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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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transplantation (tranz-plan-ta′shun)
Implanting in one part a tissue or organ taken from another part or from another individual. SEE ALSO: graft. [L. transplanto, pp. -atus, to transplant] bone marrow t. grafting of bone marrow tissue; used in aplastic anemia, primary immunodeficiency, acute leukemia (following total body irradiation), and in patients with cancer ( e.g., breast) who undergo extensive chemotherapy such that their bone marrow is destroyed. cardiopulmonary t. SYN: heart-lung t.. t. of cornea SYN: keratoplasty. corneal t. SYN: keratoplasty. heart t. replacement of a severely damaged heart with a normal heart from a brain-dead donor. heart-lung t. simultaneous t. of the heart and both lungs. SYN: cardiopulmonary t.. pancreaticoduodenal t. a technically feasible t. including both the duodenum and pancreas. renal t. t. of a kidney from a compatible donor to restore kidney function in a recipient suffering from renal failure. tendon t. 1. insertion of a slip from the tendon of a sound muscle into the tendon of a paralyzed muscle; 2. replacement of a length of tendon by a free graft. tooth t. the transfer of a tooth from one alveolus to another.

transpleural (trans-ploo′ral)
Through the pleura or across the pleural cavity; on the other side of the pleura.

transport (trans′port)
The movement or transference of biochemical substances in biologic systems. [L. transporto, to carry over, fr. trans- + porto, to carry] active t. the passage of ions or molecules across a cell membrane, not by passive diffusion but by an energy-consuming process at the expense of catabolic processes proceeding within the cell; in active t., movement takes place against an electrochemical gradient. axoplasmic t. t. by way of flow of axoplasm toward cell soma (retrograde) or toward axon terminal (anterograde). facilitated t. the protein-mediated t. of a compound across a biomembrane that is not ion-driven; a saturable t. system. SYN: passive t.. hydrogen t. the transfer of hydrogen from one metabolite (hydrogen donor) to another (hydrogen acceptor) through the action of an enzyme system; the donor is thus oxidized and the acceptor reduced. paracellular t. solvent movement across an epithelial cell layer through the tight junctions between cells. Cf.:transcellular t.. passive t. SYN: facilitated t.. transcellular t. solute movement across an epithelial cell layer through the cells. Cf.:paracellular t.. vesicular t. SYN: transcytosis.

transposase (tranz-poz′as)
An enzyme that is required for transposition of DNA segments. [L. trans-pono, pp. trans-positum, to set across, transfer, + -ase]

transpose (tranz-poz)
To transfer one tissue or organ to the place of another and vice versa. [L. trans-pono, pp. -positus, to place across, transfer]

transposition (tranz-po-zish′un)
1. Removal from one place to another; metathesis. 2. The condition of being in the wrong place or on the wrong side of the body, as in t. of the viscera, in which the viscera are located opposite their normal position; e.g., the liver on the left, the apex of the heart on the right. 3. Positioning of teeth out of their normal sequence in an arch. t. of arterial stems SYN: t. of the great vessels. corrected t. of the great vessels anatomically or physiologically corrected malposition of the great arteries. In anatomically corrected t., they arise from the correct ventricles but have an abnormal relation to each other (actually a malposition rather than a t..) In physiologically or functionally corrected t., the aorta arises from a systemic ventricle that has the morphologic characteristics of a right ventricle, and the pulmonary artery arises from a “venous” ventricle that has the morphologic characteristics of a left ventricle. t. of the great vessels congenital malformation in which the aorta arises from the morphologic right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the morphologic left ventricle resulting in two separate and parallel circulations. The condition is lethal unless some communication exists between the systemic and pulmonic circulation after birth; otherwise, unoxygenated venous blood inappropriately enters the systemic circulation, and oxygenated pulmonary venous blood is inappropriately directed to the pulmonary circulation. The life-sustaining communication may be an intraatrial passage or a patent ductus arteriosus. SYN: t. of arterial stems. penoscrotal t. a developmental error, seen with hypospadias, whereby hemiscrotal units are separated and lie lateral to the penile shaft or even cranial to it.

transposon (trans-po′son)
A segment of DNA ( e.g., an R-factor gene) which has a repeat of an insertion sequence element at each end that can migrate from one plasmid to another within the same bacterium, to a bacterial chromosome, or to a bacteriophage; the mechanism of transposition seems to be independent of the host's usual recombination mechanism. See jumping gene, transposable element. [L. transpono, pp. transpositum, to transfer, + -on]

transsection (trans-sek′shun)
SYN: transection.

transsegmental (trans-seg-men′tal)
Across or through a segment.

transseptal (trans-sep′tal)
Across or through a septum; on the other side of a septum.

transsexual (trans-sek′shoo-al)
1. A person with the external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics of one sex, but whose personal identification and psychosocial configuration is that of the opposite sex; a study of morphologic, genetic, and gonadal structure may be genitally congruent or incongruent. 2. Denoting or relating to such a person. 3. Relating to medical and surgical procedures designed to alter a patient's external sexual characteristics so that they resemble those of the opposite sex.

transsexualism (tranz-sek′shoo-a-lizm)
1. The state of being a transsexual. 2. The desire to change anatomic sexual characteristics to conform physically with one's perception of oneself as a member of the opposite sex, coupled with a desire to live full-time in the role of the opposite sex.

transsphenoidal (trans-sfe-noy′dal)
Through or across the sphenoid bone.

trans-splicing (trans-splis′ing)
Formation of spliced products containing portions of two different transcripts.

transsulfurase (trans-sul′fer-as)
Descriptive term applied to the enzymes catalyzing, among others, the following reactions involving sulfur-containing compounds: 1) cystathionine → cysteine + α-ketobutyrate + NH3 (cystathionine γ-lyase); 2) cystathionine → homocysteine + pyruvate + NH3 (cystathionine β-lyase); 3) cystine → thiocysteine + pyruvate + NH3 (cystathionine γ-lyase); 4) cystathionine → serine + homocysteine (cystathionine synthase). SYN: transulfurase.

transsulfuration (trans-sul′fer-a′shun)
The exchange of sulfur, or sulfur-containing moiety, between two different compounds.

transsynaptic (trans-si-nap′tik)
Indicating transmission of a nerve impulse across a synapse.

transtentorial (trans-ten-tor′e-al)
Passing across or through either the tentorial notch or tentorium cerebelli.

transthalamic (trans-tha-lam′ik)
Passing across the thalamus.

transthermia (trans-ther′me-a)
SYN: diathermy. [trans- + G. therme, heat]

transthoracic (trans-thor-as′ik)
Passing through the thoracic cavity.

transthoracotomy (trans-thor′a-kot′o-me)
A surgical procedure carried out through an incision into the chest wall. [trans- + thorax + G. tome, incision]

transthyretin (trans-thi′re-tin)
SYN: prealbumin (1) .

transudate (tran′soo-dat)
Any fluid (solvent and solute) that has passed through a presumably normal membrane, such as the capillary wall, as a result of imbalanced hydrostatic and osmotic forces; characteristically low in protein unless there has been secondary concentration. Cf.:exudate. SYN: transudation (2) . [trans- + L. sudo, pp. -atus, to sweat]

transudation (tran-soo-da′shun)
1. Passage of a fluid or solute through a membrane by a hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradient. See transudate. 2. SYN: transudate.

transude (tran-sood′)
In general, to ooze or to pass a liquid gradually through a membrane, more specifically, through a normal membrane, as a result of imbalanced hydrostatic and osmotic forces. [see transudate]

transulfurase (tran-sul′fer-as)
SYN: transsulfurase.

transureteroureterostomy (TUU) (tranz-u-re′ter-o-u-re-ter-os′to-me)
Anastomosis of the transected end of one ureter into the intact contralateral ureter, by direct or elliptical end-to-side technique. See ureteroureterostomy. SYN: transureteroureteral anastomosis.

transurethral (trans-u-re′thral)
Through the urethra.

transvaalin
SYN: scillaren A.

transvaginal (trans-vaj′i-nal)
Across or through the vagina.

transvector (trans-vek′tor, tor)
An animal that transmits a toxic substance that it does not produce, but that may be accumulated from animal (dinoflagellate) or plant (algae) sources; e.g., filter-feeding mollusks.

transversalis (trans-ver-sa′lis) [TA]
Transverse, denotes especially a fascia. SYN: transverse, transverse. [L.]

transverse (trans-vers′) [TA]
Crosswise; lying across the long axis of the body or of a part. SYN: transversalis [TA] , transversus [TA] . [L. transversus]

transversectomy (trans-ver-sek′to-me)
Resection of the transverse process of a vertebra. [transverse + G. ektome, excision]

transversion (trans-ver′zhun)
1. Substitution in DNA and RNA of a pyrimidine for a purine, or vice versa, by mutation. 2. In dentistry, the eruption of a tooth in a position normally occupied by another; transposition of a tooth.

transversocostal (trans-ver′so-kos′tal)
SYN: costotransverse.

transversospinales (tranz-ver-so-spin-al′es)
SYN: t. (muscles), under muscle.

transversourethralis (trans-ver-so-u-re-thra′lis)
Denoting the transverse fibers of the sphincter urethrae muscle, arising from the arch of the pubes.

transversus (trans-ver′sus) [TA]
SYN: transverse. [L. fr. trans, across, + verto, pp. versus, to turn]

transvestism (trans-ves′tizm)
The practice of dressing or masquerading in the clothes of the opposite sex; especially the adoption of feminine mannerisms and costume by a male. SYN: transvestitism. [trans- + L. vestio, to dress]

transvestite (trans-ves′tit)
A person who practices transvestism.

transvestitism (trans-ves′ti-tizm)
SYN: transvestism.

Trantas
Alexios, Greek ophthalmologist, 1867–1960. See T. dots, under dot, Horner-T. dots, under dot.

tranylcypromine sulfate (tran-il-sip′ro-men)
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor; an antidepressant used in the treatment of severe mental depression. Interacts with many foods and drugs to produce hypertensive crisis.

TRAP
Abbreviation for twin reversed arterial perfusion.

trapezial (tra-pe′ze-al)
Relating to any trapezium.

trapeziform (tra-pe′zi-form)
SYN: trapezoid (1) .

trapeziometacarpal (tra-pe′ze-o-met′a-kar′pal)
Relating to the trapezium and the metacarpus.

trapezium, pl .trapeziatrapeziums (tra-pe′ze-um, -a)
1. A four-sided geometrical figure having no two sides parallel. 2. SYN: t. bone. [G. trapezion, a table or counter, a t., dim. of trapeza, a table, fr. tra- (= tetra-), four, + pous (pod-), foot]

trapezius (tra-pe′ze-us)
SYN: t. (muscle).

trapezoid (trap′e-zoyd) [TA]
1. Resembling a trapezium. SYN: trapeziform. 2. A geometrical figure resembling a trapezium except that two of its opposite sides are parallel. 3. SYN: t. (bone). 4. SYN: t. body. [G. trapeza, table, + eidos, resemblance]

trapidil (trap′i-dil)
An antagonist and selective synthesis inhibitor of thromboxane A2; used to prevent cerebral vasospasm.

Trapp
Julius, Russian pharmacist, 1815–1908. See T. formula, T.-Häser formula.

Traube
Ludwig, German physician and pathologist, 1818–1876. See T. bruit, T. corpuscle, T. dyspnea, T. plugs, under plug, T. semilunar space, T. sign, T. double tone, T.-Hering curves, under curve, T.-Hering waves, under wave.

Traugott
Carl, German internist, *1885. See Staub-T. effect.

traum-
See traumato-.

trauma, pl .traumatatraumas (traw′ma, -ma-ta)
An injury, physical or mental. SYN: traumatism. [G. wound] birth t. 1. physical injury to an infant during its delivery; 2. the supposed emotional injury, inflicted by events incident to birth, upon an infant which allegedly appears in symbolic form in patients with mental illness. t. from occlusion a reversible lesion in the periodontium caused by excessive movement of teeth. occlusal t. abnormal occlusal stresses capable of producing or which have produced pathologic changes in the tooth and its surrounding structures. psychic t. an upsetting experience precipitating or aggravating an emotional or mental disorder.

traumata (traw′ma-ta)
Plural of trauma.

traumatic (traw-mat′ik)
Relating to or caused by trauma. [G. traumatikos]

traumatism (traw′ma-tizm)
SYN: trauma.

traumatize (traw′ma-tiz)
To cause or inflict trauma. [G. traumatizo, to wound]

traumato-, traumat-, traum-
Wound, injury. [G. trauma]

traumatology (traw-ma-tol′o-je)
The branch of surgery concerned with the injured. [traumato- + G. logos, study]

traumatonesis (traw′ma-to-ne′sis, -ton′e-sis)
Surgical repair of an accidental wound. [traumato- + G. neis, a spinning]

traumatopathy (traw-ma-top′a-the)
Any pathologic condition resulting from violence or wounds. [traumato- + G. pathos, suffering]

traumatopnea (traw′ma-top-ne′a)
Passage of air in and out through a wound of the chest wall. [traumato- + G. pnoe, breath]

traumatopyra (traw′ma-to-pi′ra)
Obsolete synonym of traumatic fever. [traumato- + G. pyr, fire, fever]




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