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Medical Dictionary


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tuber, pl .tubera (too′ber, too′ber-a)
1. [TA] A localized swelling; a knob. 2. A short, fleshy, thick, underground stem of plants, such as the potato. [L. protuberance, swelling] t. anterius SYN: t. cinereum. ashen t. SYN: t. cinereum. calcaneal t. SYN: calcaneal tuberosity. t. calcanei [TA] SYN: calcaneal tuberosity. t. calcis SYN: calcaneal tuberosity. t. cinereum [TA] a prominence of the base of the hypothalamus, bordered caudally by the mamillary bodies, rostrally by the optic chiasm, and laterally by the optic tract, extending ventrally into the infundibulum and hypophysial stalk. SYN: ashen t., gray t., t. anterius. t. cochleae SYN: promontory of tympanic cavity. t. corporis callosi SYN: splenium of corpus callosum. t. dorsale SYN: t. vermis. eustachian t. a slight projection from the labyrinthine wall of the middle ear below the fenestra vestibuli (ovalis). frontal t. [TA] the most prominent portion of the frontal bone on either side. SYN: t. frontale [TA] , eminentia frontalis&star, frontal eminence&star. t. frontale [TA] SYN: frontal t.. gray t. SYN: t. cinereum. t. ischiadicum [TA] SYN: ischial tuberosity. t. of ischium SYN: ischial tuberosity. t. maxillae [TA] SYN: maxillary tuberosity. omental t. SYN: omental eminence of pancreas. t. omentale hepatis [TA] SYN: omental tuberosity of liver. t. omentale pancreatis [TA] SYN: omental eminence of pancreas. parietal t. [TA] a prominent portion of the parietal bone, a little above the center of its external surface, usually corresponding to the point of maximum width of the head. SYN: t. parietale [TA] , eminentia parietalis&star, parietal eminence&star. t. parietale [TA] SYN: parietal t.. t. radii SYN: radial tuberosity. t. valvulae SYN: t. vermis. t. of vermis SYN: t. vermis. t. vermis the posterior division of the inferior vermis of the cerebellum located between the folium and the pyramis. SYN: t. dorsale, t. of vermis, t. valvulae. t. zygomaticum SYN: articular tubercle of temporal bone.

tubercle (too′ber-kl)
1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic, sense. 2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the skin, mucous membrane, or surface of an organ. 3. A slight elevation from the surface of a bone giving attachment to a muscle or ligament. 4. In dentistry, a small elevation arising on the surface of a tooth. 5. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5–2 or 3 mm in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components, t.'s tend to be fairly well-circumscribed, spheroidal, firm lesions that usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones: 1) an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, and then becoming caseous; 2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also be present; 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes and plasma cells. In instances where healing has begun, a fourth zone of fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the term nonspecifically, i.e., with reference to any such granuloma; others use “t.” only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas. SYN: tuberculum [TA] . [L. tuberculum, dim. of tuber, a knob, a swelling, a tumor] accessory t. SYN: accessory process of lumbar vertebra. acoustic t. SYN: trigone of auditory nerve. adductor t. of femur [TA] the prominence above the medial epicondyle of the femur to which the tendon of the adductor magnus attaches. SYN: tuberculum adductorium femoris [TA] . amygdaloid t. a projection from the roof of the anterior end-portion of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, marking the location of the amygdaloid nucleus. anatomic t. SYN: postmortem wart. anterior t. of atlas [TA] a conical protuberance on the anterior surface of the arch of the atlas. SYN: tuberculum anterius atlantis [TA] . anterior t. of cervical vertebrae [TA] the anterior projection from the transverse process. SYN: tuberculum anterius vertebrarum cervicalium [TA] . t. of anterior scalene muscle SYN: scalene t.. anterior thalamic t. [TA] a prominence at the anterior extremity of the thalamus which corresponds to the nuclei anteriores. SYN: tuberculum anterius thalami [TA] , anterior t. of thalamus. anterior t. of thalamus SYN: anterior thalamic t.. areolar tubercles [TA] small elevations on the areola of the female breast, especially prominent during pregnancy and lactation, that are a superficial manifestation of the underlying areolar glands. SYN: tubercula areolae [TA] . articular t. of temporal bone [TA] articular eminence of the temporal bone which bounds the mandibular fossa anteriorly; it forms the anterior root of the zygomatic process; it is enclosed by the articular capsule of the temporomandibular joint with the articular fossa; the head of the mandible (and intervening articular disc) move onto the articular t. to allow full depression of the mandible (opening of the mouth). SYN: tuberculum articulare ossis temporalis [TA] , articular eminence of temporal bone, eminentia articularis ossis temporalis, tuber zygomaticum. ashen t. SYN: trigeminal t.. auricular t. [TA] a small inconstant projection from the upper end of the posterior portion of the incurved free margin of the helix of the auricle. SYN: tuberculum auriculae [TA] , darwinian t., tuberculum superius. calcaneal t. [TA] the projection, often double, on the inferior aspect of the calcaneus at the anterior end of the area for attachment of the long plantar ligament. SYN: tuberculum calcanei [TA] . Carabelli t. a small t., resembling a supernumerary cusp, found occasionally on the lingual surface of the mesiolingual cusp of a permanent maxillary first molar. carotid t. [TA] the anterior t. of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra, against which the carotid artery may be compressed by the finger. SYN: tuberculum caroticum [TA] , Chassaignac t.. caseous t. SYN: soft t.. Chassaignac t. SYN: carotid t.. conoid t. (of clavicle) [TA] the prominence near the lateral end of the inferior surface of the clavicle that gives attachment to the conoid ligament. SYN: tuberculum conoideum (claviculare) [TA] , conoid process. corniculate t. [TA] the smaller and more medial of the two rounded eminences on the posterior part of the aryepiglottic fold, formed by the underlying corniculate cartilages. SYN: tuberculum corniculatum [TA] , Santorini t.. crown t. SYN: dental t.. cuneate t. the bulbous rostral extremity of the fasciculus cuneatus corresponding to the position of the cunate nucleus, lying lateral to the clava and separated from the tuberculum cinereum on its lateral side by the posterior lateral sulcus. SYN: tuberculum cuneatum, wedge-shaped t.. cuneiform t. [TA] the larger, more laterally placed of the two rounded eminences on the posterior part of the aryepiglottic fold, formed by the underlying cuneiform cartilage. SYN: tuberculum cuneiforme [TA] , Wrisberg t.. darwinian t. SYN: auricular t.. deltoid t. (of spine of scapula) [TA] prominence on the dorsum of the scapular spine, lateral to the root of the spine, to which a flat, triangular tendon from the most inferior part of the middle part of the trapezius (muscle) is attached. SYN: tuberculum deltoideum (spinae scapulae) [TA] . dental t. [TA] a small elevation on some portions of a crown produced by an extra formation of enamel. SYN: tuberculum dentis [TA] , crown t., t. of tooth, tuberculum coronae. dorsal t. of radius [TA] a small prominence on the dorsal aspect of the distal end of the radius lateral to the groove for the extensor pollicis longus tendon; it serves as a trochlea or pulley for the tendon. SYN: tuberculum dorsale radii [TA] , Lister t.. epiglottic t. [TA] a convexity at the lower part of the epiglottis over the upper part of the thyroepiglottic ligament. SYN: tuberculum epiglotticum [TA] , cushion of epiglottis. fibrous t. a t. in which fibroblasts proliferate about the periphery (and into the cellular zones), eventually resulting in a rim or wall of cellular fibrous tissue or collagenous material around the t.. genial t. SYN: mental spine. genital t. the median elevation just cephalic to the urogenital orifice of an embryo; it is the primordium of the penis of the male or the clitoris of the female. SYN: phallic t.. Gerdy t. a t. on the anterolateral side of the upper end of the tibia giving attachment to the iliotibial tract and some fibers of the tibialis anterior muscle. Ghon t. calcification seen in pulmonary parenchyma (usually midlung) resulting from earlier, usually childhood, infection with tuberculosis; sometimes confused with a combination of parenchymal lesion and calcified lymph node, which is properly termed a Ranke complex. SYN: Ghon complex, Ghon focus, Ghon primary lesion. gracile t. the somewhat expanded upper end of the gracile fasciculus, corresponding to the position of the gracile nucleus. SYN: clava, tuberculum gracile. gray t. SYN: trigeminal t.. greater t. (of humerus) [TA] the larger of the two tubercles next to the head of the humerus; it gives attachment to the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles. SYN: tuberculum majus (humeri) [TA] , greater tuberosity of humerus. hard t. a t. lacking necrosis. hyaline t. a form of fibrous t. in which the cellular fibrous tissue and collagenous fibers become altered and merged into a fairly homogeneous, acellular, deeply acidophilic, firm mass. iliac t. SYN: t. of iliac crest. t. of iliac crest [TA] a prominence on the outer lip of the iliac crest about 5 cm behind the anterior superior iliac spine. SYN: tuberculum iliacum [TA] , iliac t.. inferior thyroid t. [TA] a slight lateral projection from the lower margin of the lamina of the thyroid cartilage on either side, at the inferior end of the oblique line. SYN: tuberculum thyroideum inferius [TA] . infraglenoid t. (of scapula) [TA] a rough surface below the glenoid cavity of the scapula, giving attachment to the long tendon of the triceps. SYN: tuberculum infraglenoidale (scapulae) [TA] , infraglenoid tuberosity. intercolumnar t. See subfornical organ. intercondylar t. [TA] one of two projections, medial and lateral, springing from the central lip of each articular surface of the tibia on either side of the intercondylar eminence. SYN: tuberculum intercondylare (mediale et laterale) [TA] . intervenous t. (of right atrium) [TA] the slight projection on the wall of the right atrium between the orifices of the venae cavae. SYN: tuberculum intervenosum (atrii dextri) [TA] , Lower t.. jugular t. of occipital bone [TA] an oval elevation on the cerebral surface of the junction of the lateral and basal parts of the occipital bone, on either side of the foramen magnum medial to the lower border and anterosuperior to the opening of the hypoglossal canal. SYN: tuberculum jugulare ossis occipitalis [TA] . labial t. SYN: t. of upper lip. lateral t. (of posterior process) of talus [TA] the prominence lateral to the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon. SYN: tuberculum laterale (processus posterioris) tali [TA] . lesser t. (of humerus) [TA] the anterior of the two tubercles of the neck of the humerus on which the subscapularis is inserted. SYN: tuberculum minus (humeri) [TA] , lesser tuberosity of humerus. Lisfranc t. SYN: scalene t.. Lister t. SYN: dorsal t. of radius. Lower t. SYN: intervenous t. (of right atrium). mammillary t. SYN: mammillary process of lumbar vertebra. mammillary t. of hypothalamus SYN: mammillary body. marginal t. SYN: marginal t. (of zygomatic bone). marginal t. (of zygomatic bone) [TA] an inconstant prominence on the temporal border of the zygomatic bone to which the temporal fascia is attached. SYN: tuberculum marginale (ossis zygomatici) [TA] , marginal t.. medial t. (of posterior process) of talus [TA] the eminence medial to the sulcus for the flexor hallucis longus tendon. SYN: tuberculum mediale (processus posterioris) tali [TA] . mental t. (of mandible) [TA] a paired eminence on the mental protuberance of the mandible. SYN: tuberculum mentale (mandibulae) [TA] , eminentia symphysis. molar t. [TA] occasional nonocclusive prominence of variable size on the crown of a molar tooth. SYN: tuberculum molare [TA] . Montgomery tubercles elevated reddened areolar glands, usually associated with pregnancy. Morgagni t. SYN: cuneiform cartilage. Müller t. a median protuberance projecting into the embryonic urogenital sinus from its dorsal wall; it is formed from the fused caudal ends of the paramesonephric ducts and is the first evidence of the embryonic uterus and vagina. SYN: sinus t.. nuchal t. SYN: vertebra prominens. obturator t. [TA] one of two processes, anterior and posterior, on the margin of the pubic portion of the obturator foramen, bounding the termination of the obturator groove; the posterior obturator t. is inconstant. SYN: tuberculum obturatorium [TA] . olfactory t. a small, oval area at the base of the cerebral hemisphere, between the diverging medial and lateral olfactory striae, in the anteromedial part of the anterior perforated substance; it is formed by a small area of allocortex characterized by the presence of the islands of Calleja. Corresponding to a much more prominent structure in nonprimate mammals (especially rodents and insectivores), the olfactory t. receives fibers from the olfactory bulb by way of the intermediate olfactory stria; it has efferent connections with the hypothalamus and the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. SYN: tuberculum olfactorium [TA] . orbital t. (of zygomatic bone) [TA] a small elevation on the orbital surface of the zygomatic bone, just within the orbital margin, about 1 cm below the zygomaticofrontal suture; it gives attachment to the lateral check ligament, the lateral palpebral ligament, and the suspensory ligament of the eyeball. SYN: tuberculum orbitale ossis zygomatici [TA] , eminentia orbitalis (ossis zygomatici), orbital eminence of zygomatic bone, Whitnall t.. phallic t. SYN: genital t.. pharyngeal t. (of basilar part of occipital bone) [TA] a projection from the undersurface of the basilar portion of the occipital bone, giving attachment to the fibrous raphe of the pharynx. SYN: tuberculum pharyngeum (partis basilaris ossis occipitalis) [TA] . posterior t. of atlas [TA] a protuberance of the posterior extremity of the arch of the atlas, a rudiment of the spinous process giving attachment to the musculus rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. SYN: tuberculum posterius atlantis [TA] . posterior t. of cervical vertebrae [TA] a posterior projection from the transverse processes. SYN: tuberculum posterius vertebrarum cervicalium [TA] . Princeteau t. a slight prominence on the temporal bone near the apex of the petrous part where the superior petrosal sinus commences. pterygoid t. a slight prominence on the posterior surface of the medial pterygoid plate, inferior and to the medial side of the pterygoid canal. pubic t. [TA] a small palpable projection at the anterior extremity of the crest of the pubis about 2 cm from the symphysis; site of insertion of inguinal ligament. SYN: tuberculum pubicum [TA] , pubic spine, spina pubis. t. of rib [TA] the knob on the posterior surface of a rib, at the junction of its neck and shaft, which articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra, whch corresponds in number to the rib, forming a costotransverse joint. SYN: tuberculum costae [TA] . Rolando t. SYN: trigeminal t.. t. of saddle SYN: tuberculum sellae. Santorini t. SYN: corniculate t.. scalene t. [TA] a small spine on the inner edge of the first rib, giving attachment to the scalenus anterior muscle, lying between and thus demarcating the grooves for the subclavian artery (anteriorly) and vein (posteriorly). SYN: tuberculum musculi scaleni anterioris [TA] , Lisfranc t., scalene t. of Lisfranc, t. of anterior scalene muscle. scalene t. of Lisfranc SYN: scalene t.. t. of scaphoid (bone) [TA] a projection at the inferior lateral angle of the scaphoid bone; it can be felt at the root of the thumb; provides attachment for the transverse carpal ligament (flexor retinaculum). SYN: tuberculum ossis scaphoidei [TA] . sinus t. SYN: Müller t.. soft t. a t. showing caseous necrosis. SYN: caseous t.. superior thyroid t. [TA] a blunt lateral projection on the external aspect lamina of the thyroid cartilage on either side at the superior end of the oblique line. SYN: tuberculum thyroideum superius [TA] . supraglenoid t. (of scapula) [TA] a rough surface above the glenoid cavity of the scapula, giving attachment to the tendon of the long head of the biceps within the articular cavity of the shoulder joint. SYN: tuberculum supraglenoidale (scapulae) [TA] . supratragic t. [TA] a small inconstant elevation often present on the edge of the upper tragus. SYN: tuberculum supratragicum [TA] . t. of tooth SYN: dental t.. t. of trapezium (bone) SYN: tuberculum of trapezium bone. trigeminal t. [TA] a longitudinal prominence on the dorsolateral surface of the medulla oblongata along the lateral border of the cuneate t.; it is the surface profile of the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, continuous caudally with the dorsolateral fasciculus (Lissauer's tract). SYN: tuberculum trigeminale [TA] , ashen t., gray t., Rolando t.. t. of upper lip [TA] the slight projection on the free edge of the center of the upper lip at the lower extent of the philtrum. SYN: tuberculum labii superioris [TA] , labial t., procheilon, prochilon. wedge-shaped t. SYN: cuneate t.. Whitnall t. SYN: orbital t. (of zygomatic bone). Wrisberg t. SYN: cuneiform t..

tubercul-
See tuberculo-.

tubercula (too-ber′ku-la)
Plural of tuberculum.

tubercular, tuberculated (too-ber′ku-lar, -lat-ed)
Pertaining to or characterized by tubercles or small nodules. Cf.:tuberculous.

tuberculation (too-ber-ku-la′shun)
The arrangement of tubercles or nodules in a part.

tuberculid (too-ber′ku-lid)
A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting from hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens disseminated from a distant site of active tuberculosis. [tubercul- + G. -id (1)] nodular t. SYN: erythema induratum. papular t. SYN: lichen scrofulosorum. papulonecrotic t. dusky-red papules followed by crusting and ulceration with nongranulomatous vascular changes primarily on the extremities and predominantly in young adults with a deep focus of tuberculosis or with a history of preceding infection. SYN: tuberculosis papulonecrotica. rosacea-like t. SYN: granulomatous rosacea.

tuberculin (too-ber′ku-lin)
1. A glycerin-broth culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evaporated to 110 volume at 100°C and filtered; introduced by Robert Koch for the treatment of tuberculosis but now used chiefly for diagnostic tests; originally known as Koch old t. (OT) or Koch original t. 2. One or another of a relatively large number of extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures, different from OT and now obsolete. Koch old t. (OT) t. (1) . purified protein derivative of t. (PPD) purified t. containing the active protein fraction; the t. from which it is prepared differs from t. (1) chiefly in that the bacteria are grown in a synthetic rather than in a broth medium.

tuberculitis (too-ber-ku-li′tis)
Inflammation of any tubercle. [tubercul- + G. -itis, inflammation]

tuberculo-, tubercul-
A tubercle, tuberculosis. [L. tuberculum, tubercle]

tuberculocele (too-ber′ku-lo-sel)
Tuberculosis of the testes. [tuberculo- + G. kele, tumor, hernia]

tuberculochemotherapeutic (too-ber′ku-lo-ke′mo-ther-a-pu′tik)
Relating to the treatment of tuberculosis by tuberculostatic or tuberculocidal drugs.

tuberculocidal (too-ber′ku-lo-si′dal)
Destructive to the tubercle bacillus.

tuberculoderma (too-ber′ku-lo-der′ma)
1. Any tubercular process of the skin. 2. The cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis.

tuberculofibroid (too-ber′ku-lo-fi′broyd)
A discrete, well-circumscribed, usually spheroidal, moderately to extremely firm, encapsulated nodule that is formed during the process of healing in a focus of tuberculous granulomatous inflammation.

tuberculoid (too-ber′ku-loyd)
Resembling tuberculosis or a tubercle. [tuberculo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

tuberculoma (too-ber-ku-lo′ma)
A rounded tumorlike but nonneoplastic mass, usually in the lungs or brain, due to localized tuberculous infection. [tuberculo- + G. -oma, tumor]

tuberculoprotein (too-ber′ku-lo-pro′ten)
Any one, or a mixture of any or all of the proteins present in the body of the tubercle bacillus, all of which have been found to possess certain properties of tuberculin.

tuberculosis (TB) (tu-ber′kyu-lo′sis)
A specific disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium t., the tubercle bacillus, which can affect almost any tissue or organ of the body, the most common seat of the disease being the lungs. Primary t. is typically a mild or asymptomatic local pulmonary infection. Regional lymph nodes may become involved, but in otherwise healthy people generalized disease does not immediately develop. A cell-mediated immune response arrests the spread of organisms and walls off the zone of infection. Infected tissues and lymph nodes may eventually calcify. The tuberculin skin test becomes positive within a few weeks, and remains positive throughout life. Organisms in a primary lesion remain viable and can become reactivated months or years later to initiate secondary t.. Progression to the secondary stage eventually occurs in 10–15% of people who have had primary t.. The risk of reactivation is increased by diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, silicosis, and various systemic or malignant conditions, as well as in alcoholics, IV drug abusers, nursing home residents, and those receiving adrenocortical steroid or immunosuppressive therapy. Secondary or reactivation t. usually results in a chronic, spreading lung infection, most often involving the upper lobes. Minute granulomas (tubercles), just visible to the naked eye, develop in involved lung tissue, each consisting of a zone of caseation necrosis surrounded by chronic inflammatory cells (epithelioid histiocytes and giant cells). These lesions, which give the disease its name, are also found in other tissues (lymph nodes, bowel, kidney, skin) to which the disease may spread. Rarely, reactivation results in widespread dissemination of tubercles throughout the body (miliary t.). The symptoms of active pulmonary t. are fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, low-grade fever, night sweats, chronic cough, and hemoptysis. Local symptoms depend on the parts affected. Active pulmonary t. is relentlessly chronic and, if untreated, leads to progressive destruction of lung tissue. Cavities form in the lungs, and erosion into pulmonary blood vessels can result in life-threatening hemorrhage. Gradual deterioration of nutritional status and general health culminates in death due to wasting, infection, or multiple organ failure. Variant syndromes (tuberculous lymphadenitis in children, severe systemic disease in persons with AIDS) are caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. [tuberculo- + G. -osis, condition] In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared t. a global emergency. Fully one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. On a global scale, TB ranks first among infectious diseases as a cause of death. Two-thirds of all the world's cases are in Asia, but the disease is also endemic in parts of Africa and other regions. War and social upheaval have played a role in the spread of t. beyond endemic zones; prevalence of infection is higher among refugees and immigrants. One-third of all persons with t. in the U.S. were born outside the country. From the 1950s, when antibiotics began to be used for the treatment of t., until the 1980s, the incidence and mortality of the disease declined steadily in the U.S. During the 1980s the incidence began to rise because of many new cases in persons with AIDS and because of increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. t.. Since 1993 the figures have again declined, chiefly because of improvements in t. prevention and control programs in state and local health departments as a result of increased federal funding provided to states. At least one-third of persons with AIDS contract t., and t. is the cause of death in one-third of persons who die of AIDS. Since antibiotic resistance in M. t. has been a growing problem for years, multidrug regimens, usually including isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide, are standard. Other drugs, such as ethambutol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, may be added or substituted. The success of treatment is limited not only by the resistance of organisms to several agents but also by the risk of severe toxic effects with all the standard agents. Unlike most infections treated with antibiotics, t. requires not days or weeks of treatment, but months and years. Long-term compliance tends to be poor among mobile, indigent, and uneducated persons. According to WHO, the principal reason for the spread of multidrug-resistant strains of M. t. is ineffectual management of t. control programs, particularly in third-world countries. An inappropriate or unfinished course of chemotherapy not only leaves the patient still sick and still contagious, but favors the selection of resistant bacteria. It is estimated that 50 million of the world's cases of t. involve multiply resistant tubercle bacilli. Currently WHO urges that t. programs worldwide adopt the practice of directly observed therapy (DOT), in which a health care worker observes each patient swallowing each dose of medicine. In a study performed at several U.S. centers, DOT for t. was found to be cost-effective when the cost of relapses and treatment failures was added to the cost of self-administered therapy, even though the raw cost of DOT was higher. U.S. public health authorities have established as a national goal the elimination of TB (defined as an incidence of <1 case per 1 million population) by 2010. adult t. SYN: secondary t.. aerogenic t. infection with the Mycobacterium t. spread by inhalation of infected droplets. anthracotic t. SYN: pneumoconiosis. arrested t. SYN: inactive t.. attenuated t. a mild chronic form marked by caseous tubercles of the skin and the occurrence of cold abscesses. basal t. t. of the basilar portions of the lungs. cerebral t. 1. SYN: tuberculous meningitis. 2. cerebral tuberculoma. childhood t. initial (primary) infection with Mycobacterium t., characterized by pneumonic lesions in the middle parts of the lungs, rarely cavitary, with rapid spread to lymph nodes in hilar and paratracheal areas; more often seen in childhood, but the pattern is not limited to children. childhood type t. SYN: primary t.. cutaneous t. pathologic lesions of the skin caused by Mycobacterium t.. SYN: t. cutis. t. cutis SYN: cutaneous t.. t. cutis orificialis any tuberculous lesion in or about the mouth or anus. t. cutis verrucosa a tuberculous skin lesion having a warty surface with a chronic inflammatory base seen on the hands in adults and lower extremities in children, with marked hypersensitivity to tuberculous antigens. SEE ALSO: postmortem wart. SYN: tuberculous wart. disseminated t. SYN: miliary t.. enteric t. a complication of cavitary pulmonary t. usually resulting from expectoration and swallowing of bacilli that then infect areas of the digestive tract where there is relative stasis or abundant lymphoid tissue; can be caused by ingestion of bovine tubercular organisms in infected milk, now rare. SEE ALSO: tuberculous enteritis. exudative t. a stage of infection with Mycobacterium t. causing severe edema and cellular inflammatory reaction without much necrosis or fibrosis. generalized t. SYN: miliary t.. healed t. a scar or a calcified, fibrous, or caseous nodule in the lung pleura, lymph node, or other organ, resulting from previous t. that has regressed. If truly healed, no organisms are present and reactivation is not possible. inactive t. a fibrous or nodular area of previously active t. that has regressed, with the lesion having remained stable for a long period; can be calcified; reactivation is possible. SYN: arrested t.. miliary t. general dissemination of tubercle bacilli in the blood, resulting in the formation of miliary tubercles in various organs and tissues, and occasionally producing symptoms of profound toxemia. SYN: disseminated t., generalized t.. open t. pulmonary t., tuberculous ulceration, or other form in which the tubercle bacilli are present in the excretions or secretions; in the lung, usually the result of cavity formation. t. papulonecrotica SYN: papulonecrotic tuberculid. postprimary t. SYN: secondary t.. primary t. first infection by Mycobacterium t., typically seen in children but also occurs in adults, characterized in the lungs by the formation of a primary complex consisting of small peripheral pulmonary focus with spread to hilar or paratracheal lymph nodes; may proceed to cavitate or heal with scarring or may progress. SYN: childhood type t.. pulmonary t. t. of the lungs. reactivation t. SYN: secondary t.. reinfection t. SYN: secondary t.. secondary t. t. found in adults and characterized by lesions near the apex of an upper lobe, which may cavitate or heal with scarring without spreading to lymph nodes; theoretically, secondary t. may be due to exogenous reinfection or to reactivation of a dormant endogenous infection. SYN: adult t., postprimary t., reactivation t., reinfection t..

tuberculostat (too-ber′ku-lo-stat)
A tuberculostatic agent.

tuberculostatic (too-ber′ku-lo-stat′ik)
Relating to an agent that inhibits the growth of tubercle bacilli. [tuberculo- + G. statikos, causing to stand]

tuberculous (too-ber′ku-lus)
Relating to or affected by tuberculosis. Cf.:tubercular.

tuberculum, pl .tubercula (too-ber′ku-lum, -la) [TA]
SYN: tubercle. [L. dim. of tuber, a knob, swelling, tumor] t. adductorium femoris [TA] SYN: adductor tubercle of femur. t. anterius atlantis [TA] SYN: anterior tubercle of atlas. t. anterius thalami [TA] SYN: anterior thalamic tubercle. t. anterius vertebrarum cervicalium [TA] SYN: anterior tubercle of cervical vertebrae. tubercula areolae [TA] SYN: areolar tubercles, under tubercle. t. arthriticum 1. SYN: Heberden nodes, under node. 2. any gouty concretion in or around a joint. t. articulare ossis temporalis [TA] SYN: articular tubercle of temporal bone. t. auriculae [TA] SYN: auricular tubercle. t. calcanei [TA] SYN: calcaneal tubercle. t. caroticum [TA] SYN: carotid tubercle. t. cinereum a longitudinal prominence on the dorsolateral surface of the medulla oblongata along the lateral border of the t. cuneatum; it is the surface profile of the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, continuous caudally with the dorsolateral fasciculus (Lissauer tract). t. conoideum (claviculare) [TA] SYN: conoid tubercle (of clavicle). t. corniculatum [TA] SYN: corniculate tubercle. t. coronae SYN: dental tubercle. t. costae [TA] SYN: tubercle of rib. t. cuneatum SYN: cuneate tubercle. t. cuneiforme [TA] SYN: cuneiform tubercle. t. deltoideum (spinae scapulae) [TA] SYN: deltoid tubercle (of spine of scapula). t. dentis [TA] SYN: dental tubercle. t. dorsale radii [TA] SYN: dorsal tubercle of radius. t. epiglotticum [TA] SYN: epiglottic tubercle. t. gracile SYN: gracile tubercle. t. hypoglossi SYN: hypoglossal trigone. t. iliacum [TA] SYN: tubercle of iliac crest. t. impar a small median protuberance on the floor of the oral cavity of the embryo between the mandibular and hyoid arches, which plays a minor role in the development of the tongue. SYN: median tongue bud. t. infraglenoidale (scapulae) [TA] SYN: infraglenoid tubercle (of scapula). t. intercondylare (mediale et laterale) [TA] SYN: intercondylar tubercle. t. intervenosum (atrii dextri) [TA] SYN: intervenous tubercle (of right atrium). t. jugulare ossis occipitalis [TA] SYN: jugular tubercle of occipital bone. t. labii superioris [TA] SYN: tubercle of upper lip. t. laterale (processus posterioris) tali [TA] SYN: lateral tubercle (of posterior process) of talus. t. majus (humeri) [TA] SYN: greater tubercle (of humerus). t. mallei SYN: lateral process of malleus. t. marginale (ossis zygomatici) [TA] SYN: marginal tubercle (of zygomatic bone). t. mediale (processus posterioris) tali [TA] SYN: medial tubercle (of posterior process) of talus. t. mentale (mandibulae) [TA] SYN: mental tubercle (of mandible). t. minus (humeri) [TA] SYN: lesser tubercle (of humerus). t. molare [TA] SYN: molar tubercle. t. musculi scaleni anterioris [TA] SYN: scalene tubercle. t. obturatorium [TA] SYN: obturator tubercle. t. olfactorium [TA] SYN: olfactory tubercle. t. orbitale ossis zygomatici [TA] SYN: orbital tubercle (of zygomatic bone). t. ossis scaphoidei [TA] SYN: tubercle of scaphoid (bone). t. ossis trapezii [TA] SYN: t. of trapezium bone. t. pharyngeum (partis basilaris ossis occipitalis) [TA] SYN: pharyngeal tubercle (of basilar part of occipital bone). t. posterius atlantis [TA] SYN: posterior tubercle of atlas. t. posterius vertebrarum cervicalium [TA] SYN: posterior tubercle of cervical vertebrae. t. pubicum [TA] SYN: pubic tubercle. t. sellae [TA] the slight elevation in front of the pituitary fossa (sella turcica) on the body of the sphenoid bone. SYN: tubercle of saddle. t. septi narium a flat elevation on the septum in each naris opposite the anterior end of the middle concha; it is due to an aggregation of glands. t. superius SYN: auricular tubercle. t. supraglenoidale (scapulae) [TA] SYN: supraglenoid tubercle (of scapula). t. supratragicum [TA] SYN: supratragic tubercle. t. thyroideum inferius [TA] SYN: inferior thyroid tubercle. t. thyroideum superius [TA] SYN: superior thyroid tubercle. t. of trapezium bone [TA] a prominent ridge on the trapezium forming the lateral border of the groove in which runs the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis and to which part of the transverse carpal ligament (flexor retinaculum) is attached. SYN: t. ossis trapezii [TA] , oblique ridge of trapezium, tubercle of trapezium (bone). t. trigeminale [TA] SYN: trigeminal tubercle.

tuberiferous (too-ber-if′er-us)
SYN: tuberous. [tuber + L. ferro, to bear]

tuberose (too′ber-os)
SYN: tuberous.

tuberositas (too′ber-os′i-tas) [TA]
SYN: tuberosity. [LL., fr. L., tuberosus, full of lumps, fr. tuber, a knob] t. coracoidea SYN: tuberosity for coracoclavicular ligament. t. costalis SYN: impression for costoclavicular ligament. t. deltoidea (humeri) [TA] SYN: deltoid tuberosity (of humerus). t. glutea [TA] SYN: gluteal tuberosity. t. iliaca [TA] SYN: iliac tuberosity. t. ligamenti coracoclavicularis [TA] SYN: tuberosity for coracoclavicular ligament. t. masseterica [TA] SYN: masseteric tuberosity. t. musculi serrati anterioris [TA] SYN: tuberosity for serratus anterior (muscle). t. ossis cuboidei [TA] SYN: tuberosity of cuboid (bone). t. ossis metatarsalis primi [I] SYN: tuberosity of first metatarsal (bone) [I]. t. ossis metatarsalis quinti [V] [TA] SYN: tuberosity of fifth metatarsal (bone) [V]. t. ossis navicularis [TA] SYN: tuberosity of navicular bone. t. phalangis distalis (manus et pedis) [TA] SYN: tuberosity of distal phalanx (of hand and foot). t. pronatoria [TA] SYN: pronator tuberosity. t. pterygoidea (mandibulae) [TA] SYN: pterygoid tuberosity (of mandible). t. radii [TA] SYN: radial tuberosity. t. sacralis [TA] SYN: sacral tuberosity. t. tibiae [TA] SYN: tibial tuberosity. t. ulnae [TA] SYN: tuberosity of ulna. t. unguicularis SYN: tuberosity of distal phalanx (of hand and foot).

tuberosity (too′ber-os′i-te) [TA]
A large tubercle or rounded elevation, especially from the surface of a bone. SYN: tuberositas [TA] . bicipital t. SYN: radial t.. calcaneal t. [TA] the posterior extremity of the calcaneus, or os calcis, forming the projection of the heel. SYN: tuber calcanei [TA] , calcaneal tuber, tuber calcis. t. for coracoclavicular ligament [TA] the conoid tubercle and trapezoid line of the coracoid process of the scapula, giving attachment to the two parts of the coracoclavicular ligament: the conoid and trapezoid ligaments. SYN: tuberositas ligamenti coracoclavicularis [TA] , coracoid t., tuberositas coracoidea. coracoid t. SYN: t. for coracoclavicular ligament. costal t. SYN: impression for costoclavicular ligament. t. of cuboid (bone) [TA] a slight eminence on the lateral surface of the cuboid bone, capped with an articular facet for a sesamoid bone in the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle. SYN: tuberositas ossis cuboidei [TA] . deltoid t. (of humerus) [TA] a rough elevation about the middle of the lateral side of the shaft of the humerus, providing attachment (insertion) for the deltoid muscle. SYN: tuberositas deltoidea (humeri) [TA] , deltoid crest, deltoid eminence, deltoid impression. t. of distal phalanx (of hand and foot) [TA] a roughened raised surface of horseshoe shape on the palmar surface of the distal end of the terminal or ungual phalanx of each finger and toe, which serves to support the pulp of the digit. SYN: tuberositas phalangis distalis (manus et pedis) [TA] , tuberositas unguicularis, ungual t.. t. of fifth metatarsal (bone) [V] [TA] a tubercle at the base of this bone to the posterior part of which is attached the tendon of the peroneus brevis muscle. SYN: tuberositas ossis metatarsalis quinti [V] [TA] . t. of first metatarsal (bone) [I] [TA] a tubercle at the base of the bone to which is attached the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle. SYN: tuberositas ossis metatarsalis primi [I]. gluteal t. [TA] the roughened area of insertion on the upper portion of the shaft of the femur of the deep, lesser part of the gluteus maximus muscle; when markedly developed this t. is called the third trochanter. SEE ALSO: third trochanter. SYN: tuberositas glutea [TA] , crista glutea, gluteal crest, gluteal ridge. greater t. of humerus SYN: greater tubercle (of humerus). iliac t. [TA] a rough area above the auricular surface on the medial aspect of the ala of the ilium, giving attachment to the posterior sacroiliac ligament. SYN: tuberositas iliaca [TA] . infraglenoid t. SYN: infraglenoid tubercle (of scapula). ischial t. [TA] the rough bony projection at the junction of the lower end of the body of the ischium and its ramus; this is a weight-bearing point in the sitting position; provides attachment for the sacrotuberous ligament and is the site of origin of the hamstring muscles. SYN: tuber ischiadicum [TA] , tuber of ischium. lateral femoral t. SYN: lateral epicondyle of femur. lesser t. of humerus SYN: lesser tubercle (of humerus). masseteric t. [TA] a roughened surface on the external aspect of the angle of the mandible, giving attachment to fibers of the masseter muscle. SYN: tuberositas masseterica [TA] . maxillary t. [TA] the bulging lower extremity of the posterior surface of the body of the maxilla, behind the root of the last molar tooth. SYN: tuber maxillae [TA] , eminentia maxillae, maxillary eminence. medial femoral t. SYN: medial epicondyle of femur. t. of navicular bone [TA] a rounded eminence on the medial surface of the navicular bone, giving attachment to a part of the tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle. SYN: tuberositas ossis navicularis [TA] , scaphoid t.. omental t. of liver [TA] an eminence on the visceral surface of the left hepatic lobe to the left of the fossa for the ductus venosus. SYN: tuber omentale hepatis [TA] . pronator t. [TA] slight, roughened area on the middle of the convex lateal aspect of the shaft of the radius, to which the pronator teres (muscle) is attached (inserted). SYN: tuberositas pronatoria [TA] . pterygoid t. (of mandible) [TA] a roughened area on the internal aspect of the mandible, giving attachment to fibers of the medial pterygoid muscle. SYN: tuberositas pterygoidea (mandibulae) [TA] . radial t. [TA] an oval projection from the medial surface of the radius just distal to the neck, giving attachment (insertion) on its posterior half to the tendon of the biceps. SYN: tuberositas radii [TA] , bicipital t., tuber radii, t. of radius. t. of radius SYN: radial t.. sacral t. [TA] a rough prominence on the lateral surface of the sacrum posterior to the auricular surface for attachment of posterior sacroiliac ligaments. SYN: tuberositas sacralis [TA] . scaphoid t. SYN: t. of navicular bone. t. for serratus anterior (muscle) [TA] a rough oval area, about the middle of the outer surface and lower border of the second rib [II], for the attachment of the serratus anterior muscle. SYN: tuberositas musculi serrati anterioris [TA] . tibial t. [TA] an oval elevation on the anterior surface of the tibia about 3 cm distal to the articular surface, giving attachment at its distal part to the patellar ligament. SYN: tuberositas tibiae [TA] . t. of ulna [TA] a prominence at the lower border of the anterior surface of the coronoid process, giving attachment (insertion) to the brachialis muscle. SYN: tuberositas ulnae [TA] . ungual t. SYN: t. of distal phalanx (of hand and foot).

tuberous (too′ber-us)
Knobby, lumpy, or nodular; presenting many tubers or tuberosities. SYN: tuberiferous, tuberose. [L. tuberosus]

tubo-
Tubular, a tube. SEE ALSO: salpingo-. [L. tubus, tuba, tube]

tuboabdominal (too′bo-ab-dom′i-nal)
Relating to a uterine tube and the abdomen.

tubocurarine chloride (too′bo-koor-ar′en)
An alkaloid (obtained from the stems of Chondodendron, particularly C. tomentosum) that blocks the action of acetylcholine at the myoneural junction by occupying the receptors competitively; also blocks ganglionic transmission and releases histamine; used to produce muscular relaxation during surgical operations.

tuboligamentous (too′bo-lig-a-men′tus)
Relating to the uterine tube and the broad ligament of the uterus.

tubo-ovarian (too′bo-o-va′re-an)
Relating to the uterine tube and the ovary.

tubo-ovariectomy (too′bo-o-var-e-ek′to-mi)
SYN: salpingo-oophorectomy.

tubo-ovaritis (too′bo-o-va-ri′tis)
SYN: salpingo-oophoritis.

tuboperitoneal (too′bo-per-i-to-ne′al)
Relating to the uterine tubes and the peritoneum.




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