Colombia Issues - 2023


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Disputes - international

in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 1,842,390 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay) (2022)

IDPs: 6,863,334 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985) (2023)

stateless persons: 11 (2022)

Illicit drugs

Colombia is the world’s top cocaine producer and exporter; is a source of heroin and marijuana; coca cultivation estimated at 234,000 hectares (ha) in 2021; pure cocaine production decreased to 972 metric tons in 2021; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


NOTE: The information regarding Colombia on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Colombia 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Colombia 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.