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United States Economy 2016
http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/united_states/united_states_economy.html
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


















United States Economy 2016
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on June 20, 2014

Economy - overview:
The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $49,800. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income. Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the United States into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, in October 2008 the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009 the US Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012 the federal government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2011, the direct costs of the wars totaled nearly $900 billion, according to US government figures. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries. In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million American citizens by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on health care - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010. In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight. In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short term rates near zero until unemployment drops below 6.5% or inflation rises above 2.5%. In late 2013, the Fed announced that it would begin scaling back long-term bond purchases to $75 billion per month in January 2014 and reduce them further as conditions warranted; the Fed, however, would keep short-term rates near zero so long as unemployment and inflation had not crossed the previously stated thresholds. Long-term problems include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$16.72 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

$16.47 trillion (2012 est.)
$16.02 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
[see also: GDP country ranks ]

GDP (official exchange rate):
$16.72 trillion (2013 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
1.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

2.8% (2012 est.)
1.8% (2011 est.)
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$52,800 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

$52,400 (2012 est.)
$51,400 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
[see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ]

Gross national saving:
13.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

12.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
11.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 68.6%
government consumption: 18.6%
investment in fixed capital: 15.3%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 13.4%
imports of goods and services: -16.3%

(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 19.5%
services: 79.4%

(2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries:
highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate:
2.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
155.4 million
country comparison to the world: 4
note: includes unemployed (2013 est.)
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7%
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3%
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3%
sales and office: 24.2%
other services: 17.6%
note: figures exclude the unemployed

(2009)

Unemployment rate:
7.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

8.1% (2012 est.)
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
15.1% (2010 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 41

40.8 (1997)
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: $2.849 trillion
expenditures: $3.517 trillion
note: for the US, revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
17% of GDP
country comparison to the world: 182
note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP (2013 est.)
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
71.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36

70% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital Insurance (Medicare and Medicaid), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intra-government debt were added, "Gross Debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

2.1% (2012 est.)
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
0.5% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 137

0.5% (31 December 2009)
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

3.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$2.612 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

$2.311 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$12.99 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

$12.07 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$16.97 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

$16.17 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$18.67 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

$15.64 trillion (31 December 2011)
$17.14 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$360.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

-$440.4 billion (2012 est.)
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$1.575 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

$1.561 trillion (2012 est.)
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - commodities:
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%

Exports - partners:
Canada 18.9%, Mexico 14%, China 7.2%, Japan 4.5% (2012)

Imports:
$2.273 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

$2.303 trillion (2012 est.)
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)

Imports - partners:
China 19%, Canada 14.1%, Mexico 12%, Japan 6.4%, Germany 4.7% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$150.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

$148 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$15.68 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

$15.51 trillion (31 December 2011)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.815 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

$2.651 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.854 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

$4.453 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:

British pounds per US dollar: 0.6324 (2012 est.), 0.624 (2011 est.), 0.6472 (2010), 0.6175 (2009), 0.5302 (2008)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: (2013 est.), 1.001 (2012 est.), 0.9895 (2011 est), 1.0302 (2010 est.), 1.1431 (2009), 1.0364 (2008)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: (2012 est.), 6.311 (2012 est.), 6.4615 (20111 est.), 6.7703 (2010 est.), 6.8314 (2009), 6.9385 (2008)
euros per US dollar: 0.7838 (2012 est.), 0.7185 (2011 est.), 0.755 (2010 est.), 0.7198 (2009), 0.6827 (2008)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 79.42 (2012 est.), 79.81 (2011 est.), 87.78 (2010), 93.57 (2009), 103.58 (2008)


NOTE: The information regarding United States on this page is re-published from the 2016 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of United States Economy 2016 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about United States Economy 2016 should be addressed to the CIA.




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