|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Truncated; cut across at right angles to the long axis, or appearing to be so cut. [L. trunco, pp. -atus, to maim, cut off]
truncus, gen. and pl. trunci (trun′kus, -ki) [TA]
SYN: trunk. [L. stem, trunk] t. arteriosus the common arterial trunk opening out of both ventricles in early fetal life, later destined to be divided into aorta and pulmonary artery by development of the spiral septum. t. arteriosus communis t. arteriosus. t. brachiocephalicus [TA] SYN: brachiocephalic (arterial) trunk. t. celiacus [TA] SYN: celiac (arterial) trunk. t. corporis callosi [TA] SYN: trunk of corpus callosum. t. costocervicalis [TA] SYN: costocervical (arterial) trunk. t. encephali [TA] SYN: brainstem. t. fascicularis atrioventricularis SYN: atrioventricular bundle. SEE ALSO: conducting system of heart. t. inferior plexus brachialis [TA] SYN: inferior trunk of brachial plexus. t. linguofacialis [TA] SYN: linguofacial (arterial) trunk. t. lumbosacralis [TA] SYN: lumbosacral (nerve) trunk. trunci (lymphatici) intestinales [TA] SYN: intestinal (lymphatic) trunks, under trunk. trunci (lymphatici) lumbales [TA] SYN: lumbar (lymphatic) trunks, under trunk. t. (lymphaticus) bronchiomediastinalis [TA] SYN: bronchomediastinal (lymphatic) trunk. t. (lymphaticus) jugularis [TA] SYN: jugular lymphatic trunk. t. medius plexus brachialis [TA] SYN: middle trunk of brachial plexus. t. nervi accessorii [TA] SYN: accessory nerve trunk. persistent t. arteriosus a congenital cardiovascular anomaly resulting from failure of development of the spiral septum and consisting of a common arterial trunk opening out of both ventricles, the pulmonary arteries being given off from the ascending common trunk. trunci plexus brachialis [TA] SYN: trunks of brachial plexus, under trunk. t. pulmonalis [TA] SYN: pulmonary trunk. t. subclavius [TA] SYN: subclavian lymphatic trunk. t. superior plexus brachialis [TA] SYN: superior trunk of brachial plexus. t. sympathicus [TA] SYN: sympathetic trunk. t. thyrocervicalis [TA] SYN: thyrocervical (arterial) trunk. t. vagalis SYN: vagal (nerve) trunk.
Karel, Czechoslovakian physician, *1865. See T. sign.
trunk (trunk) [TA]
1. The body (t. or torso), excluding the head and extremities. 2. A primary nerve, vessel, or collection of tissue before its division. 3. A large collecting lymphatic vessel. SYN: truncus [TA] . [L. truncus] accessory nerve t. [TA] part of the accessory nerve formed within the cranial cavity by the union of the cranial and spinal roots, which then divides within the jugular foramen into internal and external branches, the former uniting with the vagus, the latter exiting the foramen as an independent branch which is commonly considered to be the accessory nerve. SYN: truncus nervi accessorii [TA] . t. of atrioventricular bundle SYN: atrioventricular bundle. trunks of brachial plexus [TA] the superior, middle, and inferior trunks; they divide distally to form the cords (fasciculi) of the plexus. SYN: trunci plexus brachialis [TA] . brachiocephalic (arterial) t. [TA] origin, arch of aorta; branches, right subclavian and right common carotid; occasionally it gives off the thyroidea ima. SYN: truncus brachiocephalicus [TA] . bronchomediastinal (lymphatic) t. [TA] a lymphatic vessel arising from the union of the efferent lymphatics from the tracheo-bronchial and mediastinal nodes on either side. On the left side, it may be largely replaced by direct drainage into the thoracic duct. SYN: truncus (lymphaticus) bronchiomediastinalis [TA] . celiac (arterial) t. [TA] origin, abdominal aorta just below diaphragm; branches, left gastric, common hepatic, splenic. SYN: truncus celiacus [TA] , arteria celiaca, celiac artery, celiac axis, Haller tripod. t. of corpus callosum [TA] the main arched portion of the corpus callosum. SYN: truncus corporis callosi [TA] , body of corpus callosum&star. costocervical (arterial) t. [TA] a short artery that arises from the subclavian artery on each side and divides into deep cervical and superior intercostal branches, the latter dividing usually to form the first and second posterior intercostal arteries. SYN: truncus costocervicalis [TA] , costocervical artery. inferior t. of brachial plexus [TA] the nerve bundle formed by the union of the ventral rami of the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves; it provides fibers to the posterior and medial cords (fasciculi) of the brachial plexus. SYN: truncus inferior plexus brachialis [TA] . intestinal (lymphatic) trunks [TA] the vessels conveying lymph from the lower part of the liver, the stomach, spleen, pancreas, and small intestine; they discharge into the cisterna chyli and are sometimes duplicated. SYN: trunci (lymphatici) intestinales [TA] . jugular lymphatic t. [TA] lymphatic vessel on each side, conveying the lymph from the head and neck; that on the right side empties into the right lymphatic duct, that on the left into the thoracic duct. SYN: truncus (lymphaticus) jugularis [TA] , jugular duct. linguofacial (arterial) t. [TA] the common t. by which the lingual and facial arteries frequently arise from the external carotid artery. SYN: truncus linguofacialis [TA] . lumbar (lymphatic) trunks [TA] two lymphatic ducts conveying lymph from the lower limbs, pelvic viscera and walls, large intestine, kidneys, and suprarenal glands; they discharge into the cisterna chyli. SYN: trunci (lymphatici) lumbales [TA] . lumbosacral (nerve) t. [TA] a large nerve, formed by the union of the fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves, with a branch from the fourth lumbar nerve, which enters into the formation of the sacral plexus. SYN: truncus lumbosacralis [TA] . middle t. of brachial plexus [TA] the continuation of the ventral ramus of the seventh cervical nerve; it contributes fibers to the posterior and lateral cords (fasciculi) of the brachial plexus. SYN: truncus medius plexus brachialis [TA] . nerve t. a collection of funiculi or bundles of nerve fibers enclosed in a connective tissue sheath, the epineurium. pulmonary t. [TA] origin, right ventricle of heart; distribution, it divides into the right pulmonary artery and the left pulmonary artery, which enter the corresponding lungs and branch along with the segmental bronchi. SYN: truncus pulmonalis [TA] , arteria pulmonalis, pulmonary artery, venous artery. subclavian lymphatic t. [TA] it is formed by the union of the vessels draining the lymph nodes of either upper limb, emptying into the thoracic duct at the root of the neck on the left or into the right lymphatic duct. SYN: truncus subclavius [TA] , subclavian duct. superior t. of brachial plexus [TA] the nerve bundle formed by the union of the ventral rami of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and some fibers from the fourth; it contributes fibers to the posterior and lateral cords (fasciculi) of the brachial plexus. SYN: truncus superior plexus brachialis [TA] . sympathetic t. [TA] one of the two long ganglionated nerve strands alongside the vertebral column that extend from the base of the skull to the coccyx; they are connected to each spinal nerve by gray rami and receive fibers from the spinal cord through white rami connecting with the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal nerves. SYN: truncus sympathicus [TA] , gangliated cord, ganglionic chain. thoracoacromial t. SYN: thoracoacromial artery. thyrocervical (arterial) t. [TA] a short arterial t. arising from the subclavian artery, giving rise to the suprascapular (which may instead arise directly from the subclavian artery) and terminating by dividing into the ascending cervical and inferior thyroid arteries. SYN: truncus thyrocervicalis [TA] , thyroid axis. vagal (nerve) t. one of the two nerve bundles, anterior and posterior, into which the esophageal plexus continues as it passes through the diaphragm. SYN: truncus vagalis.
Displacement of a body, e.g., a tooth, from an initial position. [L. trudo, pp. trusus, to thrust]
An appliance designed to prevent the return of a reduced hernia or the increase in size of a hernia; it consists of a pad attached to a belt and kept in place by a spring or straps. [Fr. trousser, to tie up, to pack]
Former abbreviation for tryptophan.
Preliminary insertion of a complete denture wax-up (trial denture), of a partial denture casting, or of a finished restoration to determine the fit, esthetics, maxillomandibular relation, etc.
trypan blue (tri′pan, trip′) [C.I. 23850]
An acid azo dye, used for vital staining of the reticuloendothelial system, uriniferous tubules, and cells in tissue culture, and as an experimental teratogen; formerly used as a trypanocide.
trypanocidal (tri-pan′o-si′dal, trip′a-no-)
Destructive to trypanosomes. SYN: trypanicidal.
trypanocide (tri-pan′o-sid, trip′a-no-)
An agent that kills trypanosomes. SYN: trypanicide, trypanosomicide. [trypanosome + L. caedo, to kill]
Trypanoplasma (tri-pan-o-plaz′ma, trip′a-no-)
A genus of flagellate Protozoa (family Cryptobiidae), the members of which have a body of varying shape, an undulating membrane, and a flagellum projecting from either extremity; parasitic in the blood of fishes. [G. trypanon, auger, + plasma, anything formed]
Trypanosoma (tri-pan′o-so′ma, trip′a-no-)
A genus of asexual digenetic protozoan flagellates (family Trypanosomatidae) that have a spindle-shaped body with an undulating membrane on one side, a single anterior flagellum, and a kinetoplast; they are parasitic in the blood plasma of many vertebrates (only a few being pathogenic) and as a rule have an intermediate host, a bloodsucking invertebrate, such as a leech, tick, or insect; pathogenic species cause trypanosomiasis in humans and a number of other diseases in domestic animals. [G. trypanon, an auger, + soma, body] T. avium a species that occurs in owls, crows, and other birds; various bloodsucking arthropods are the vectors, including mosquitoes, black flies, and hippoboscids; this species was reported under a large number of names now considered to be physiologic strains of the species. T. brucei a protozoan species now divided into three subspecies: T. brucei brucei, T. brucei rhodesiense, and T. brucei gambiense. T. brucei brucei a protozoan subspecies causing nagana in Africa; it produces fatal disease in camels, acute disease in equines, dogs, and cats, and chronic disease in swine, cattle, sheep, and goats; it is transmitted primarily by tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. In wild African ungulates the infection is widespread but rarely fatal. T. brucei gambiense a protozoan subspecies causing Gambian trypanosomiasis in humans; transmitted by tsetse flies, especially Glossina palpalis. SYN: T. gambiense, T. hominis, T. ugandense. T. brucei rhodesiense a protozoan subspecies causing Rhodesian trypanosomiasis; it is transmitted by tsetse flies, especially Glossina morsitans in humans; various game animals can act as reservoir hosts. SYN: T. rhodesiense. T. cruzi a species that causes South American trypanosomiasis and is endemic in Mexico and various countries of Central and South America; transmission and infection are common only where the triatomine bug vector defecates while taking blood, as the bug feces contains the infective agents that are scratched into the skin or brought in contact with mucosal surfaces. Trypomastigotes are found in the blood, and amastigotes occur intracellularly in clusters or colonies in the tissues; heart muscle fibers and cells of many other organs are attacked, the organisms not being restricted to macrophages as in visceral leishmaniasis; humans, dogs, cats, house rats, armadillos, bats, certain monkeys, and opossums are the usual vertebrate hosts; vectors are members of the family Triatominae. Also known as Schizotrypanum cruzi, a distinct generic designation widely used in the endemic regions. SYN: T. escomelis, T. triatomae. T. dimorphon an African species found in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, formerly thought to be the same as T. congolense but now recognized as a distinct and more pathogenic species in cattle, sheep, and dogs; it is spread by tsetse flies across central Africa. T. escomelis SYN: T. cruzi. T. gambiense SYN: T. brucei gambiense. T. hominis SYN: T. brucei gambiense. T. ignotum old name for T. simiae. T. lewisi species that is a worldwide nonpathogenic parasite in the blood of rats widely used for laboratory study; it is transmitted by the rat flea, Nosopsyllus fasciatus. T. melophagium a nonpathogenic species (related to T. theileri) found in sheep throughout the world, and probably in goats as well; the vector is Melophagus ovinus. T. rangeli a species that parasitizes a wide variety of mammals, including humans, in South America and is transmitted by the triatomid bugs Rhodnius prolixus and Tiratoma dimidiata, and probably others; it is apparently nonpathogenic but may be pathogenic in the bug host. T. rhodesiense SYN: T. brucei rhodesiense. T. theileri a large, relatively nonpathogenic species found in African antelopes and in cattle in many parts of the world; the parasites are spread by bloodsucking tabanid horseflies. T. triatomae SYN: T. cruzi. T. ugandense SYN: T. brucei gambiense.
Common name for a member of the family Trypanosomatidae. SYN: trypanid.
A protozoan family of hemoflagellates (order Kinetoplastida, class Zoomastigophorea, subphylum Mastigophora); asexual blood and/or tissue parasites of leeches, insects, and vertebrates and sap inhabitants of plants, characterized by a rounded or elongate form, a single nucleus, elongate mitochondrion (its position in relation to the nucleus is a characteristic of each genus), and an anteriorly directed single flagellum (in some genera, it borders an undulating membrane). T. includes the genera Crithidia, Herpetomonas, Leptomonas, and Blastocrithidia, all of which are monogenetic and found in insects, and Phytomonas (found in plants), Endotrypanum, Leishmania, and Trypanosoma, all of which are digenetic; Leishmania and Trypanosoma include important pathogens of humans and animals. Many trypanosomes pass through developmental or life cycle stages similar to the body forms characteristic of the genera; these forms include amastigote, choanomastigote, opisthomastigote, promastigote, epimastigote, and trypomastigote.
trypanosome (tri-pan′o-som, trip′a-no-)
Common name for any member of the genus Trypanosoma or of the family Trypanosomatidae. [G. trypanon, an auger, + soma, body]
trypanosomiasis (tri-pan′o-so-mi′a-sis, trip′a-no-)
Any disease caused by a trypanosome. SYN: trypanosomosis. acute t. SYN: Rhodesian t.. African t. a serious endemic disease in tropical Africa, of two types: Gambian or West African t. and Rhodesian or East African t.. American t. See South American t.. chronic t. SYN: Gambian t.. Cruz t. SYN: South American t.. East African t. SYN: Rhodesian t.. Gambian t. a chronic disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in northern and sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal east to Sudan and Uganda; characterized by splenomegaly, drowsiness, an uncontrollable urge to sleep, and the development of psychotic changes; basal ganglia and cerebellar involvement commonly lead to chorea and athetosis; the terminal phase of the disease is characterized by wasting, anorexia, and emaciation that gradually leads to coma and death, usually from intercurrent infection. SYN: chronic African sleeping sickness, chronic t., West African sleeping sickness, West African t.. Rhodesian t. a disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in eastern Africa from Ethiopia and Uganda south to Zimbabwe; it is clinically similar to Gambian t. but of shorter duration and more acute in form; patients suffer repeated episodes of pyrexia, become anemic, and die commonly from cardiac failure. SYN: acute African sleeping sickness, acute t., East African sleeping sickness, East African t.. South American t. t. caused by Trypanosoma (or Schizotrypanum) cruzi and transmitted by certain species of reduviid (triatomine) bugs. In its acute form, it is seen most frequently in young children, with swelling of the skin at the site of entry, most often the face, and regional lymph node enlargement; in its chronic form it can assume several aspects, commonly cardiomyopathy, but megacolon and megaesophagus also occur; natural reservoirs include dogs, armadillos, rodents, and other domestic, domiciliated, and wild mammals. SYN: Chagas disease, Chagas-Cruz disease, Cruz t.. West African t. SYN: Gambian t..
trypanosomic (tri-pan-o-so′mik, trip′a-no-)
Relating to trypanosomes, especially denoting infection by such organisms.
A skin lesion resulting from immunologic changes from trypanosome disease. [trypanosome + G. -id (1)]
trypanosomosis (trip′an-o-so-mo′sis, tri-pan′)
trypan red (tri′pan, trip′) [C.I. 22850]
An azo dye formerly used in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.
Used in the treatment of trypanosomic and spirochetal infections, especially neurosyphilis, and the late stages of African sleeping sickness.
Term to replace the older term, “trypanosome stage,” which was often confused with the flagellate genus Trypanosoma. It denotes the stage (infective stage for South American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis, and the only stage found in humans in the latter illness) in which the flagellum arises from a posteriorly located kinetoplast and emerges from the side of the body, with an undulating membrane running along the length of the body. [G. trypanon, auger, + mastix, whip]
A proteolytic enzyme formed in the small intestine from trypsinogen by the action of enteropeptidase; a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes peptides, amides, esters, etc., at bonds of the carboxyl groups of l-arginyl or l-lysyl residues; it also produces the meromyosins. crystallized t. a purified preparation of the pancreatic enzyme; used as an adjunct to surgery for débridement of necrotic wounds and ulcers.
trypsinogen, trypsogen (trip-sin′o-jen, trip′so-jen)
An inactive protein secreted by the pancreas that is converted into trypsin by the action of enteropepsidase. SYN: protrypsin.
tryptamine (trip′ta-men, -min)
A decarboxylation product of l-tryptophan that occurs in plants and certain foods ( e.g., cheese). It raises the blood pressure through vasoconstrictor action, by the release of norepinephrine at postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings, and is believed to be one of the agents responsible for hypertensive episodes following therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( e.g., pargyline hydrochloride).
A semisynthetic cardiac glycoside that is a condensation product of strophanthidin and tryptamine; given orally, it has a rapid onset and short duration of cardiac action.
Relating to trypsin, as t. digestion.
A peptone produced by proteolytic digestion with trypsin.
The presence of tryptone in the circulating blood.
tryptophan (Trp, W) (trip′to-fan)
2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)propionic acid;the l-isomer is a component of proteins; a nutritionally essential amino acid. t. decarboxylase SYN: aromatic d-amino acid decarboxylase. t. desmolase SYN: t. synthase. t. 2,3-dioxygenase an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of l-t. and O2 to produce l-N-formylkynurenine; an adaptive enzyme, the level (in the liver) being controlled by adrenal hormones; a step in t. catabolism; also, a step in the synthesis of NAD+ from t.. SYN: pyrrolase, t. oxygenase, t. pyrrolase, tryptophanase (1) . t. oxygenase SYN: t. 2,3-dioxygenase. t. pyrrolase SYN: t. 2,3-dioxygenase. t. synthase a nonmammalian hydro-lyase condensing l-serine indole-3-glycerol phosphate to produce l-t. and glyceraldehyde phosphate; pyridoxal phosphate is required; it will also react l-serine with indole. SYN: t. desmolase, t. synthetase. t. synthetase SYN: t. synthase.
1. SYN: tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. 2. An enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the cleavage of l-tryptophan to indole, pyruvic acid, and ammonia; pyridoxal phosphate is a coenzyme.
Enhanced urinary excretion of tryptophan. t. with dwarfism [MIM*276100] a syndrome of dwarfism, mental defect, cutaneous photosensitivity, and gait disturbance associated with t.; autosomal recessive inheritance.
tsetse (tset′se, tse′tse)
See Glossina. [S. African native name]
Abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating hormone-releasing factor.
Abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, under immunoglobulin.
Abbreviation for toxic shock syndrome.
Abbreviation for tumor-specific transplantation antigens, under antigen.
Abbreviation for ribothymidine 5′-triphosphate.
Abbreviation for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome. See thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Abbreviation for tetrodotoxin.
Abbreviation for toxic unit or toxin unit.
A sympathomimetic volatile amine, used by inhalation as a nasal decongestant; available also as t. sulfate, with the same actions, and more potent as a vasoconstrictor than ephedrine.
tuba, gen. and pl. tubae (too′ba, too′be) [TA]
SYN: tube. [L. a straight trumpet] t. acustica SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. t. auditiva [TA] SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. t. auditoria pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube, pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. t. eustachiana, t. eustachii SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. t. fallopiana, t. fallopii SYN: uterine tube. t. uterina [TA] SYN: uterine tube.
Introduction of a tube into a canal. SEE ALSO: intubation.
Relating to a tube, especially the uterine tube.
tube (toob) [TA]
1. A hollow cylindrical structure or canal. 2. A hollow cylinder or pipe. SYN: tuba [TA] . [L. tubus] Abbott t. SYN: Miller-Abbott t.. air t. the trachea, or a bronchus or any of its branches conveying air to the lungs. auditory t. pharyngotympanic (auditory) t.. Babcock t. a t. in which milk, after treatment with sulfuric acid, is centrifuged and its fat content then determined in a graduated neck. Bouchut t. a short cylindrical t. used in intubation of the larynx. bronchial tubes SYN: bronchia. Cantor t. a long, single-lumen intestinal t. with a sealed, mercury-filled rubber bag tip; used to decompress and/or stent the small intestine. cardiac t. the primitive tubular heart in the embryo, before its division into chambers. Carlen t. a double-lumen, flexible endobronchial t. used for bronchospirometry, for isolation of one lung to prevent contamination or secretions from the contralateral lung, or for ventilation of one lung. cathode ray t. (CRT) an evacuated t. containing a beam of electrons which can be deflected to various parts of a fluorescent screen; used in the cathode ray oscilloscope. Celestin t. a plastic t. introduced through a tumor in the esophagus; it permits swallowing of certain substances. Coolidge t. an x-ray t., in which the cathode consists of a tungsten wire spiral surrounded by a focusing cup; the tungsten spiral is heated by an electric current; the quantity and quality of the x-rays so generated are regulated by varying the temperature of the cathode and the voltage between cathode and anode. Crookes-Hittorf t. a simple evacuated t. containing a cathode, that emitted x-rays from the glass envelope when a current was passed through it; the type used by Roentgen to discover x-rays. digestive t. SYN: digestive tract. drainage t. a t. introduced into a wound or cavity to facilitate removal of a fluid. Durham t. a jointed tracheotomy t.. empyema t. a catheter used for drainage of an empyema. endobronchial t. a single- or double-lumen t. with an inflatable cuff at the distal end that, after being passed through the larynx and trachea, is positioned so that ventilation is restricted to one lung; a single-lumen t. is placed in the mainstem bronchus of the lung; a double-lumen t. is positioned at the tracheal carina to permit ventilation of either or both lungs. endotracheal t. a flexible t. inserted nasally, orally, or through a tracheotomy into the trachea to provide an airway, as in tracheal intubation SYN: intratracheal t., tracheal t.. eustachian t. SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) t.. fallopian t. SYN: uterine t.. feeding t. a flexible t. passed through the nose and into the alimentary tract, through which liquid food is passed. Ferrein t. SYN: convoluted tubule of kidney. field emission t. an x-ray t. that uses a cold cathode, relying on the t. voltage to pull electrons from it to the anode. Geiger-Müller t. Geiger-Müller counter. germ t. a young hypha growing out of a yeast cell or spore, the beginning of a mycelium; also used as a rapid test for differentiating Candida albicans from other Candida species. Haldane t. a t. for securing human alveolar air samples; consisting of a narrow hosepipe with a mouthpiece from which a t. is attached for the withdrawal of expired air at the end of a sudden, maximal expiration. intratracheal t. SYN: endotracheal t.. Levin t. a flexible t. introduced through the nose into the upper alimentary tract, to facilitate gastric decompression. Martin t. a drainage t. with a cross piece near the extremity to keep it from slipping out of a cavity. medullary t. SYN: neural t.. Miescher tubes elongate fusiform or cylindrical bodies forming the encapsulated cystic intramuscular stage of the protozoan Sarcocystis. Miller-Abbott t. a t. with two lumens, one ending in a small collapsible balloon and the other in a metallic tip with numerous perforations; used for decompression and stenting of the small intestine. SYN: Abbott t.. molybdenum target t. an x-ray t. with an anode surface made of molybdenum instead of tungsten, used in mammography. Moss t. 1. a triple-lumen, nasogastric, feeding-decompression t. that utilizes a gastric balloon to occlude the cardioesophageal junction, with simultaneous esophageal aspiration and intragastric feeding; 2. a double-lumen, gastric lavage t. that provides continuous delivery of saline via a small bore, with simultaneous aspiration of fluid and some particles via a large bore. nasogastric t. a flexible t. passed through the nose and into the gastric pouch to decompress the stomach. nasotracheal t. a tracheal t. inserted through the nasal passages. nephrostomy t. a t. placed in the renal collecting system for drainage, diagnostic tests, or removal of calculi. May be placed through a percutaneous route or during an open surgical procedure. neural t. the epithelial t. formed from the neuroectoderm of the early embryo by the closure of the neural groove; by complex processes of cell proliferation and organization the neural t. develops into the spinal cord and brain. SYN: medullary t.. O'Dwyer t. a metal t. formerly used for intubation of the larynx in diphtheria. orotracheal t. a tracheal t. inserted through the mouth. otopharyngeal t. SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) t.. pharyngotympanic (auditory) t. [TA] a t. leading from the tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx; it consists of an osseous (posterolateral) portion at the tympanic end, and a fibrocartilaginous (anteromedial) portion at the pharyngeal end; where the two portions join, in the region of the sphenopetrosal fissure, is the narrowest portion of the t. (isthmus); the auditory t. enables equalization of pressure within the tympanic cavity with ambient air pressure, referred to commonly as “popping of the ears.” SYN: tuba auditiva [TA] , auditory t.&star, tuba auditoria&star, eustachian t., guttural duct, otopharyngeal t., otosalpinx, tuba acustica, tuba eustachiana, tuba eustachii. photomultiplier t. a detector which amplifies a signal (by as much as 106) of electromagnetic radiation by an acceleration of electrons released from a photocathode through a series of dynodes; as each electron strikes a dynode stage, 3–4 electrons are liberated and accelerated to the subsequent dynode. Pitot t. a stationary L-shaped t. inserted in a fluid stream, with its opening upstream, and used for measuring the velocity of fluid movement at that point in terms of the pressure developed in the t. by the fluid impinging on it, compared to a second t. opening laterally or downstream. pus t. SYN: pyosalpinx. rectifier t. an electronic t., used in x-ray transformers, to convert alternating to direct current. Rehfuss stomach t. a t. with a calibrated syringe, formerly used for aspiration of stomach contents in gastric analysis; replaced by plastic disposable stomach tubes. Robertshaw t. a variation of Carlen t. that eliminates some mechanical disadvantages of the latter. roll t. a modification of the plate culture; a seeded medium containing agar is placed in a test t. which is rolled or spun horizontally until the medium solidifies evenly on the interior of the t.. rotating anode t. a modern x-ray t., in which heat buildup is distributed through a larger volume by rotating the target. Ruysch t. a minute tubular cavity opening in the lower and anterior portion of each surface of the nasal septum; best seen in the early fetal period when it is associated with the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ). Ryle t. a thin rubber t., with about the lumen of a no. 8 catheter, and an olive-tipped extremity, used in the giving of a test meal. Sengstaken-Blakemore t. a t. with three lumens, one for drainage of the stomach and two for inflation of attached gastric and esophageal balloons; used for emergency treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Southey tubes obsolete cannulas of small, almost capillary, caliber, thrust by a trocar into the subcutaneous tissues to drain the fluid of anasarca. speaking t. a t. with an earpiece at one end and a cone at the other to amplify speech into the cone. stomach t. a flexible t. passed into the stomach for lavage or feeding. T t. a t. shaped like a T, the top of which is placed within a tubular structure such as the common bile duct and the stem placed through the skin; used for decompression. test t. a t. of thin glass closed at one end, used in the examination of urine and other chemical operations, for bacterial cultures, etc. thoracostomy t. a t. placed through the chest wall that drains the pleural space. Tovell t. an endotracheal t. with a wire spiral embedded in the wall to prevent obstruction of the lumen when the t. is compressed and kinking or when the t. is bent at a sharp angle. Toynbee t. a t. by which one can listen to the sounds in a patient's ear during politzerization. tracheal t. SYN: endotracheal t.. tracheostomy t. a curved t. used to keep the opening free after tracheotomy; may be metal or plastic. SYN: tracheotomy t.. tracheotomy t. SYN: tracheostomy t.. tympanostomy t. a small t. inserted through the tympanic membrane after myringotomy to ventilate the middle ear; often used for middle ear effusion. uterine t. [TA] one of the tubes leading on either side from the upper or outer extremity of the ovary, which is largely enveloped by its expanded infundibulum, to the fundus of the uterus; it provides the path by which the ovum travels from ovary to uterus where, if it is fertilized in the t., it will implant as a zygote; it consists of infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, and uterine parts. SYN: tuba uterina [TA] , salpinx&star, fallopian t., gonaduct (2) , oviduct, salpinx uterina, tuba fallopiana, tuba fallopii. vacuum t. a glass t. from which the air has been removed, containing two or more electrodes, between which passes an electrical current or spark; used in the production of x-rays, or to control circuits. Previously in wide use, the vacuum t. has been supplanted by transistors in electronic circuits. Venturi t. a t. with a specially streamlined constriction to minimize energy losses in the fluid flowing through it while maximizing the fall in pressure in the constriction in accordance with Bernoulli law; the basis of the Venturi meter. Wangensteen t. SYN: Wangensteen suction. x-ray t. x-ray.
SYN: salpingectomy. [L. tuba, tube, + G. ektome, excision]
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