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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


typhlosis (tif-lo′sis)
SYN: blindness. [G. typhlos, blind]

typhlostomy (tif-los′to-me)
SYN: cecostomy.

typhlotomy (tif-lot′o-me)
SYN: cecotomy.

Typhus, typhoid. [G. typhos, smoke, dullness]

typhoid (ti′foyd)
1. Typhus-like; stuporous from fever. 2. SYN: t. fever. [typhus + G. eidos, resemblance] abdominal t. SYN: t. fever. ambulatory t. SYN: walking t.. apyretic t. t. fever in which the temperature does not rise more than a degree or two. bilious t. of Griesinger SYN: relapsing fever. fowl t. a septicemic disease of chickens and turkeys, caused by Salmonella gallinarum; some human infections with this organism have been reported. latent t. SYN: walking t.. provocation t. an accelerated onset of t. fever, sometimes of unusual severity, resulting from t.-paratyphoid A and B (T.A.B.) vaccination late in the incubation period. walking t. t. fever without much prostration, the patient being up and around and sometimes working. SYN: ambulatory t., latent t..

typhoidal (ti-foyd′al)
Relating to or resembling typhoid fever.

typholysin (ti-fol′i-sin)
A hemolysin formed by Salmonella typhi.

typhomania (ti-fo-ma′ne-a)
A muttering delerium characteristic of that in typhoid fever and typhus. [typho- + G. mania, frenzy]

typhosepsis (ti-fo-sep′sis)
SYN: typhoid septicemia.

typhous (ti′fus)
Relating to typhus.

typhus (ti′foos)
A group of acute infectious and contagious diseases, caused by rickettsiae that are transmitted by arthropods, and occurring in two principal forms: epidemic t. and endemic (murine) t.; typical symptoms include: severe headache, shivering and chills, high fever, malaise, and rash. Also called jail, camp, or ship fever. SYN: jail fever, ship fever. [G. typhos, smoke, stupor] Australian tick t. rarely fatal form of t. caused by the Rickettsia australis, seen in eastern Australia, transmitted by tick bite, and characterized by severe headache and conjunctivitis. Reservoir is in rodents and marsupials. SYN: Queensland tick t.. endemic t. SYN: murine t.. epidemic t. t. caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and spread by body lice; marked by high fever, mental and physical depression, and a macular and papular eruption; lasts for about 2 weeks and occurs when large crowds are brought together and personal hygiene is at a low ebb; recrudescences can occur. SYN: European t., hospital fever, louse-borne t., prison fever t.. European t. SYN: epidemic t.. exanthematous t. t. fever with the usual petechial skin lesions seen in that disease. flea-borne t. SYN: murine t.. Indian tick t. SYN: Mediterranean spotted fever. louse-borne t. SYN: epidemic t.. Manchurian t. tick transmitted infection with Rickettsia sibirica. SEE ALSO: Korean hemorrhagic fever. Mexican t. infection with Rickettsia typhi (mooseri) causing a syndrome similar to epidemic t., but spread from rats to humans by the rat flea (Xenopsylla (polyplax) cheopis). Spread from rat to rat by the rat louse (Polyplax spinulosa). Most common form of t. in the U.S. It has various geographic names based on the region in which it was observed. mite t. SYN: tsutsugamushi disease. mite-born t. SYN: rickettsialpox. t. mitior a mild or abortive t.. murine t. a milder form of epidemic t. caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by rat or mouse fleas. SYN: Congolian red fever, endemic t., flea-borne t., red fever, red fever of the Congo. North Queensland tick t. t. caused by Rickettsia australis. prison fever t. SYN: epidemic t.. Queensland tick t. SYN: Australian tick t.. recrudescent t. SYN: Brill-Zinsser disease. Sao Paulo t. infection with Rickettsia rickettsii; spread by tick bite. SEE ALSO: Rocky Mountain spotted fever. scrub t. SYN: tsutsugamushi disease. shop t. a mild form of t. occurring in urban areas, reported in Mediterranean areas. SYN: urban t.. Siberian tick t. tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by infection with Rickettsia sibirica. tick t. SYN: Mediterranean spotted fever. tropical t. SYN: tsutsugamushi disease. urban t. SYN: shop t..

typing (tip′ing)
Classification according to type. [see type] bacteriophage t. a microbiological procedure, of epidemiologic importance, for distinguishing types within a seemingly homogeneous bacterial species or strain by the use of type-specific bacteriophage. HLA t. tests done in order to determine if a patient has antibodies against a potential donor's HLA antigens. The presence of antibodies means that a particular graft will be rapidly rejected. Also used to establish paternity and in forensic medicine.

SYN: type (3) . t. ampullaris pelvis renalis [TA] SYN: ampullary type of renal pelvis. t. dendriticus pelvis renalis [TA] SYN: branching type of renal pelvis.

Symbol for tyrosine and tyrosyl.

tyraminase (ti′ra-mi-nas, tir′a-)
SYN: amine oxidase (flavin-containing).

tyramine (ti′ra-men, tir′a-)
Decarboxylated tyrosine, a sympathomimetic amine having an action in some respects resembling that of epinephrine; present in ergot, mistletoe, ripe cheese, beers, red wines, and putrefied animal matter; elevated in individuals with tyrosinemia type II. t. oxidase SYN: amine oxidase (flavin-containing).

tyrannism (tir′a-nizm)
A form of sadism characterized by a lust for domination and cruelty, with subsequent humiliation of the partner. [G. tyrannos, a tyrant]

tyremesis (ti-rem′e-sis)
Vomiting of curdy material by infants. SYN: tyrosis (1) . [G. tyros, cheese, + emesis, vomiting]

tyrocidin, tyrocidine (ti-ro-si′din)
An antibacterial cyclopeptide obtained from Bacillus brevis. SEE ALSO: tyrothricin.

Maurice V., U.S. pharmacologist, 1878–1930. See T. solution.

tyrogenous (ti-roj′e-nus)
Produced by, or originating in, cheese. [G. tyros, cheese, + G. -gen, producing]

Tyroglyphus longior (ti-rog′li-fus lon′ge-or, ti′ro-glif′us)
SYN: Tyrophagus putrescentiae. [G. tyros, cheese, + glyphe carving]

tyroid (ti′royd)
Cheesy; caseous. [G. tyrodes, fr. tyros, cheese, + eidos, resemblance]

tyroketonuria (ti′ro-ke-to-noo′re-a)
The urinary excretion of ketonic metabolites of tyrosine, such as p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid.

tyroma (ti-ro′ma)
A caseous tumor. [G. tyros, cheese, + -oma, tumor]

tyropanoate sodium (ti′ro-pa-no′at)
An oral contrast medium for cholecystography.

Tyrophagus putrescentiae (ti-rof′a-gus pu′tre-sen′te-e)
One of the grain mite species that cause various forms of dermatitis resulting from infestation by grain mites in food and produce, which sensitizes and causes dermatitis in storage and handling personnel. SYN: Tyroglyphus longior. [G. tyros, cheese, + phago, to eat]

tyrosinase (ti′ro-si-nas, tir′o-)
SYN: monophenol monooxygenase (1) .

tyrosine (Tyr, Y) (ti′ro-sen, -sin)
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid; 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alanine;the l-isomer is an α-amino acid present in most proteins. t. aminotransferase an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of l-t. and α-ketoglutarate producing p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and l-glutamate; this enzyme catalyzes a step in l-phenylalanine and l-t. catabolism; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with tyrosinemia II. SYN: t. transaminase. t. iodinase a postulated enzyme in the thyroid catalyzing iodination of t., a reaction important in the eventual biosynthesis of thyroxine. SEE ALSO: peroxidases. t. kinase an enzyme that phosphorylates tyrosyl residues on certain proteins; many are products of viral oncogenes; a number of receptors ( e.g., receptors for epidermal growth factor, insulin, etc.) have this enzymatic activity; a misnomer, since the physiologic substrate is not t. but tyrosyl residues in a protein. t. phenol-lyase an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of l-t. to phenol, pyruvate, and NH3. SYN: β-tyrosinase. t. transaminase SYN: t. aminotransferase.

tyrosinemia (ti′ro-si-ne′me-a) [MIM*276600, *276700, and *276710]
A group of autosomal recessively inherited disorders of tyrosine metabolism associated with elevated blood concentration of tyrosine, and enhanced urinary excretion of tyrosine and tyrosyl compounds. Type I t., due to deficiency of fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, nodular liver cirrhosis, multiple renal tubular reabsorptive defects, and vitamin D–resistant rickets; caused by mutation in the FAH gene on chromosome 15q. Type II t., due to deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), is characterized by corneal ulcers and keratosis of digits, palms, and soles; caused by mutation in the TAT gene on 16q. Type III t. is associated with intermittent ataxia and drowsiness without liver dysfunction and is due to 4-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) deficiency. SYN: hypertyrosinemia. [tyrosine + G. haima, blood]

tyrosinosis (ti′ro-si-no′sis) [MIM*276800]
A very rare, possibly heritable disorder of tyrosine metabolism that may be caused by defective formation of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxidase or of tyrosine transaminase; characterized by enhanced urinary excretion of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and of other tyrosyl metabolites upon ingestion of tyrosine or proteins containing that amino acid; of autosomal recessive inheritance. [tyrosine + G. -osis, condition]

tyrosinuria (ti′ro-si-noo′re-a)
The excretion of tyrosine in the urine. [tyrosine + G. ouron, urine]

tyrosis (ti-ro′sis)
1. SYN: tyremesis. 2. SYN: caseation. [G. tyros, cheese]

tyrosyluria (ti′ro-si-loo′re-a)
Enhanced urinary excretion of certain metabolites of tyrosine, such as p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid; present in tyrosinosis, scurvy, pernicious anemia, and other diseases.

tyrothricin (ti-ro-thri′sin)
An antibacterial mixture obtained from peptone cultures of Bacillus brevis; bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and active against Gram-positive bacteria. It yields the crystalline antibacterial agents gramicidin and tyrocidin; the gramicidin component is a polypeptide containing l-tryptophan, d-leucine, d-valine, l-valine, l-alanine, glycine, and an aminoethanol; the tyrocidin component is a cyclopolypeptide containing tyrosine, ornithine, and several other amino acids.

tyrotoxism (ti-ro-tok′sizm)
Poisoning by cheese or any milk product. [G. tyros, cheese, + toxikon, poison]

Frederick, English anatomist and surgeon, 1797–1843. See T. fascia.

Edward, English anatomist, 1649–1708. See T. glands, under gland.

Tyzzeria (ti-ze′re-a)
A genus of coccidia (family Eimeriidae) in which the oocyst contains eight naked sporozoites. Important species are T. anseris, a relatively nonpathogenic species found in the small intestine of domestic and wild geese, whistling swans, and certain wild ducks, and T. perniciosa, which occurs in the small intestine of the domestic duck in North America and Europe, and is pathogenic in ducklings.

Arnault, Russian dermatologist, 1886–1954. See T. cells, under cell, T. test.


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