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Medical Dictionary


trichloroethanol (tri-klor-o-eth′a-nol)
A hypnotic and sedative; as a metabolite of chloral hydrate, it contributes to the depressant activity of chloral hydrate. SYN: trichloroethyl alcohol.

trichloroethene (tri-klor-o-eth′en)
SYN: trichloroethylene.

trichloroethyl alcohol (tri-klor-o-eth′il)
SYN: trichloroethanol.

trichloroethylene (tri-klor-o-eth′i-len)
An analgesic and inhalation anesthetic used in minor surgical operations and in obstetric practice; administration requires that only nonrebreathing circuits be used because of the toxicity of dichloracetylene resulting from interaction of t. with soda lime. SYN: ethinyl trichloride, trichloroethene.

trichlorofluoromethane (tri-klor′o-flor-o-meth′an)
A propellant used for aerosol sprays; has anesthetic and arrhythmogenic activity if inhaled in high concentration. SYN: trichloromonofluoromethane.

trichloromethane (tri-klor-o-meth′an)
SYN: chloroform.

trichloromonofluoromethane (tri-klor-o-mon′o-flor-o-meth′an)
SYN: trichlorofluoromethane.

trichlorophenol (tri-klor-o-fe′nol)
Used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and fungicide.

(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T) (tri-klor-o-fe-nok′se-a-se-tik)
A herbicide and defoliant synthesized by condensation of chloracetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, used as the principal constituent of Agent Orange.

tricho-, trich-, trichi-
The hair; a hairlike structure. [G. thrix (trich-)]

Trichocephalus (trik-o-sef′a-lus)
Incorrect name for Trichuris. [tricho- + G. kephale, head]

trichochrome (tri′ko-krom)
Yellow-orange and violet natural pigments related to melanins; partly responsible for the red and auburn colors of human hair. [tricho- + G. chroma, color]

trichocyst (trik′o-sist)
One of a number of structures, in the form of minute elongated cysts, arranged radially around the periphery of a protozoan cell and containing fluid which when discharged serves for offense or defense; found in ciliates, such as Paramecium species. SYN: trichite. [tricho- + G. kystis, bladder]

Trichodectes (trik-o-dek′tez)
A genus of biting lice that includes the species T. canis (T. latus), the biting louse of dogs that commonly serves as an intermediate host for the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, as well as the species T. climax (Bovicola caprae), T. parumpilosus (B. equi), T. scalaris (B. bovis), and T. sphaerocephalus (B. ovis). SEE ALSO: Bovicola, Damalinia. [tricho- + G. dektes, a beggar]

Trichoderma (trik-o-der′ma)
A genus of fungi in soil that furnishes the antibiotic gliotoxin. Has produced rare opportunistic infections. [tricho- + G. derma, skin]

trichodiscoma (trik′o-dis-ko′ma)
Dominantly inherited or nonfamilial elliptical parafollicular mesenchymal hamartomas.

trichodynia (trik-o-din′e-a)
SYN: trichalgia. [tricho- + G. odyne, pain]

trichodystrophy (trik′o-dis-tro-fe)
Defective nutrition or growth of hair, often culminating in alopecia. May be acquired or congenital; the latter often with metabolic or other birth defects. [tricho- + G. prefix dys-, abnormal, + trophe, growth]

trichoepithelioma (trik′o-ep-i-the-le-o′ma) [MIM*132700]
Multiple small benign nodules, occurring mostly on the skin of the face, derived from basal cells of hair follicles enclosing small keratin cysts; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: Brooke tumor, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, hereditary multiple t.. [tricho- + epithelioma] desmoplastic t. a solitary, hard, annular, centrally depressed papule, occurring usually in women on the face, consisting of dermal strands of basaloid cells and small keratinous cysts within sclerotic desmoplastic stroma. hereditary multiple t. SYN: t..

trichoesthesia (trik′o-es-the′ze-a)
1. The sensation felt when a hair is touched. 2. A form of paresthesia in which there is a sensation as of a hair on the skin, on the mucous membrane of the mouth, or on the conjunctiva. [tricho- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

trichofolliculoma (trik′o-fol-ik-u-lo′ma)
A usually solitary tumor or hamartoma in which multiple abortive hair follicles open into a central cyst or space opening on the skin surface. [tricho- + L. folliculus, fountain, spring, + G. -oma, tumor]

trichogen (trik′o-jen)
An agent that promotes the growth of hair. [tricho- + G. -gen, producing]

trichoglossia (trik-o-glos′e-a)
SYN: hairy tongue. [tricho- + G. glossa, tongue]

trichohyalin (trik-o-hi′a-lin)
A substance of the nature of keratohyalin found in the developing inner root sheath of the hair follicle.

trichoid (trik′oyd)
Hairlike. [tricho- + G. eidos, resemblance]

tricholemmoma (trik′o-le-mo′ma)
SYN: trichilemmoma.

trichologia (trik-o-lo′je-a)
A nervous habit of plucking at the hair. SYN: trichology (2) . [G. trichologeo, to pluck hairs, fr. tricho- + lego, to pick out, gather]

trichology (tri-kol′o-je)
1. The study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the hair. [tricho- + G. logos, study] 2. SYN: trichologia. [G. trichologeo, fr. tricho- + lego, to pick out]

trichoma (tri-ko′ma)
SYN: trichiasis. [tricho- + G. -oma, tumor]

trichomatosis (tri-ko′ma-to′sis)
SYN: trichiasis.

trichomegaly (trik′o-meg′a-le)
Congenital condition characterized by abnormally long eyelashes; associated with dwarfism. [tricho- + G. megas, large]

trichomonacide (trik-o-mo′na-sid)
An agent that is destructive to Trichomonas organisms.

trichomonad (trik-o-mo′nad)
Common name for members of the family Trichomonadidae.

Trichomonadidae (trik′o-mo-nad′i-de)
A family of protozoan flagellates that includes the genus Trichomonas.

Trichomonas (trik-o-mo′nas)
A genus of parasitic protozoan flagellates (subfamily Trichomonidinae, family Trichomonadidae) causing trichomoniasis in humans, other primates, and birds. Specificity is more marked for its precise microhabitat than for host species. The genus has been divided into several genera: T., Pentatrichomonas, Tetratrichomonas, and Tritrichomonas. [tricho- + G. monas, single (unit)] T. buccalis SYN: T. tenax. T. foetus former name for Tritrichomonas foetus. T. gallinarum former name for Tetratrichomonas gallinarium. T. hominis former name for Pentatrichomonas hominis. T. ovis former name for Tetratrichomonas ovis. T. suis former name for Tritrichomonas suis. T. tenax a species that lives as a commensal in the mouth of humans and other primates, especially in the tartar around the teeth or in the defects of carious teeth; there is no evidence of direct pathogenesis, but it is frequently associated with pyogenic organisms in pus pockets or at the base of teeth. SYN: T. buccalis. T. vaginalis a species frequently found in the vagina and urethra of women (in whom it causes trichomoniasis vaginitis) and in the urethra and prostate gland of men (the only known natural hosts); considerable differences in pathogenicity exist among various strains of this species.

trichomoniasis (trik′o-mo-ni′a-sis)
Disease caused by infection with a species of protozoon of the genus Trichomonas or related genera. t. vaginitis acute vaginitis or urethritis caused by infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, which does not invade the mucosa or the tissue but provokes an inflammatory reaction; infection is venereal or by other forms of contact; widespread infection in human populations is usually asymptomatic but may produce vaginitis, with vaginal and vulvar pruritis, leukorrhea with frothy watery discharge, and (rarely) purulent urethritis in males.

trichomycetosis (trik′o-mi-se-to′sis)
SYN: trichomycosis.

trichomycosis (trik′o-mi-ko′sis)
Term formerly used to mean any disease of the hair caused by a fungus; now synonymous with trichonocardiosis or t. axillaris. In present usage, t. is a misnomer because the causative agent of the disease is a nocardia (an entity intermediate between fungus and bacterium) or Corynebacterium and not a true fungus. SYN: trichomycetosis. [tricho- + G. mykes, fungus, + G. -osis, condition] t. axillaris Corynebacterium infection of axillary and pubic hairs with development of yellow (flava), black (nigra), or red (rubra) concretions around the hair shafts; frequently asymptomatic. SYN: lepothrix, trichonodosis.

trichonodosis (trik′o-no-do′sis)
SYN: trichomycosis axillaris. [tricho- + L. nodus, node (swelling), + G. -osis, condition]

trichonosis (trik′o-no′sis)
SYN: trichopathy.

trichopathic (trik-o-path′ik)
Relating to any disease of the hair.

trichopathophobia (trik′o-path-o-fo′be-a)
Excessive worry regarding disease of the hair, its color, or abnormalities of its growth. [tricho- + G. pathos, suffering, + phobos, fear]

trichopathy (tri-kop′a-the)
Any disease of the hair. SYN: trichonosis, trichosis. [tricho- + G. pathos, suffering]

trichophagia (tri-ko-faj′e-a)
The eating of hair or wool.

trichophagy (tri-kof′a-je)
Habitual biting of the hair. [tricho- + G. phagein, to eat]

trichophobia (trik-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid disgust caused by the sight of loose hairs on clothing or elsewhere. [tricho- + G. phobos, fear]

trichophytic (trik-o-fit′ik)
Relating to trichophytosis.

trichophytobezoar (trik′o-fi′to-be′zor)
A mixed hair and food ball, consisting of vegetable fibers, seeds and skins of fruits, and animal hair matted together to form a ball in the stomach of humans or other animals, especially ruminants. SYN: phytotrichobezoar. [tricho- + G. phyton, plant, + bezoar]

Trichophyton (tri-kof′i-ton)
A genus of pathogenic fungi causing dermatophytosis in humans and animals; species may be anthropophilic, zoophilic, or geophilic, and attack the hair, skin, and nails, and are characterized by their growth in hair. Endothrix species grow from the skin into the hair follicle, penetrate the shaft, and grow into it, producing rows of arthroconidia as the hyphae septate; there is no growth on the external surface of the shaft. Ectothrix species are of two kinds, large spored and small spored. In both, the fungus grows into the hair follicle, surrounds the hair shaft, and penetrates it, but continues to grow both within and outside the hair shaft, producing arthroconidia externally. [tricho- + G. phyton, plant] T. concentricum an anthropophilic fungal species that is the causative agent of tinea imbricata; it closely resembles the branching mycelium of T. schoenleinii. T. equinum a zoophilic fungal species causing ectothrix infections of hair in horses, from which humans may also be infected; it requires nicotinic acid for growth. T. megninii an anthropophilic ectothrix species of dermatophyte fungi with spores in chains, causing infection in humans; it requires histidine, which differentiates it from Microsporum gallinae. T. mentagrophytes a zoophilic small-spored ectothrix species of fungi that causes infection of the hair, skin, and nails; it is a cause of ringworm in dogs, horses, rabbits, mice, rats, chinchillas, foxes, and humans (especially tinea pedis with severe inflammation, and tinea cruris). T. rubrum a widely distributed anthropophilic fungal species that causes persistent infections of the skin, especially tinea pedis and tinea cruris, and in the nails that are unusually resistant to therapy; it rarely invades the hair, where it is ectothrix in nature; occasional subcutaneous and systemic infections have been reported. T. schoenleinii an anthropophilic endothrix species of dermatophyte fungi causing favus in humans; it is endemic throughout Eurasia and Africa and, because of travel, is seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere; it produces tunnels within the hair shaft that are filled with air bubbles after the hyphae disintegrate. T. simii a zoophilic species of fungi that causes infection in rhesus monkeys, dogs, and humans; most infections have had their origin in India. T. tonsurans an anthropophilic endothrix species of fungi that causes epidemic dermatophytosis in Europe, South America, and the U.S.; it infects some animals and requires thiamin for growth. It is the most common cause of tinea capitis in the U.S., forming black dots where hair breaks off at the skin surface. T. verrucosum a zoophilic species of fungi that causes ringworm in cattle, from which humans can become infected. T. violaceum an anthropophilic species of fungi that causes black-dot ringworm or favus infection of the scalp; hair infection is of the endothrix type; usually found in South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

trichophytosis (trik′o-fi-to′sis)
Superficial fungus infection caused by species of Trichophyton. [tricho- + G. phyton, plant, + -osis, condition]

Trichopleuris (trik′o-ploo′ris)
A genus of biting lice that infest ruminants, e.g., T. lipeuroides and T. parallelus in American deer; considered by some to be a subgenus of Damalinia. [tricho- + G. pleura, rib, side]

SYN: kinky-hair disease.

trichopoliosis (trik′o-po-le-o′sis)
SYN: poliosis. [tricho- + G. polios, gray, + -osis, condition]

Trichoptera (tri-kop′ter-a)
An order of insects in which the aquatic larvae (caddis flies) construct a protective case (caddis) of bits of submerged material in a highly specific form; commonly found attached under stones in freshwater streams. The adult caddis flies, having hairy wings, shed their hairs and epithelia, causing hay fever-like (allergic) symptoms in sensitive people. [tricho- + G. pteron, wing]

trichoptilosis (trik′o-ti-lo′sis, tri-kop-ti-lo′sis)
A condition of splitting of the shaft of the hair, giving it a feathery appearance. [tricho- + G. ptilosis, plumage, + -osis, condition]

trichorrhexis (trik-o-rek′sis)
A condition in which the hairs tend to readily break or split. [tricho- + G. rhexis, a breaking] t. invaginata SYN: bamboo hair. t. nodosa a congenital or acquired condition in which minute nodes are formed in the hair shafts; splitting and breaking, complete or incomplete, may occur at these points or nodes.

trichoschisis (tri-kos′ki-sis)
The presence of broken or split hairs. SEE ALSO: trichorrhexis. [tricho- + G. schisis, a cleaving]

trichosis (tri-ko′sis)
SYN: trichopathy. [tricho- + G. -osis, condition] t. carunculae a growth of hair on the lacrimal caruncle. t. sensitiva hyperesthesia of the hairy parts. t. setosa coarseness of the hair.

trichosomatous (trik-o-so′ma-tus)
Having flagella with a small body; denoting certain protozoan organisms. See Trichomonas. [tricho- + G. soma, body]

Trichosporon (tri-kos′po-ron, trik-o-spor′on)
A genus of imperfect fungi that possess branching septate hyphae with arthroconidia and blastoconidia; these organisms are part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans. T. beigelii is the causative agent of white piedra or trichosporonosis and fatal fungemia in immunocompromised patients. [tricho- + G. sporos, seed (spore)]

trichosporonosis (trik′o-spor-o-no-sis)
Systemic infection by Trichosporan beigelii; marked by fever or pneumonia with a high mortality; seen in neutropenic patients. Local infection with T. beigelii is white piedra, also known as trichosporosis.

trichosporosis (trik′o-spo-ro′sis)
Infection with Trichosporon beigelii. [Trichosporon + G. -osis, condition]

trichostasis spinulosa (tri-kos′ta-sis spi′noo-lo′sa)
A condition in which hair follicles are blocked with a keratin plug containing multiple vellus hairs forming pruritic papules. [tricho- + G. stasis, a standing; L. spinulosus, thorny]

trichostrongyle (trik-o-stron′jil)
Common name for members of the family Trichostrongylidae.

Trichostrongylidae (trik′o-stron-jil′i-de)
A family of nematodes (order Strongylida or, in older terminology, Strongylata); includes the important genera Cooperia, Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, and Hippostrongylus. See Trichostrongylus.

trichostrongylosis (trik′o-stron-ji-lo′sis)
Infection with nematodes of the genus Trichostrongylus.

Trichostrongylus (trik-o-stron′ji-lus)
The hairworm, or bankrupt or black scour worm; an economically important genus (about 30 species) of small slender nematodes (family Trichostrongylidae) that inhabit the small intestine, in some cases the stomach, of a variety of herbivorous animals and gallinaceous birds. They burrow into the mucosa and suck blood; in large numbers they do serious damage, especially to young hosts. [tricho- + G. strongylos, round] T. axei the most common species in cattle, occurring also in the abomasum of sheep, horses, antelope, bison, llama, and deer, and in the stomach of pigs and horses. T. capricola a species that occurs in the small intestine and abomasum of sheep, goats, deer, and pronghorn. T. colubriformis a species that occurs in anterior portions of the small intestine and sometimes in the abomasum of sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and some wild ruminants, and in the stomach of primates (including humans), rabbits, and squirrels; it is distributed worldwide and is common in the U.S., especially in sheep. T. longispicularis a species found in the small intestine of cattle, sheep, and goats; it is distributed worldwide but uncommon in the U.S. T. tenuis a species that is a widespread pathogenic parasite of the ceca and small intestines of fowl, including ducks, geese, turkeys, pheasants, and partridges. T. vitrinus a species that is an important pathogen of lambs, found chiefly in the duodenum of sheep, camels, rabbits, and goats but also reported from humans and pigs.

Trichothecium (tri-ko-the′se-um)
A genus of imperfect fungi generally considered a common saprophyte.

trichothiodystrophy (trik′o-thi′o-dis′tro-fe) [MIM*234050]
Congenital brittle hair resulting from low sulfur-containing amino acid (cysteine) content sometimes associated with mental impairment and short stature; autosomal recessive inheritance. [tricho- + thio- + G. dys, bad, + trophe, nourishment]


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