Support our Sponsor

. . Flags of the World Maps of All Countries

  • |Main Index|
  • 1991 INDEX
  • Country Ranks
  • Home PageCountry Index

    Malaysia Economy - 1991

      Overview: In 1988-90 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to recover from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.8% in 1989 and 10% in 1990, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing output, further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly from Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home, and increased oil production in 1990. Malaysia has become the world's third-largest producer of semiconductor devices (after the US and Japan) and the world's largest exporter of semiconductor devices. Inflation remained low as unemployment stood at 6% of the labor force and as the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary policies. The country is not self-sufficient in food, and some of the rural population subsists at the poverty level. Malaysia's high export dependence leaves it vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in world commodity prices.

      GDP: $43.1 billion, per capita $2,460; real growth rate 10% (1990)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990 est.)

      Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)

      Budget: revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $11.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.2 billion (1991 est.)

      Exports: $28.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.); commodities--natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, electronics, light manufactures; partners--Singapore, US, Japan, EC

      Imports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.); commodities--food, crude oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods, capital equipment, chemicals; partners--Japan, US, Singapore, FRG, UK

      External debt: $20.0 billion (1990)

      Industrial production: growth rate 15.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 27% of GDP

      Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced, 940 kWh per capita (1990)

      Industries: Peninsular Malaysia--rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah--logging, petroleum production; Sarawak--agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

      Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia--natural rubber, palm oil, rice; Sabah--mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice; Sarawak--rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit of rice in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

      Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World

      Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $4.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

      Currency: ringgit (plural--ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

      Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1--2.7151 (January 1991), 1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814 (1986), 2.4830 (1985)

      Fiscal year: calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding Malaysia on this page is re-published from the 1991 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Malaysia Economy 1991 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Malaysia Economy 1991 should be addressed to the CIA.

    Support Our Sponsor

    Support Our Sponsor

    Please ADD this page to your FAVORITES - - - - -

    Revised 08-Feb-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)