

Abbreviation for thoracic outlet syndrome.

tosyl (to′sil)
Toluenesulfonyl radical, widely used to block amino groups in the course of organic syntheses of drugs and other biologically active compounds.

tosylate (to′si-lat)
USAN-approved contraction for p-toluenesulfonate.

totem (to′tem)
An object (usually an animal or plant) serving as the emblem of a family or clan and often as a reminder of its ancestry; something that serves as a revered symbol. [Amer. Indian]

totemism (to′tem-izm)
Belief in a kinship with, or a mystical relationship between, a group or individual and a totem.

totemistic (to-tem-is′tik)
Relating to totemism.

totipotency, totipotence (to-ti-po′ten-se, to-tip′o-tens)
The ability of a cell to differentiate into any type of cell and thus form a new organism or regenerate any part of an organism; e.g., a fertilized ovum, or a small excised portion of a Planaria, which is capable of regenerating a complete new organism. [L. totus, entire, + potentia, power]

totipotent, totipotential (to-tip′o-tent, to′ti-po-ten′shal)
Relating to totipotency.

touch (tuch)
1. The sense by which slight contact with the skin or mucous membrane is appreciated. SYN: tactile sense. 2. Digital examination. [Fr. toucher] royal t. a touching of a patient by the king, which was thought to be curative; usually applied to patients with scrofula, but also done with patients with enlarged lymph glands (buboes) of plague.

A., French surgeon. See T. fundoplication.

See Gilles de la T..

Auguste, French ophthalmologist, 1878–1969. See T. sign.

tourniquet (toor′ni-ket)
An instrument for temporarily arresting the flow of blood to or from a distal part by pressure applied with an encircling device. [Fr. fr. tourner, to turn] Dupuytren t. an instrument for compression on the abdominal aorta. Esmarch t. a rubber t. that is wrapped around an extremity from distal to proximal before starting a surgical procedure to exsanguinate the limb before the inflation of a proximally placed pneumatic t.. SYN: Esmarch bandage. Rummel t. a t. fashioned by passing an umbilical tape around a vessel and bringing both ends through a short red rubber catheter. The t. can be tightened and secured with a perpendicularly placed hemostat at the end of the catheter farthest from the vessel.

Kaspar, Prussian anatomist, 1802–1865. See T. membrane, T. sinus.

Karl, German dermatologist, *1858. See T. giant cell.

Ralph M., U.S. anesthesiologist, 1901–1967. See T. tube.

E.B., U.S. otolaryngologist, 1883–1957. See T. projection, T. projection radiograph, T. view.

See toxico-.

toxalbumins (toks-al-bu′minz)
Phytotoxins that inhibit protein synthesis.


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