the Government of National Unity (GNU) has access to various ground, air, and naval/coast guard forces comprised of a mix of formations and equipment from the QADHAFI regime, semi-regular and nominally integrated units, tribal armed groups/militias, civilian volunteers, and foreign private military contractors and mercenaries; the GNU has a Ministry of Defense, but has limited control over its security forces
the self-styled Libyan National Army (LNA), under de facto LNA commander Khalifa HAFTER, also includes various ground, air, and naval forces comprised of semi-regular military personnel, militias, and foreign private military contractors and mercenaries; the LNA operates independently from the GNU and exerts influence throughout eastern, central, and southern Libya (2023)
note 1: the Stabilization Support Authority (SSA) is a state-funded militia established in January 2021 by the GNU; it is tasked with securing government buildings and officials, participating in combat operations, apprehending those suspected of national security crimes, and cooperating with other security bodies
note 2: the national police force under the Ministry of Interior oversees internal security (with support from military forces under the Ministry of Defense), but much of Libya's security-related police work generally falls to informal armed groups, which receive government salaries but lack formal training, supervision, or consistent accountability
estimates not available
both the forces aligned with the GNU and the LNA are largely equipped with weapons of Russian or Soviet origin; in recent years, Turkey has the been the primary supplier of arms to the GNU, while the LNA has received quantities from Russia and the United Arab Emirates (2023)
Turkey has provided military advisers to trained and assist western/GNU Libyan forces and thousands of Syrian mercenaries to Libya, as well as ammunition, weapons, and aerial drones; Russia, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt have been the main supporters of the LNA; Russia has provided as many as 2,000 private military contractors; the LNA has also used fighters from other countries, including Chad, Sudan, and Syria; GNU and LNA forces are separated by a fortified line of control running roughly from the coastal city of Sirte south to the vicinity of Al Jufra and Brak (2023)
NOTE: The information regarding Libya on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Libya 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Libya 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.
This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.