Pakistan People - 2023



247,653,551 (2023 est.)

note: results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,684,626

comparison ranking


noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups

Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Saraiki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%


Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

major-language sample(s):
ਸੰਸਾਰ ਦੀ ਤੱਥ ਕਿਤਾਬ, ਆਧਾਰੀ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਲਈ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ ਸਰੋਤ ਹੈ (Punjabi)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Muslim (official) 96.5% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.5% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 34.81% (male 44,002,871/female 42,216,200)

15-64 years: 60.41% (male 76,548,821/female 73,065,518)

65 years and over: 4.77% (2023 est.) (male 5,482,633/female 6,337,508)

2023 population pyramid

total dependency ratio: 70

youth dependency ratio: 62.8

elderly dependency ratio: 7.2

potential support ratio: 13.9 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 22 years

male: 21.9 years

female: 22.1 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking

Population growth rate

1.91% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Birth rate

26.01 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Death rate

5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Net migration rate

-1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Population distribution

the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated


urban population: 38% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

17.236 million Karachi, 13.979 million Lahore, 3.711 million Faisalabad, 2.415 million Gujranwala, 2.412 million Peshawar, 1.232 million ISLAMABAD (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.8 years (2017/18 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

154 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking

Infant mortality rate

total: 52.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 57.13 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.96 years

male: 67.89 years

female: 72.14 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Total fertility rate

3.39 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking

Gross reproduction rate

1.66 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

34% (2018/19)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 96.5% of population

rural: 92.5% of population

total: 94% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.5% of population

rural: 7.5% of population

total: 6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

2.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

0.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 88.6% of population

rural: 73.2% of population

total: 78.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 11.4% of population

rural: 26.8% of population

total: 21.1% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

animal contact diseases: rabies

note: Pakistan is one of two countries with endemic wild polio virus (the other is Afghanistan) and considered high risk for international spread of the disease; before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.6% (2016)

comparison ranking

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking

Tobacco use

total: 20.2% (2020 est.)

male: 33% (2020 est.)

female: 7.3% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

23.1% (2017/18)

comparison ranking

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

63.5% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 3.6%

women married by age 18: 18.3%

men married by age 18: 4.7% (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.4% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58%

male: 69.3%

female: 46.5% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 8 years (2019)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 9.4%

male: 9.7%

female: 8.2% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking

NOTE: The information regarding Pakistan on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Pakistan 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Pakistan 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 22 Aug 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.