Rwanda People - 2023


SOURCE: 2023 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Population

13,400,541 (2023 est.)

Nationality

noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups

Hutu, Tutsi, Twa

Languages

Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <0.1, English (official) <0.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <0.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Inkoranya nzimbuzi y'isi, isoko fatizo y'amakuru y'ibanze. (Kinyarwanda)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Protestant 57.7% (includes Adventist 12.6%), Roman Catholic 38.2%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1% (includes traditional, Jehovah's Witness), none 1.1% (2019-20 est.)

Demographic profile

Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016 and 3.3 in 2022. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.

The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts approximately 125,000 refugees as of 2022; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Age structure

0-14 years: 37.95% (male 2,569,106/female 2,515,849)

15-64 years: 59.1% (male 3,844,259/female 4,075,978)

65 years and over: 2.95% (2023 est.) (male 158,647/female 236,702)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 72.5

youth dependency ratio: 67.1

elderly dependency ratio: 5.4

potential support ratio: 18.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 19.7 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 20.4 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.68% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

25.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

5.77 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-3.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 17.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.07% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.248 million KIGALI (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23 years (2019/20 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

259 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 25.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.08 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 66.21 years

male: 64.23 years

female: 68.24 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.23 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.59 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

64.1% (2019/20)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 92.3% of population

rural: 80.7% of population

total: 82.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population

rural: 19.3% of population

total: 17.3% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 89.1% of population

rural: 83.2% of population

total: 84.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 10.9% of population

rural: 16.8% of population

total: 15.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

5.8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.35 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 13.7% (2020 est.)

male: 20.1% (2020 est.)

female: 7.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

7.7% (2019/20)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

50.4% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

3.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 75.9%

male: 78.7%

female: 73.3% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2019)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 2.9%

male: 2.2%

female: 3.6% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Rwanda on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Rwanda 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Rwanda 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.