Ecuador People - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


17,483,326 (2023 est.)


noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, White 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, Mulatto 1.9%, Black 1%, other 0.4% (2010 est.)


Spanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%; note - (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:


Roman Catholic 68.8%, Evangelical 15.4%, Adventist 1.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, other 1.3%, agnostic or atheist 1.4%, none 10.1%, don't know/no response 1% (2020 est.)

note: data represent persons at least 16 years of age from five Ecuadoran cities

Demographic profile

Ecuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.

An estimated 2 to 3 million Ecuadorians live abroad, but increased unemployment in key receiving countries - Spain, the United States, and Italy - is slowing emigration and increasing the likelihood of returnees to Ecuador. The first large-scale emigration of Ecuadorians occurred between 1980 and 2000, when an economic crisis drove Ecuadorians from southern provinces to New York City, where they had trade contacts. A second, nationwide wave of emigration in the late 1990s was caused by another economic downturn, political instability, and a currency crisis. Spain was the logical destination because of its shared language and the wide availability of low-skilled, informal jobs at a time when increased border surveillance made illegal migration to the US difficult. Ecuador has a small but growing immigrant population and is Latin America's top recipient of refugees; 98% are neighboring Colombians fleeing violence in their country.

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.49% (male 2,183,293/female 2,098,856)

15-64 years: 66.44% (male 5,739,156/female 5,876,090)

65 years and over: 9.07% (2023 est.) (male 745,170/female 840,761)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.9

youth dependency ratio: 39.4

elderly dependency ratio: 11.5

potential support ratio: 8.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 28.8 years

male: 28 years

female: 29.6 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.1% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

16.19 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

5.18 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

nearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated


urban population: 64.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

3.142 million Guayaquil, 1.957 million QUITO (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

66 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 17.72 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.22 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.25 years

male: 75.32 years

female: 81.32 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.02 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.98 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

77.9% (2018/19)

note: percent of women aged 15-50

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 87.1% of population

total: 95.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 12.9% of population

total: 4.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

8.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 98.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 1.1% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

19.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 3.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.61 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 11.3% (2020 est.)

male: 18.4% (2020 est.)

female: 4.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

5.2% (2018/19)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

55.1% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 3.8%

women married by age 18: 22.2% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.7% of GDP (2021 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.5%

male: 94.9%

female: 94% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 14.2%

male: 11.4%

female: 18.8% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Ecuador on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Ecuador 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Ecuador 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.