Brazil People - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


218,689,757 (2023 est.)


noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups

White 47.7%, mixed 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)


Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

major-language sample(s):
O Livro de Fatos Mundiais, a fonte indispensável para informação básica. (Brazilian Portuguese)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.77% (male 22,084,172/female 21,148,290)

15-64 years: 69.72% (male 75,612,047/female 76,853,504)

65 years and over: 10.51% (2023 est.) (male 9,848,975/female 13,142,769)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.1

youth dependency ratio: 29.4

elderly dependency ratio: 13.7

potential support ratio: 7.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 33.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.64% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

13.44 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of São Paolo, Brasília, and Rio de Janeiro


urban population: 87.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.87% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

22.620 million São Paulo, 13.728 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.248 million Belo Horizonte, 4.873 million BRASÍLIA (capital), 4.264 million Recife, 4.212 million Porto Alegre (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

72 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 13.11 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.68 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.1 years

male: 72.56 years

female: 79.81 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.75 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

80.5% (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

10.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.31 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 94.1% of population

rural: 63.6% of population

total: 90.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 5.9% of population

rural: 36.4% of population

total: 9.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.1% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.12 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 12.8% (2020 est.)

male: 16.2% (2020 est.)

female: 9.4% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


Currently married women (ages 15-49)

55.9% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

6% of GDP (2019 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.3%

male: 94.1%

female: 94.5% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 31.9%

male: 27%

female: 38.2% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Brazil on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Brazil 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Brazil 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.