Fin Military - 2023


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Military and security forces

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF; Puolustusvoimat): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2023)

note: the Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) and National Police are under the Ministry of the Interior; the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime

Military expenditures

2.5% of GDP (2023)

2% of GDP (2022 est.)

1.9% of GDP (2021)

1.5% of GDP (2020)

1.4% of GDP (2019)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 30,000 active-duty personnel (22,000 Army; 5,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2023)

note: active-duty figures include about 21,000 conscripts carrying out their obligated military service (approximately 17,000 Army; 3,500 Navy; 1,000 Air Force)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a wide mix of mostly modern US, European, Israeli, South Korean, and domestically produced weapons systems; in recent years, the Netherlands and the US have been the leading suppliers; the Finnish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels (2023)

Military service age and obligation

at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 5.5-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard (length of service depends on the type of duty); women 18-29 may volunteer for service; there is also an option to perform non-military service which lasts for 8.5 or 11.5 months; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 50 for rank-and-file and 60 for non-commissioned and commissioned officers (2023)

note 1: the military trains approximately 21,000 conscripts each year; women have served on a voluntary basis since 1995, and as of 2022 made up about 19% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: Finland has had conscription since 1951

Military deployments

225 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2023)

Military - note

Finland joined NATO in April 2023; Finland had been part of NATO’s Partnership for Peace program since 1994, and Finnish Armed Forces participated in NATO-led military operations and missions in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq

Finland is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) and actively participates in CSDP crisis management missions and operations

the Finnish Armed Forces cooperate closely with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; NORDEFCO was established in 2009 (2023)

NOTE: The information regarding Fin on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Fin 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Fin 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.