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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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xeroma (ze-ro′ma)
SYN: xerophthalmia.

xeromammography (zer′o-mam-og′ra-fe)
Examination of the breast by xeroradiography.

xeromenia (zer-o-me′ne-a)
Obsolete term for occurrence of the usual constitutional symptoms at the menstrual period without any show of blood. [xero- + G. meniaia, menses]

xeromycteria (zer′o-mik-ter′e-a)
Extreme dryness of the nasal mucous membrane. [xero- + G. mykter, the nose]

xerophagia, xerophagy (zer-o-fa′je-a, zer-of′a-je)
The eating of dry foodstuffs; subsisting on a dry diet. [xero- + G. phago, to eat]

xerophthalmia (zer-of-thal′me-a)
Excessive dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, which lose their luster and become keratinized; may be due to local disease or to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A. SYN: conjunctivitis arida, xeroma, xerophthalmus. [xero- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

xerophthalmus (zer′of-thal′mus)
SYN: xerophthalmia.

xeroradiograph (ze-ro-ra′de-o-graf)
The permanent record made by xeroradiography. SYN: xerogram.

xeroradiography (ze′ro-ra′de-og′ra-fe)
Radiography using a specially coated charged plate instead of x-ray film, developing with a dry powder rather than liquid chemicals, and transferring the powder image onto paper for a permanent record; edge enhancement is inherent. SYN: xerography.

xerosis (ze-ro′sis)
Pathologic dryness of the skin (xeroderma), the conjunctiva (xerophthalmia), or mucous membranes. [xero- + G. -osis, condition] x. parenchymatosus superficial drying of the conjunctiva due to diffuse scarring, with closure of the lacrimal gland openings.

xerostomia (zer′o-sto′me-a)
A dryness of the mouth, having a varied etiology, resulting from diminished or arrested salivary secretion, or asialism. [xero- + G. stoma, mouth]

xerotic (ze-rot′ik)
Dry; affected with xerosis.

xerotripsis (zer-o-trip′sis)
Dry friction. [xero- + G. tripsis, a rubbing, fr. tribo, to rub]

Xg blood group
See Blood Groups appendix.

X-inactivation
SYN: lyonization.

xiph-
See xipho-.

xiphisternal (zif-i-ster′nal)
Relating to the xiphoid process.

xiphisternum (zif′i-ster′num)
SYN: xiphoid process. [xiphoid + G. sternon, chest]

xipho-, xiph-, xiphi-
Xiphoid, usually the processus xyphoideus. [G. xiphos, sword]

xiphocostal (zif′o-kos′tal)
Relating to the xiphoid process and the ribs. [xipho- + L. costa, rib]

xiphodynia (zif-o-din′e-a)
Pain of a neuralgic character, in the region of the xiphoid cartilage. SEE ALSO: hypersensitive xiphoid syndrome. SYN: xiphoidalgia. [xipho- + G. odyne, pain]

xiphoid (zi′foyd) [TA]
Sword-shaped; applied especially to the x. process. SYN: ensiform, gladiate, mucronate. [xipho- + G. eidos, appearance]

xiphoidalgia (zif-oy-dal′je-a)
SYN: xiphodynia. [xiphoid + G. algos, pain]

xiphoiditis (zif′oy-di′tis)
Inflammation of the xiphoid process of the sternum. [xiphoid + G. -itis, inflammation]

xiphopagus (zi-fop′a-gus)
Conjoined twins united in the region of the xiphoid process of the sternum. See conjoined twins, under twin. [xipho- + G. pagos, something fixed]

X-linked
Pertaining to genes borne on the X chromosome. Commonly but erroneously used synonymously with sex-linked, which would also comprise Y-linked traits.

XMP
Abbreviation for xanthosine 5′-monophosphate.

x-omat (eks′o-mat)
A trade name (of Kodak) that has become the generic designation of an automatic processor for x-ray films.

x-radiation
Radiant energy from an x-ray tube. SEE ALSO: x-ray.

x-ray
1. The ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a highly evacuated tube, resulting from the excitation of the inner orbital electrons by the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode. SYN: roentgen ray. Cf.:glass rays, under ray, indirect rays, under ray. 2. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electrons of an atom by other processes, such as nuclear delay and its sequelae. 3. SYN: radiograph.

XTP
Abbreviation for xanthosine 5′-triphosphate.

Xy
Abbreviation for xylose.

Xyl
Abbreviation for xylose.

xyl-, xylo-
Wood, woody; xylose, xylene. [G. xylon]

xylazine (zi′la-zen)
A sedative/hypnotic/anesthetic widely used in veterinary medicine and in laboratory animals.

xylene (zi′len)
SYN: xylol. x. cyanol FF [C.I. 43535] an acidic triphenylmethane dye used for histochemical staining of hemoglobin peroxidase and as a tracking dye for DNA sequencing in electrophoresis.

xylenol (zi′le-nol)
Occurring in six isomeric forms; used in the manufacture of coal tar disinfectants and synthetic resins. SYN: dimethylphenol.

xylidine (zi′li-den)
Aminodimethylbenzene;used as a reagent and in the manufacture of dyes.

xylitol (zi′li-tol)
An optically inactive sugar alcohol; often used as a sugar substitute in diabetic diets; the synthesis of x. from l-xylulose is blocked in individuals with idiopathic pentosuria.

xylitol dehydrogenase
SYN: xylulose reductase.

xylo-
See xyl-.

xylobiose (zi′lo-bi′os)
A disaccharide of two xylose residues linked β1→4, both in pyranose rings.

xyloidin (zi-loy′din)
SYN: pyroxylin.

xyloketose (zi-lo-ke′tos)
SYN: xylulose.

xylol (zi′lol)
A volatile liquid obtained from coal tar, having physical and chemical properties similar to those of benzene; it occurs as three isomers; m-, o-, and p-x.; used as a solvent, in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic fibers, and in histology as a clearing agent. SYN: dimethylbenzene, xylene.

xylometazoline hydrochloride (zi′lo-me-taz′o-len)
A sympathomimetic drug used as a nasal decongestant.

xylonic acid (zi′lon-ik)
A mild oxidation product of xylose.

xylopyranose (zi-lo-pir′a-nos)
Xylose in pyranose form.

xylose (Xy, Xyl) (zi′los)
An aldopentose, isomeric with ribose, obtained by fermentation or hydrolysis of naturally occurring carbohydrate substances, e.g., in wood fiber. An important dietary component for herbivores. The d-isomer is also known as wood or beechwood sugar. SYN: uridine diphosphoxylose.

xylulose (zi′loo-los)
threo-Pentulose;a 2-ketopentose. l-X. appears in the urine in cases of essential pentosuria; it is also an intermediate in the glucuronate pathway. SYN: xyloketose. x. 5-phosphate the d-isomer is an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway and in transketolization. x. reductase an enzyme that reversibly converts x. to xylitol using either NADH (d-x. reductase) or NADPH (l-x. reductase); a deficiency of the l form is seen in individuals with essential pentosuria. SYN: xylitol dehydrogenase.

xylyl (zi′lil)
The radical consisting of xylene (xylol) minus a hydrogen atom. x. bromide the o-, m-, and p-forms are powerful lacrimators.

xylylene (zi′li-len)
The radical consisting of xylene (xylol) minus two hydrogen atoms.

xysma (ziz′ma)
Membranous shreds in the feces. [G. filings, shavings, fr. xyo, to scrape]




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