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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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- B -

Baba ghanoush: A Middle Eastern specialty that is a mixture of roasted eggplant, tahini (sesame paste), olive oil, lemon juice, and garlic. Served as either a dip or a spread. Traditionally garnished with pomegranate seeds and mint.

Baba: A rich rum or kirsch-soaked Polish yeast cake studded with currants or raisins. The traditional baba is baked in a tall cylindrical mold but the cake can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes; called savarin when baked in a large ring mold.

Baba: a French or Italian small sweet cake made from enriched yeast dough, often flavored with candied fruits and soaked with a rum or Kirschwasser syrup after baking. This dough is also used to make the larger savarin.

Babaco: This fruit indigenous to Ecuador, ranges from 8 to 12 inches long and about 4 inches in diameter. The skin, which is entirely edible, turns from green to golden yellow as it ripens. Babaco is best eaten raw, contains triple the amount of papain than found in papaya, and is a good source of vitamins A and C.

Babka: A Polish sweet yeast bread, traditionally made with rum and studded with almonds, raisins and orange peel.

Baby Back Ribs: A slab of ribs cut from the pork primal loin and weighing 1.75 pounds or less.

Baby Lima Beans: There are two common varieties of lima beans: the Fordhook and the baby (also called sieva). The pale green bodies of both varieties have a slight kidney-shaped curve. The Fordhook is larger and plumper than the baby lima.

Bacalaitos fritons: [Spanish] codfish fritters.

Bacalao: [Spanish] salt cod; dried codfish.

Baccala: See "Salt Cod, dried."

Back order (food industry term): Out-of-stock items that cannot be shipped with a customer's original order and are sent to the customer as soon as available.

Backhaul (food industry term): A transportation practice used to defray costs by picking up products from a manufacturer after delivering products to a store.

Backroom (food industry term): A storage area for excess products, kept on hand to restock the sales floor as needed.

Backstock (food industry term): Extra products stored in a backroom to restock shelves between deliveries.

Backstrap: Tenderloin steak.

Backup (food industry term): A copy of current computer files saved to a computer disk or magnetic tape in case of a computer system failure.

Back-up merchandise (food industry term): Products kept in a backroom for convenient restocking of the sales floor.

Backup tape (food industry term): A removable tape used to back up computer data.

Bacon (slab): bacon in a chunk. You must slice it by hand (and may want to remove the rind first). Slab bacon is often the only way to find top-quality bacon.

Bacon rashers: Canadian bacon or ham.

Bacon: A smoked and cured product made from the meat taken from the back, sides, and belly of pigs. Fat, which gives bacon its sweet flavor and tender crispness should be half to two:thirds of the total weight.

Bacon: A cured / smoked cut of pork carcass that consists of fat interspersed with strands of meat, available sliced or in a slab.

Baekenhofe: an Alsatian stew made of pork, lamb, and beef layered with potatoes and onions. The meat is first marinated in wine and herbs for a minimum of 24 hours, then assembled and baked in a paste sealed casserole until the meat is buttery tender. The juices are reduced and the top is browned under the broiler. Crisp bacon and fried leeks are used to garnish this dish.

Bag stuffer (food industry term): An ad circular placed in a customer's grocery bag during bagging.

Bagel: A dense, chewy, doughnut-shaped roll that is cooked in boiling water, then baked.

Bagel: a hard, glazed, doughnut- shaped roll.

Bagger (food industry term): A retail clerk or associate who bags customers' purchases at the checkstand.

Bagging (food industry term): A process of properly, carefully packing customer 's purchases in plastic or paper bags to suit customers.

Bagging shelf (food industry term): A platform on which bags are placed when bagging customers' orders.

Bagna Cauda: Meaning "warm bath", this is a dip made of anchovies, olive oil and garlic. Unlike the French anchoiade, this is served warm and is not emulsified. Bread and raw vegetables are served with this dip.

Baguette: A long, thin, cylindrical loaf of French bread with a crisp, brown crust and chewy interior; traditionally made from flour, salt, water and yeast.

Baguette: A long, narrow loaf of French bread, usually with a crispy brown crust and a soft, but chewy interior.

Bain Marie: 1. A hot-water bath used to gently cook foods. Hot water is placed in a pan and the food item (such as custard), nestled in a separate container, is set in the water. This allows gentle cooking without scorching. 2. French term for a type of double boiler.

Bain Marie: [French] Simply a water bath. It consists of placing a container of food in a large, shallow pan of warm water, which surrounds the food with gentle heat. The food may be cooked in this manner either in an oven or on top of a range. This technique is designed to cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces and savory mousses without breaking or curdling them. It can also be used to keep foods warm.

Bake Cups: Paper or foil pleated cups used to line cupcake or muffin tins.

Bake: To cook in the oven. While roasting is often used as a synonym for baking, the terms are actually different. Roasting describes cooking food at a higher temperature to brown the surface of the food quickly.

Bake: To cook in an oven or oven-type appliance. Covered or uncovered containers may be used. When applied to meats in uncovered containers, the method gererally is called roasting. Common oven temperatures are:
  • 250 to 2750F Very slow oven
  • 300 to 3250F Slow oven
  • 350 to 3750F Moderate oven
  • 400 to 4250F Hot oven
  • 450 to 4750F Very hot oven
  • 5000 to 5250F Extremely hot oven

Bake: Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven.

Bake: To cook in an oven with dry heat at a specific temperature.

Baked Alaska: A dessert comprised of sponge cake topped with ice cream and covered with meringue. The dessert is then placed in a hot oven to brown the meringue before the ice cream can melt.

Bake-off (food industry term): An in-store baking process using frozen doughs and products to prepare fresh products, i.e., fresh rolls, bread, doughnuts or other pastries.

Bake-off bakery (food industry term): Prepared dough baked in a store to provide fresh products, such as rolls, breads or doughnuts.

Baker's % formula: Ingredient weight divided by total flour weight X 100 = bakers% for that ingredient. Example, 3 lb water divided by 5 lb. flour X 100 = 60% water.

Baker's Cheese: Similar to cottage cheese, this soft, acidic white cheese is made from skim milk and used mainly in commercially baked goods. It is rarely available in retail stores.

Baker's Peel: A tool with a flat, smooth surface and long handle that's used to move pizzas and yeast breads to and from an oven. Peels are usually hardwood, but can be made of metal. Also known as a pizza peel or paddle.

Baker's percent: "In baking formulas primarily based on flour, each ingredient's weight is measured as a percentage of the total flour weight (100 percent). See box below.
    Sample Formula
    Bakers Percent
    Ingredients Bakers % Weight
    Flour* 100.0 5lbs
    Water 60.0 3lbs
    Yeast 3.5 2.8oz Veg. Oil 3.5 2.8oz
    Sugar 3.0 24oz
    Milk Solids 2.5 2.0oz
    Honey 2.5 2.0oz
    Molasses 2.0 1.6oz
    Salt 2.0 1.6oz
    *May be bread, whole wheat, or blend.
    100%=total flour weight

Bakery control sheet (food industry term): A daily record used to maintain and ensure proper inventory and production levels in the Bakery Department.

Baking Surrounding food with hot, dry air in a closed environment, usually an oven; a dry-heat cooking method

Baking mix: A combination of pre-measured baking dry ingredients (Example, flours, meal, leavening, sugars, salt, spices).

Baking pan: Baking pan Available in a variety of shapes and sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans, which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test kitchens use midgauge aluminum pans to formulate standards for baking time, temperature, and even baking/browning.

Baking potato: This term refers to Idaho and russet potatoes, the big potatoes with rough, brown skin and numerous eyes. These potatoes are low in moisture and high in starch, which makes them ideal for baking. They also make good mashed potatoes and French fries.

Baking powder: A leavening agent containing both baking soda and one or two acids - citric or tartaric. It reacts without acid from the other ingredients when wet and when it becomes hot. The baking powder used at home is "double-acting" because it has two types of acid - one reacts when liquids are added in the bowl and the other reacts when it becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is the gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes a light product in the end. Test for strength by mixing one teaspoon baking powder with 1/4 cup very hot water. Mixture should bubble furiously.

Baking Powder: A Leavening agent containing a combination of baking soda, an acid like cream of tartar and a moisture-absorber like cornstarch. When mixed with liquid, it releases carbon dioxide gas that causes baked goods to rise.

Baking powder: A chemical leavener combining an acid with bicarbonate of soda to form the gas which enables baked products to rise. The chemical reaction between the acid and the soda produces carbon dioxide to leaven the product. The most common form of baking powder is the double acting variety, which produces gas upon mixing and again at high temperatures. Always store this tightly covered.

Baking sheet: A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually has one or more edges that is turned up for ease in removing from the oven. Types include shiny, heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in most test kitchens for even baking and browning. Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce especially crisp exterior crusts desired for specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets are two sheets of aluminum with air space between, and are especially good for soft cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls. Also, see Cookie sheet, Insulated bakeware, and Jelly roll pan glossary listings.

Baking Soda, Bicarbonate of Soda: A Leavening agent that causes baked goods to rise when combined with an acid ingredient such as buttermilk or yogurt.

Baking soda: "A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium carbonate (purified form of mineral trona) is mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form sodium bicarbonate.
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H20 + NaHCO3
sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water + sodium bicarbonate . Baking soda is the source of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It neutralizes acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking powder."

Baking soda: Also called bicarbonate of soda and sodium bicarbonate is a leavening agent which is used as an essential ingredient in baking powder. When used alone as a leavener, recipes must include some type of acid to neutralize the resulting sodium carbonate in the finished product. Buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and citrus juice are adequate acid to use. You may also use baking soda to help neutralize the acid in recipes that call for large amounts of fruit.

Baking stone: A round or rectangular plate of stone or unglazed, tile-like material used to provide the baking qualities of a brick oven floor. The stone is placed on the lowest oven rack. Follow the manufacturer's directions regarding whether preheating the stone with the oven is recommended. The product to be baked or the product in its pan are placed on the stone to bake.

Baking Stones, Baking Tiles: A heavy, thick, round or rectangular ceramic or stone plate placed on the lowest oven shelf and preheated with the oven. Such stones are used to duplicate the baking qualities of the brick floors of some commercial bread and pizza ovens. Items to be baked are then placed directly on the baking stone in the oven. Also known as a pizza stone. Baking tiles are used like a baking stone, but are thick, unglazed quarry tiles 8 to 12 inches square.

Baking tray: Cookie sheet.

Baklava: Greek pastry made in layers with thin leaves of phyllo dough, honey, sugar and chopped nuts.

Baklava: [Middle Eastern- Greek] A very sweet dessert made of layers of flaky pastry filled with a mixture of ground nuts (often pistachios) and sugar. The pastry is sliced, baked, and brushed with a honey syrup flavored with lemon or rose water.

Balachan: Malaysian condiment made of spices, small fish and shrimp, allowed to ferment in the hot sun, and then dried. It is quite pungent and is considered an acquired taste.

Balance sheet (food industry term): A financial statement of a business, which lists assets, liabilities and net worth at a specified date.

Balanced features (food industry term): A marketing and/or merchandising program that features and/or displays short-profit and long-profit products together as a combination sale. See related items.

Bale (food industry term): A large bundle of cardboard that is recycled.

Baler (food industry term): A device used to compact and bind corrugated cardboard into bales for recycling.

Ballasts (food industry term): A transformer-like device in a fluorescent light fixture.

Ballottine: A dish in which forcemeat is stuffed back into the boneless carcass from which the forcemeat was made. This may include fish, poultry, game birds, or even some cuts of meat. The mixture is wrapped in muslin and poached or braised. These dishes may be served hot or cold.

Balsamic Vinegar: An Italian vinegar made from white Trebbiano grape juice. It has a dark color and pungent sweetness from aging in barrels made of wood.

Balsamic vinegar: A wonderfully fragrant vinegar made from the juice of Trebbiano grapes. The juice is then heated and aged in wooden barrels, evaporating and concentrating in flavor. The resulting vinegar is deep rich brown with a sweet and sour flavor. Well aged balsamic vinegars are very costly, some reaching an astronomical $200 an ounce. Most balsamic vinegars found in the US are not "aceto balsamico tradizionale", but an aged balsamic vinegar. These vinegars lack in body and flavor that the well-aged balsamic vinegars possess, yet have a fair sweet and sour balance of flavor not found in any other vinegars.

Bamboo leaves: Used in Asian cooking to wrap ingredients for steaming. They need to be reconstituted before use.

Bamboo Shoots: These are the ivory-colored shoots of the bamboo plant. Bamboo shoots have a tender-crisp texture and sweet flavor. Primarily available in cans and used in Asian cuisines.

Bamboo shoots: The young growth of a certain edible bamboo plant. Fresh shoots, tender and ivory-colored occasionally turn up in Asian markets, but rarely. The canned ones are tasteless but provide a decent crunch. found in Asian markets and many supermarkets.

Banana Squash: A large, long winter squash with creamy orange skin and orange flesh; often sold in sections.

Banana: A tropical fruit that grows in clusters and is long and curving with a yellow skin flecked with brown specs. It has a slightly sticky, creamy pulp and a distinctive sweet flavor.

Bandwidth (food industry term): The data transfer rate of an electronic communications system.

Bangers: British colloquial term for sausages. "Bangers and Mash" are sausages and mashed potatoes.

Banner (food industry term): An in-store advertising sign or display used to identify in-store locations, sale items and products.

Banneton: A small woven basket used for letting bread dough rise before baking. The basket is dusted with flour before use. The dough takes on the shape of the basket as it rises and is then carefully turned out onto a baking sheet. The baked bread retains the pattern of the basket.

Bap: A soft Scottish yeast roll traditionally eaten for breakfast with a flour-tasting finish.

Bar code (food industry term): A unique identification code on products, pallets and coupons. The code is read by an electronic scanner for receiving, ordering and inventory control purposes. See UCC/EAN-128.

Barbacoa: [Spanish] barbecued or pit-cooked meat; often refers to the head of a cow, sheep or goat that has been barbecued or pit-cooked.

Barbados sugar: Also known as muscovado sugar. A British specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and has a strong molasses flavor.

Barbados Sugar: A soft, moist, fine-textured type of raw sugar. If unavailable, dark brown sugar can be substituted in equal parts.

Barbecue, Barbeque, Bar-B-Q: 1. A method of cooking meat, poultry or fish or even vegetables and fruit. Is covered and slowly cooked in a pit or on a spit, using hot coals or hardwood as a heat source. 2. A brazier fitted with a grill and sometimes a spit.

Barbecue: To roast slowly on a gridiron or spit, over coals, or under free flame or oven electric unit, usually basing with a highly seasoned sauce. Popularly applied to foods cooked in or served with barbecue sause.

Barder, Bard: To cover meats with slices of salt pork

Barding: The practice of wrapping lean cuts of meat to be with thin slices of back fat. The converse of this is larding, in which long strips of fat are inserted into the cut of meat to keep it moist during cooking.

Barley flour: A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley. It imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads.

Barley Flour: Ground barley used for baking, however, since it lacks gluten, barley flour isn't recommended for yeast breads unless combined with a gluten-containing flour. An excellent thickener for soups and sauces

Barley, Pearl: Polished barley.

Barley: A small, round grain grown in most of the world. It is pearled to remove its outer husk. It has a slightly sweet, nutty, earthy flavor and chewy texture.

Barm Brack: An Irish bread, usually containing candied fruit peel and raisins or currants. Barm brack is typically buttered and served with tea.

Baron (of beef or lamb): The two legs and saddle cooked as a unit.

Barquette: A small oval shaped pastry shell with either sweet or savory fillings.

Barquettes: Small, oblong pastry tarts made of short crust pastry or puff pastry and baked blind.

Barracuda: A pike:like sea fish with long pointed jaws filled with razor:sharp teeth. It is a firm:textured fish with moderate fat content. The type most commonly found in the U.S. is the Pacific barracuda (also called the California barracuda).

Base price (food industry term): A price calculated by taking a product's suggested retail price and subtracting a percentage.

Base wrap (food industry term): A wrap at the base of a merchandising display to provide continuity or a decorative touch to displays.

Basic items (food industry term): Necessary, common, everyday household items, which customers expect to find in a grocery store.

Basic stock list (food industry term): A wholesalers' listing of products and brands. See rotation list.

Basil: An herb commonly used in Italian cooking with a strong sweet flavor. Basil is used with many dishes but is most commonly paired with tomatoes. Basil also is one of the main ingredients in pesto, a thick paste made by pounding the herb's green leaves with Parmesan and Pecorino cheeses, pine nuts and olive oil.

Basil: Native to India, it has long been a mainstay in Italian cooking. Its leaves have a spicy smell and flavor that work well in everything from seafood cocktails and soups to stews and other meat dishes.

Basmati: An aged, fragrant long grain rice. It has a creamy yellow color, distinctive sweet, nutty aroma and delicate flavor.

Basquaise: Food prepared in the style of Basque which often includes tomatoes and sweet or hot red peppers.

Bass scanning (price verification) (food industry term): The process of verifying retail prices and item descriptions in the Point of Sale System (register system), using the BASS FM unit.

Bass: A term that refers to numerous and often unrelated freshwater and saltwater fish. True basses include groupers, black sea bass, and the striped bass. Largemouth, redeye, rock, smallmouth and the spotted bass, are actually sunfish.

Bass: A term used for several varieties of fresh and saltwater spiny-finned fish. Large mouth, small mouth, sea and striped bass are some of the varieties.

Baste: To moisten food during cooking with pan drippings, sauce, or other liquid, often with the help of a baster. Basting prevents foods from drying out.

Baste: To moisten meat or other foods while cooking, in order to add flavor and to prevent drying of the surface. The liquid usually is melted fat, meat drippings, fruit juice, sauce or water.

Baste: To add moisture, flavor and color to foods by brushing, drizzling or spooning pan juices or other liquids over the food during cooking.

Baste: To moisten with marinade or with pan juices during broiling or roasting.

Basting Moistening food during cooking by spooning or brushing food with melted fat, pan drippings, a sauce, or another liquid to prevent it from drying out

Basting: Preparation method which moistens meat or poultry with pan juices or drippings during roasting by using a spoon or bulb baster as a tool. The bulb on the baster is squeezed while in the liquid, then slowly released to draw the liquid into the tube.

Batarde: A French butter sauce made with egg yolks.

Batch: One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies.

Batter: A mixture of flour and liquid, usually combined with other ingredients, as in baked products. The miscure is of such consistency that it may be stirred with a spoon and is thin enough to pour or drop from a spoon.

Batter: "Thin mixture of flour and water that can be poured or spooned into pan or on a griddle.

Batter or Dough
    Other ingredients plus the ratio of liquid to flour help determine if it's a batter or dough.

    Liquid to Flour:

  • Pour batter - 1 to 1
  • Drop batter - 1 to 2
  • Soft dough - 1 to 3
  • Stiff dough - 1 to 4

Batter: A mixture of flour, fat, and liquid that is thin enough in consistency to require a pan to encase it.

Batter: A flour-liquid mixture that is thin enough to pour. One example is pancake batter.

Bavarian cream: A cream made with pastry cream lightened with whipped cream and stabilized with gelatin. This cream may then be poured into molds, or used as a filling for cakes or pastries. Bavarian cream is often flavored with fruit purees or alcohol.

Bavette: Thin, oval shaped pasta.

Bay (food industry term): The bottom shelf in a retail aisle.

Bay leaf: An aromatic leaf that comes from bay laurel. Whole, halved, or ground, it lends a slightly bitter taste. A pungent seasoning to add to soups, stews, and stocks. One of the primary ingredients in a bouquet garni.

Bay Leaves: A leaf from the laurel family used as an herb that imparts a lemon-nutmeg flavor and is usually removed from food after cooking.

Bb (food industry term): Billback.

Bbq machine (food industry term): A device to cook foods in-store to add a Bar-B-Que or smoky flavor.

Bcp (food industry term): Broken Case Price.

Bean curd: Cheese-like product made from soybean milk. Buy fresh in cakes in most supermarkets. Can be found in cans also but the flavor is far inferior.

Bean sauce: A soybean condiment that is an essential ingredient in stir-fries. It is labeled either "whole bean sauce" or "ground bean sauce," which tends to be saltier. Available in Asian markets and many supermarkets.

Bean Sprouts: Mung and soybean sprouts are very popular in Asian cooking. The crisp, mild-flavored sprouts add a crunchy texture to salads, and are best eaten raw. However, they are also a nice addition to stir-fry dishes, but will lose their crunchiness if cooked longer than 30 seconds. Bean sprouts are available in most supermarkets, either pre-packaged or in bulk. Select crisp, pale sprouts with the buds attached; avoid musty-smelling, dark or slimy-looking sprouts

Bean sprouts: Edible sprouts which can be produced from a variety of seeds and beans, from the mung and alfalfa to lentil, radish and even broccoli. Sprouts should be kept in the refrigerator in the ventilated container or plastic bag in which they were sold, and used within a few days. Found fresh in most produce sections. Skip using the canned variety if you can avoid it.

Bear sign or bear claw: Fried pastry similar to the modern doughnut.

Bear: A large, partly carnivorous quadruped found in America, the Arctic, and in Europe. Bear steaks should be cooked like beef, except that they are generally marinated for a couple of days in oil and vinegar or wine to help tenderize the meat.

Bearnaise Sauce: A classic white-wine sauce flavored with fresh herbs and shallots, thickened with egg yolks and usually finished with tarragon or chervil.

Bearnaise: This is the most notable of all the hollandaise sauce variations. It is made with a wine and vinegar reduction, egg yolks, butter and flavored with tarragon or other herbs. This sauce makes a good companion to grilled meats and fish.

Beat: To blend a mixture of food quickly with the goal of making it smooth and adding as much air as possible.

Beat: To make a mixture smooth by introducing air with a brisk, regular motion that lifts the mixture over and over, or with a rotary motion as with an egg beater or electric mixer.

Beat: Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer.

Beat: To mix thoroughly with a spoon, whisk or beaters until smooth and well combined.

Beating: Process of mixing food to introduce air and make it lighter or fluffier. Tools utilized to beat an ingredient or mixture include a wooden spoon, hand whisk or electric mixer.

Beau Monde Seasoning: A commercial combination of herbs

Beaver: A semi:aquatic animal of the rodent family. The tail is considered the best part to eat. Care must be taken when skinning to avoid severing the musk gland, which will permeate the entire flesh when cut.

Bebidas: [Spanish] drinks.

Bechamel sauce: This is a white sauce made with milk or cream and thickened with a roux. Bechamel sauce is generally used as a base for other more complex sauces, though it may be used alone for binding or moistening.

Bechamel: Basic milk (white) sauce

Beef fillet (filet mignon): This tender but expensive boneless cut of meat comes from the small end of the tenderloin. It should be cooked quickly by frilling or saut ing. Not an overly flavorful cut of meat.

Beef stock: Real beef stock is superior to any. But consomme or bouillon (mostly salt) may be substituted in a pinch.

Beef tartare: A dish of coarsely ground beef. The meat is normally high:quality, lean, and seasoned with salt, pepper, and seasonings. Beef tartar is often served with a raw egg placed on top, along with capers, parsley, and onions.

Beef: The meat from cows, steers (males castrated when very young), heifers (females that have never borne a calf) and bulls under 2 years old. The eight USDA grades are Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner.

Beef: The firm but tender meat of cows which has a dark red color, rich flavor, interior marbling and external fat.

Beefalo: A cross between the American bison (commonly called buffalo) and cattle, the beef strain being dominant. The dark red meat of beefalo is very lean and has a somewhat stronger flavor than beef.

Beerwurst: A German cooked sausage with a garlic flavor and a dark red color. Normally used as lunch meat. Also know as "Bierwurst."

Beet: A large round, garnet red edible root with an edible leafy green top

Beignet: A French or Creole version of doughnuts. Dough or batter is deep fried and dusted with powdered sugar or glazed with a flavored syrup.

Beignets: Fritters

Bel Paese: Semisoft Italian cheese having a mild, buttery flavor. Delicious with fruity wines, it can be served as a dessert cheese, and melts beautifully for use in casseroles or on pizza.

Bell Pepper: A large fresh sweet pepper with a mild sweet flavor and available in various colors, including green, red, white, brown, purple, yellow and orange.

Bell peppers: Also known as sweet peppers, bell peppers are "mature" when they turn bright green, but they are not yet ripe; their flavor is sharp, even acrid at this point. If picked after they have changed to red, yellow, or orange their flavor will have mellowed considerably.

Belle Helene: Best known as the name of a dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce. It is also a term used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes.

Belly:fish: This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster." Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," and "goosefish."

Bench Proof: The final rising state in yeast dough production, occurring between the time the dough is panned and baked.

Bench time: Allowing yeast dough 5 to 15 minutes resting time after fermentation, punching, dividing and before shaping to allow gluten to relax.

Bench: The counter or surface bakers use to work with dough.

Benchmarking (food industry term): A performance standard against which operating performance is measured, which is used to identify performance improvements and best practices in an industry.

Benedictine: A green spread made with cucumber, cream cheese and mayonnaise.

Benne seeds: [African] sesame seeds.

Benne: Term used commonly in the southern United States for sesame seeds, and to describe dishes containing sesame, e.g., benne brittle or benne wafers (sesame cookies).

Bercy: A French sauce with white wine and shallots as a base.

Bermuda onion: This big, sweet, ivory-colored onion truly does not come from Bermuda. A sweet, crisp topping for sandwiches, this onion is also a good choice for everyday cooking. Bermudas have a shorter shelf life than the basic yellow onion. Also called Spanish onion.

Berries: Fruit with seeds embedded in the pulp. Varieties include blackberries, raspberries, dewberries, loganberries, salmonberries, youngberries and many more. Berries should be plump, tender and stored in ventilated containers when fresh.

Besan: Used in East Indian cooking, besan is a pale yellow flour made from ground, dried chickpeas. This nutritious, high-protein flour is used for myriad preparations including doughs, dumplings, noodles, a thickener for sauces and in batter for deep-fried foods. Besan, also known as gram flour can be found in Indian or Asian markets. Store, wrapped airtight, in the refrigerator for up to 6 months.

Best food day (food industry term): The day that grocery ads run in a newspaper in any community.

Beta Carotene: A naturally occurring nutrient found in plants and vegetables that acts as an antioxidant. When consumed, beta carotene is converted into vitamin A.

Beta test (food industry term): A field test of new equipment or software programs to identify errors or problems, and to solicit user's comments so that the manufacturer can make final modifications before the equipment or software is released for sale.

Betabel: [Spanish] beet.

Betty: a baked dessert dating to Colonial America, It is a baked pudding made with layers of spiced sweetened fruit (usually apples) and buttered bread crumbs. Apple Brown Betty is made with brown sugar and sliced apples.

Beurre Blanc: An emulsified sauce made of a wine or vinegar reduction blended with softened butter. This may be flavored in many ways, for fish, vegetables, and poultry dishes. This is a very tricky sauce and does not hold for long periods of time. Because of this, modern versions add a touch of cream to stabilize the sauce for longer periods of time.

Beurre Manie: A mixture of flour and butter worked into a paste, either with your fingers or a spoon. This is then used in small quantities to adjust the thickness of sauces and stews. The sauce must then be boiled briefly to remove the starchy taste of the flour. For this reason, beurre manie‚ is used in situations where only a small quantity is needed.

Beurre Noir: A sauce for fish which contains browned butter flavored with parsley, seasonings and vinegar.

Beurre Noir: A tart sauce made with browned butter mixed with vinegar.

Beurre Noisette: Browned butter with lemon juices and seasonings.

Beurre: Butter

Bias-slice: To slice a food crosswise at a 45-degree angle.

Bibb Lettuce: A small variety of butterhead lettuce with soft, light green leaves that has a buttery flavor and texture.

Biga: Italian pre-ferment, see Pre-ferment.

Bigarade: A sauce, usually served with duck, which includes orange juice and orange rind.

Bill and hold (food industry term): A manufacturer's deal to a retailer to purchase products, which are not shipped until the retailer needs them.

Bill of lading (food industry term): A delivery receipt acknowledging that a customer received a product and verified the count.

Billback (bb) (food industry term): An accounts receivable practice of invoicing the wholesale/retailer for products at regular price until promotional requirements are met. The deal amount will be returned later to the wholesaler/retailer. See off-invoice.

Billboard/billboard effect (food industry term): The merchandising impact produced by grouping together a large quantity of horizontal facings on a shelf, i.e., sizes, colors and/or flavors.

Bin (food industry term): A merchandising container for bulk product display. See warehouse slot.

Bind: To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid.

Bind: To stir in ingredients such as eggs, flour, butter, or cream to thicken a sauce or hot liquid.

Binding: A method of preparation that adds eggs, cream, melted fat or roux to a dry mixture in order to hold it together and keep the mixture from separating.

Biotechnology (food industry term): The use of DNA technology to create products, for example, pharmaceuticals or food products.

Birria: Spanish name given to a dish of seasoned meat, then barbecued or steamed.

Biscochitos: Crispy anise-flavored cookies native to New Mexico; cut into stars or other decorative shapes and traditionally served at Christmas.

Biscotti: Dry Italian cookies flavored with almonds, chocolate, or anise seed, used for dunking in coffee and sweet dessert wine. Not unlike zwieback.

Biscuit Cutter: A round stainless-steel device that cuts dough for biscuits or scones; may have straight or fluted edge.

Biscuit: A small tender, flaky quick bread, usually leavened with baking powder or using self-rising flour and is usually a savory (not sweet) hot bread served with meals.

Biscuit: 1. An individual serving of bread made with flour, leavening and fat. 2. Describes a cracker or cookie in England.

Bison: Also know as the "American Buffalo," bison is presently raised on game farms. The meat is very tender and tastes quite a bit like lean beef. It has no pronounced gamey flavor.

Bison: Called "hunchbacked cows" by Coronado when he saw them in Texas; taste is similar to beef, but slightly sweet.

Bisque: A creamy soup made with seafood or poultry.

Bisque: A thick, rich creamy soup containing fish or game or pureed vegetables. A rich shellfish soup made with the shells of the animal. The soup is enriched with cream and Cognac and garnished with pieces of the shellfish meat. This name is also used to describe vegetable soups prepared in the same manner as shellfish bisques. Also a frozen creamy dessert.

Bisteces: [Spanish] steaks.

Bistella: See Pastilla for a definition.

Bite-size: To cut into pieces which can be easily chewed.

Bitok: [Russian] Small meat patty made from raw minced beef and bread, then bound together with an egg.

Bitters: A bitter liquid distilled from roots and herbs, often used in mixed drinks, served as an aperitif, or as a home remedy for fevers and other illness.

Bitters: A liquid combination of cloves, cinnamon, quinine, nutmeg, rum, dried fruits, and other root and herbal extracts. Primarily used in cocktails.

BITTERSWEET (lower sugar content): 35% chocolate liquor.

Bittersweet chocolate: Baking chocolate containing a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor (See Chocolate IQ Chart, Lab 11

Bittersweet chocolate: Often used in cake and cookie recipes. Bittersweet or semisweet chocolates are often used interchangeably, although bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor, a paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa beans. Semisweet chocolate contains at least 35% chocolate liquor while finer bittersweet chocolates contain 50% or more chocolate liquor. Both chocolates have a deep, smooth, intense flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans to dairy products. Sugar, vanilla extract, and cocoa butter are added to the chocolate liquor to create an even richer chocolate flavor.

Bittersweet or Semisweet Chocolate: This is the chocolate most often called for in cake and cookie recipes (like chocolate chips).

Bizerba (food industry term): A machine used to vacuum-seal meats and cheeses for display in the Deli Department.

Black (turtle) bean (frijoles negros): Native of the Yucatan; satiny black on the exterior, creamy white inside, with a hearty, almost smoky flavor; commonly used in soups and low-fat sauces, side dishes, salads and pureed; cooked beans can be rinsed and added to salsas for visual interest. This multipurpose dried bean is medium-sized (up to one-half inch long), round to almost square, and deep black with a white line and interior.

Black Bean: A relatively large, dried bean with black skin, cream flesh and a sweet flavor; also called a turtle bean.

Black beans (frijoles negros): Small, with a dark blue-purple color; also known as black turtle beans.

Black cod: This saltwater fish, which is not a true cod, has a soft textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also called "sablefish."

Black pepper: Green, white, and black peppercorns all come from the berries of the Piper nigrum plant; black peppercorns are the strongest of the three varieties. Pre-ground black pepper is sold is sold cracked and coarsely or finely ground, but loses its flavor quickly and should be stored in a cool dark place for no more than 3 months. Freshly ground black pepper is far superior.

Black pudding: This large link sausage is made of pig's blood, suet, bread crumbs, and oatmeal. It is generally sold precooked. Also known as "blood sausage."

Black rice: Milled rice is white in appearance, but the outer bran layer can be brown, red or black. Raw black rice appears charred and, when cooked, appears much like the color of blackberries.

Blackberries and Raspberries: There are hundreds of types of black and red berries (some are orange, yellow, or almost white), but all are treated basically the same. (Technically, a raspberry leaves its inner core behind when picked; the core comes along when you pick a blackberry). These berries are highly perishable and quite expensive in the market.

Blackberry: A large shiny, deep purple berry with a sweet flavor. Also known as a bramble berry.

Blackened: A cooking method popular in Cajun cuisine where seasoned foods are cooked over high heat in a very hot skillet until charred.

Black-eyed Pea: A small, beige pea with a black round eye on the curved edge and used in Southern and Chinese cuisines. Also called a cowpea.

Black-eyed peas: Small, slightly kidney-shaped beans marked with one black spot or "eye"; introduced into the Southwest by African slaves.

Blackfish: A lean, delicately flavored Pacific Ocean fish that is popular in Chinese cookery. Also called "Black Trout" and "Chinese Steelhead."

Blackstrap Molasses: Thick, black syrup, produced from sugar cane. In the UK and Australia, simply known as molasses. It produces a bitter flavor.

Blade Steak: See "Arm steak".

Blanch (precook): To preheat in boiling water or steam.
    (1) Process used to deactivate enzymes and shrink some foods for canning, freezing, or drying. Vegetables are blanched in voiling water or steam, and fruits in boiling fruit juice, syrup, water, or steam.
    (2) Process used to aid in removal of skins from nuts, fruits, and some vegetables.

Blanch: To submerge foods in boiling water for just a few seconds, remove from the water, and refresh under cold water to stop the cooking process. Blanching is a gentle form of cooking used to loosen skins, firm flesh, and heighten color and flavor. Example

Blanche or Blanch: To partially cook food (usually vegetables and fruits) by plunging into boiling water briefly, then into cold water bath to stop the cooking process.

Blanching Briefly boiling foods in water or hot fat; generally used as the first part of a combination cooking method, such as to remove peels from fruits or vegetables

Blancmange: A simple stove-top pudding made with milk, sugar, and vanilla, thickened with cornstarch.

Blanco: [Spanish] white.

Blanquette: A light soup or stew made without browning the meat first.

Blanquette: [French] A white, creamy stew of veal, chicken, rabbit or lamb with small onions and mushrooms. The sauce is thickened with roux and enriched with cream.

Blend/mix (food industry term): The pricing of a defined section to achieve an overall profit percentage based on movement, unit profit and total sales of a section.

Blend: To mix two or more ingredients thoroughly.

Blend: To mix two or more ingredients together with a spoon, whisk, electric mixer, blender, or processor.

Blend: To mix ingredients just until thoroughly combined.

Blender: Electric liquefier with a glass or plastic container into which ingredients are added. A set of rotary blades is attached to the base of the vessel and rapidly reduces most ingredients to a smooth, or blended, consistency.

Blending: Preparation method that combines ingredients with a spoon, beater or liquefier to achieve a uniform mixture.

Blind Bake: To bake a pie crust without the filling.

Blind Bake: To bake a pie crust without the filling. Metal weights or dried beans are commonly used to weigh the crust down to prevent it from bubbling.

Blind ordering (food industry term): A practice of writing a new order even though an outstanding order has not been received.

Blini: [Russian] A small unsweetened pancake made of buckwheat flour and often leavened with yeast. These pancakes are often brushed with large amounts of melted butter and served with caviar and sour cream. Other versions may be made of vegetable purees or semolina flour.

Blintz: A Jewish pancake, stuffed and made with egg batter. The thin pancake can be rolled around a variety of fillings including soft cheeses, fruit or meat mixtures.

Blintz: A stuffed crepe or thin pancake. The filling is usually made of a fresh cheese or cottage cheese, and often topped with fresh fruit or fruit preserves.

Blister pack (food industry term): Product packaging that merchandises a product with a descriptive card under clear plastic wrap.

Bloating (food industry term): A damaged, swollen processed food can or glass container, which may indicate contamination, a safety hazard.

Blocking (squaring down) (food industry term): The practice of dressing up shelves. Products are pulled forward to a shelf's edge from the back of the shelf.

Blood sausage: Also known as "blood pudding" and "black pudding" in Ireland. This large link sausage is made of pig's blood, suet, bread crumbs, and oatmeal. It is generally sold precooked.

Bloom (food industry term): An indication of freshness and quality as beef turns bright red when exposed to oxygen.

Bloom: In bread baking, bloom refers to the attractive, brown color of the crust of a well-baked loaf of bread.

Blue (bleu) Cheese: A strong, semisoft, blue-veined cheese made from cow's milk.

Blue (Bleu) Cheese: A semi-soft, blue-veined cheese produced from cow's milk. It has a very strong, pungent aroma. Similar in flavor to French Roquefort and Italian Gorgonzola.

Blue cheese: The blue (or green) veins in blue cheese are created by flavor-producing molds injected (or occurring naturally) during the curing process. Roquefort, blue d'Avergne, Stilton, Gorgonzola, and Maytag blue are some of the best varieties. All blue cheeses smell strong but some varieties actually are quite mild.

Blue chips (food industry term): Products with high gross profits and high turnover on the shelves.

Blue corn: A variety of corn with blue-gray kernels; indigenous to the Southwest and originally grown by Pueblo Indians; dried and ground blue corn is more flavorful than yellow cornmeal.

Blue crab: Named after its blue claws and dark blue:green shell, this crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard:shell stages. The "soft:shell crab" is simply a blue crab caught just after molting.

Blue Crab: A variety of crab found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Named for the color of its claws and dark blue-green shell, the blue crab has a rich, sweet flavor and is available in hard- and soft-shell stages.

Blueberry: A native American berry that has a smooth dark blue skinand a light blue-gray flesh. Usually used for baked goods and jams and jellies.

Blueberry: More closely related to the cranberry than to the raspberry, the blueberry (and bilberry, huckleberry, and like berries) is distinctively different from both. Unlike the cranberry, it is sweet enough to eat raw, whole, and out of hand. Unlike the raspberry, it is sturdy enough to store, and it freezes well. With its relatively high sugar and acid content, it's the closest thing to an all-purpose berry.

Bluefin tuna: Among the largest of tuna, the bluefin can weigh over 1,000 pounds. As bluefin age, their flesh turns from light to dark red and takes on a stronger flavor.

Bluefine Tuna: The main Atlantic variety of tuna; a bluefin can weigh more than 1,000 pounds.

Bluefish: A fatty, fine:textured fish that is also known as "bulldog of the ocean" because of its tenacity. Found in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Discard the dark oily strip that runs down its center to prevent a strong, fishy flavor.

Bluegill: One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, bluegill are also known as "sunfish."

Blue-veined: Inoculated or sprayed with spores to create veins and pockets of bluish-green mold (stilton, roquefort, gorgonzola, Maytag blue).

Boar: An uncastrated male swine. In culinary terms, it is the male of a wild boar species found in Europe, Asia, North Africa and the U.S. Young boar is the best eating and is often prepared roasted, grilled, braised, or smoked like ham.

Boar: Wild pig; served both roasted and smoked.

Bobwhite: A small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. The flesh is white and delicately flavored. Most of these birds are raised on bird farms today. Known also as "quail."

Bocaditos: [Spanish] little bites.

Bockwurst: A German ground:veal sausage that is flavored with chopped parsley and chives. This sausage is normally sold raw. Bockwurst is traditionally served with bock beer, particularly during the Bavarian bock beer festivals.

Bogo (food industry term): Buy one get one free.

Boil: To heat water until bubbling vigorously and also to cook food in water that is bubbling vigorously. Most often, foods should be poached instead of boiled, because boiling tends to dry out and break down food too much. See definition below for poaching.

Boil: To cook in water or a liquid consisting mostly of water in which bubbles rise continually and break on the surface. The boiling temperature of water at sea level is 2120F or 1000C.

Boil: To cook in liquid that is heated until bubbles rise to the surface and break. Bubbles form throughout the mixture. Temperature - 2120 F or 1000 C (Also see Altitude).

Boil: To heat a liquid until bubbles appear on the surface (2120F for water at sea level).

Boiling Cooking food by transferring heat from water at around 2120 F to food (water will have large, rolling bubbles rising to the surface)

Boiling Onions: Mild-flavored white onions about 1 inch in diameter. They are used in stews, cooked as a side dish and pickled. See also onions.

Boiling: Preparation method which cooks a liquid at a temperature of 212 degrees F or 100 degrees C.

Bok Choy: A member of the cabbage family that has wide, white crunchy stalks with tender, dark green leaves. Commonly used in Chinese cuisine.

Bok Choy: A vegetable resembling Swiss Chard in shape, but much lighter in color and flavor. Bok choy has a mild flavor that is great raw in salads. It's also the best cabbage for stir-fries; the stems turn almost creamy after cooking. It can be found fresh in Oriental markets and most supermarkets, year-round. (Also called Chinese Chard)

Bola (bolita): [Spanish] ball (little ball).

Boletus: A family of wild mushrooms known for their rich taste and meaty texture. Porcinis and cepes are two members of this family of mushroom.

Bolillos: Mexican hard rolls which are similar to French bread; also a short rolling pin 2 inches in diameter and 8 inches or more long which rolls tortillas to a uniform thickness.

Bollito Misto: An Italian stew consisting of various cuts of meat, including zampone, boiled in a rich broth with vegetables. The whole dish is served with cornichons, pickled onions and a variation of chutney called mostarda di Cremona. These are whole or large pieces of fruit cooked in a spicy mustard flavored syrup. Other common sauces are salsa verde and mayonnaise.

Bollito: A boiling bean native to the Southwest; an ancestor of the pinto bean; takes a bit longer to cook; often used in broth-style side dishes of Mexican cuisine.

Bologna: Also known as "baloney." This is a highly seasoned sausage meat that takes its name from the Italian city of Bologna. True Italian sausage is called "mortadella."

Bologna: A large, seasoned, cooked sausage made from pork, beef and veal. Usually served cold in sandwiches. Also known as baloney.

Bombay duck: A small dried fish served in curry sauce.

Bombe: A rich dessert containing cream or custard mixtures arranged and frozen in a mold.

Bombes: Dessert ice cream

Bonbon: A sweet made of or dipped into fondant.

Boned, Boneless, Bone: A cut of meat from which the bone has been removed or to remove the bone from a cut of meat.

Bone-in: A cut of meat containing the bone.

Boniato: Also called batata, this is a popular tuber in both Latin America and Asia. The blotchy skin may be purplish or reddish, and the inside is white or creamy and slightly mealy when cooked. It tastes like a cross between white and sweet potatoes, and can be treated like either. The flavor somewhat suggests roasted chestnuts.

Boning: Preparation process which removes bones from meat, poultry, game or fish.

Bonito flakes: The dried flakes of a dark, full-flavored fish, used in the Japanese soup stock dashi, which is among the simplest stocks to make. Bonito flakes are available in Asian markets.

Bonito: This variety of tuna is the smallest of the tuna family, rarely weighing over 25 pounds. They range from moderate to high fat and are the most strongly flavored of the tunas. Many Japanese recipes call for dried bonito ("dashi").

Bonito: From the tuna family, the small bonito rarely exceeds 25 pounds. The fish is relatively high in fat and is among the most strongly flavored of the tunas.

Bonne femme: Cooked home-style; often with a creamy mushroom sauce.

Bonus pack (food industry term): A volume increase in a package, a merchandising technique to establish value for a customer by packaging an extra amount in a product while charging the regular price.

Booking (food industry term): A practice retailers use to order in advance to obtain special discounts and guarantee the delivery date, usually for seasonal and holiday products.

Borage: A European herb with blue flowers, downy leaves and a subtle cucumber flavor. The flowers and leaves can be added to cold drinks or used in salads. Since the leaves have a slightly hairy texture, they should be finely chopped before adding to salads. The leaves can also be used to flavor teas and vegetables, and the flowers are good when candied.

Bordelaise Sauce: A red or white wine sauce mixed with meat glaze, marrow, lemon juice, finely minced shallots, parsley, ground pepper, thyme, bay leaf, and other fresh herbs.

Bordelaise: This is a term primarily used to describe a dark brown sauce that includes shallots and red wine, vegetables, and garlic. Some versions of this sauce include slices of bone marrow added at the end of cooking. Fish dishes with this name will be cooked with white Bordeaux wine.

Bordure: A rice ring

Borek: Turkish appetizer. Fried or baked, boreks come in many varieties. They are made from layers of thin wheat dough and may be filled with a sweet or savory mixture. Cheese is a popular filling.

Borlotti Bean: Native to Italy, this bean is like the pinto, but reversed in color with maroon highlights on a thin pink skin. Borlotti and pinto beans are interchangeable in recipes since their flavor and texture are identical. Also known as cranberry, Roman, saluggia and crab-eye beans.

Borracho: [Spanish] drunken; foods containing liquor, beer or wine.

Borrego: [Spanish] baby lamb.

Borscht: A rich soup from Eastern Europe containing beets or cabbage. Other ingredients may include potatoes, beans, meat or sausage. The best known of these soups is a cold version based on beets and served with sour cream, but hot versions are very common.

Boston Baked Beans: An baked American dish of navy or pea beans, bacon or salt pork, mustard and brown sugar.

Boston Lettuce: A variety of butterhead lettuce with soft, pliable pale green leaves that have a buttery texture and flavor and are larger and lighter in color than bibb lettuce.

Boston lettuce: Part of the butterhead family, this simple lettuce sports soft but fairly well-defined heads with lots of loose outer leaves. The bland tenderness mingles nicely with some bitter loose leaf and super-crisp romaine.

Botanas: Plugs; stoppers; appetizers served with drinks.

Bottle returns (food industry term): Beverage bottles returned to a retailer for recycling.

Bottom line (food industry term): A term for a net profit, which is all money taken in (gross profit) minus all expenses.

Bouchee: [French] A small round puff pastry shell baked blind used for sweet or savory fillings.

Boudin: A pork- and rice-based, highly seasoned sausage that is common in southern Louisiana cooking. The term is French for "white pudding."

Boudin: Acadian pork blood sausage, highly seasoned and containing rice. The proportion of blood to rice produces "white" or "red" boudin. It originated among the Bayou communities. Smooth sausages of two types. Boudin blanc contain veal, pork, and chicken. Boudin noir are made with blood and rice or potatoes. The latter type are popular in European and Creole cooking.

Bouef: Beef

Bouillabaisse: Fish stew

Bouillabaisse: A rich fish stew from southern France. This was once a poor man's meal made of any fish available. Modern versions include lobster and shrimp. The broth is flavored with garlic, orange peel, fennel, and saffron. Olive oil is added to the stew and rapidly boiled to blend it into the broth. The stew may be served with croutons and rouille, a variation of aioli.

Bouilli: Meat used to prepare soup which is then served as a separate course.

Bouillon: Reduced meat stock

Bouillon: A clear, seasoned soup usually made from beef or chicken, vegetables and seasonings; also obtained by dissolving a bouillon cube or envelope in boiling water.

Boule (miche): Round loaf; taut skin stretched perfectly over a dome of bread dough, sealed on the bottom.

Boule: A ball-shaped loaf of bread that's baked without a pan in the oven.

Boulettes: A type of meatball used in the Creole cooking of southern Louisiana.

Bounce back (food industry term): A product marketing technique that pairs a customer's refund with a rebate on a product .

Bounce pattern (food industry term): A diagrammed path showing where customers stop and/or select products.

Bouquet Garni: A group of herbs (usually parsley, thyme and bay leaf) that are tied together in a bundle or placed in cheese clothand tied used to flavor soups, stews and broths. It is removed before serving.

Bouquet garni: A French-invented sachet of herbs, traditionally tied together, but now sold in small muslin bags. Usually includes parsley, thyme, a bay leaf and some rosemary, but may also include marjoram, garlic, rosemary, etc. Variations may include fennel, leeks, celery leaves, citrus rinds, garlic and black pepper. Added to stews, soups and sauces for flavoring; the bundle is easily removed when desired.

Bourguignon: [French] Foods cooked in the style of Burgundy. This includes red wine, mushrooms, pearl onions, and bacon. Also spelled; Bourgogne or Bourguignonne.

Bourguignonne, a la: Meat that is cooked red wine and served with small mushrooms and white onions.

Bourrride: Another fish stew from southern France. Here the broth, in which large pieces of fish are poached, is strained and thickened with aioli. The two are then served together in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.

Boursin Cheese: A French triple cream cheese with a soft texture; made from cow's milk and often flavored with herbs, garlic or pepper.

Bowl: A round vessel used for preparing and serving foods.

Box cutter (food industry term): A knife-like device with a razor blade used to open boxes.

Box store (food industry term): A limited-assortment store, which merchandises products in the original, cardboard shipping boxes.

Boysenberry: A hybrid of blackberries and raspberries that has a purple-red color and a tart-sweet flavor.

Bracket pricing (food industry term): A price schedule based on the number of cases that a retailer orders the greater the quantity ordered, the lower the price per case. Also called a volume or quantity discount.

Braid: To weave together three or more long pieces of dough.

Brains: Gourmets say that sheep's brains are best, followed by calves, then pigs. Often boiled with salted water and a dash of vinegar, then reheated with butter and capers or deep fried in egg and bread crumb batter.

Braise (food industry term): To cook meat by browning it in fat, then simmering it in a covered pan with a little liquid.

Braise: To cook in a small amount of liquid (also called stewing or pot roasting), rather than being submerged in liquid, as in boiling/poaching. Braising usually concentrates the food's flavor in the surrounding liquid for the purpose of making a sauce or coating.

Braise: To cook meat or poultry slowly in a covered utensil in a small amount of liquid or steam. (Meat may or may not be browned in a small amount of fat before braising.)

Braise: A cooking technique where meat is browned in oil or fat and then cooked (tightly covered) very slowly in liquid. Braising tenderizes and enhances the flavor of the meat.

Braise: To prepare food by browning, then cooking slowly in a small amount of liquid in the coven or in a covered pan on the stove top.

Braising Browning food first in hot fat, and then covering it with liquid and cooking slowly over low heat; a combination cooking method

Braising: A cooking method whereby food, typically raw meat, is first browned in oil, then cooked slowly in a liquid of wine, stock or water.

Bran: The outer layers of a kernel of grain that lie just below the hull. "Miller's bran" is produced during milling when the bran layers are removed from the grain kernel. About 14.5 percent of whole wheat flour is bran. Bran is used in baked goods and cereals to add dietary fiber and nutrients.

Bran: The tough, outer covering of several types of grain kernels. It is marketed in cereal and used as a nutrient supplement.

Bran: The outer husk of grains such as wheat, containing a high percentage of fiber. White flours have the bran removed. Whole wheat flours may contain all or part of the bran.

Branch house (food industry term): A redistribution center for a manufacturer or wholesaler. See transfers.

Brand (food industry term): A product that is uniquely labeled by a manufacturer, private label or national brands, for example.

Brand franchise (food industry term): An exclusive contract between a manufacturer and a wholesaler or a retailer to distribute and sell products in a specific market.

Brand image (food industry term): Consumers' images of the quality, value and taste of a product.

Brand loyalty (food industry term): A level of consumer support for a product measured by the product's turnover.

Brand share (food industry term): A percentage of category sales attributed to a specific product brand.

Brandade: A puree of salt cod mixed with olive oil and potatoes. Another version of brandade is covered with Gruyere cheese and browned in the oven. Both are served with croutons.

Bratwurst: A German sausage made of pork and veal and seasoned with ginger, nutmeg, and coriander or caraway. Each German district has its own special variety of this sausage. Also called "brotwurst."

Braunschweiger: A smoked German liver sausage made with eggs and milk. It is soft enough to spread and is usually served at room temperature.

Brazil Nuts: The seeds of a giant tree in the Brazilian forest; the large, hard fruit of this tree contains up to 20 seeds, each in its own hard shell. Inside the shell is a creamy, rich nut that can be roasted or ground or chipped to flavor cookies and pastries. Brazil nuts do not keep well because of their high oil content.

Bread & butter account (food industry term): A consistent, high-volume product for a wholesaler or broker.

Bread crumbs: There are two kinds of bread crumbs: fresh and dry. They should not be used interchangeably. Fresh crumbs can be made in a food processor or blender/ Dried bread crumbs are lightly browned and may be plain or flavored. They can be bought or made from good quality stale bread.

Bread flour: Unbleached, wheat flour that is higher in protein for better yeast bread dough development and preferred for use in bread machines. Look for bread flour that is enriched - as indicated on the ingredient label.

Bread scoring: 1. Evaluation of finished baked product to determine quality. 2. Slashing the surface (top) of loaves to allow for expansion as the loaf is baked.

Bread: To coat the surface of a food with a flour or breadcrumb mixture before cooking or frying, usually to create a crunchy surface.

Bread: To coat with crumbs of bread or other food; or to coat with crumbs, then with diluted, slightly beaten egg or evaporated milk, and again with crumbs.

Bread: Baked foods produced from dough made of flour, water, salt and other optional ingredients, and leavened by yeast or other leavening agents.

Bread: To coat food with bread or cracker crumbs, flour, cornmeal and a liquid or egg mixture before cooking.

Breadfruit: A large, round fruit with bumpy green skin and bland-tasting, cream-colored flesh the texture of fresh bread. Breadfruit can be baked, fried or boiled in the same way as potatoes. It is available fresh in some specialty produce markets, as well as canned.

Breadfruit: The exterior of these melon-sized round fruits is covered with hundreds of scaly bumps. Unripe, they are green and their flesh resembles a potato--hard, white, and starchy. Like plantains, breadfruit is used in savory and sweet dishes according to its ripeness. At the hard stage it is used in savory dishes and cooked like a potato or sweet potato. When slightly ripe, the outside is partly green. Baked at this stage, its flesh is slightly sticky, somewhat fruity, but spongy like bread. When ripe, the exterior is tender and brownish, and the flesh is creamy and sticky but still starchy and rather bland in flavor.

Breading Applying bread crumbs or another crunchy coating to food before frying; generally, food is dipped into a liquid, such as egg or milk, and then into the breading to aid in the sticking of the crumbs to the food

Break: The rough portion of the bread crust formed during oven spring between the pan's edge and the curve of the loaf's top. Break may occur on both sides or one side only.

Breakage allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's allowance to a wholesaler in case products are damaged during shipping.

Breaker plate (food industry term): A device used to grind beef the first time.

Break-even point (food industry term): An accounting term used to distinguish the point at which gross sales equal operating costs.

Breakfast: (n.) The first meal of the day

Breaking down (food industry term): Removing products from a case in order to clean and sanitize it. Also, removing component parts of a piece of equipment, such as a slicer or a grinder, to clean and sanitize it.

Breast: The fleshy white meat between the neck and abdomen of poultry.

Bresaola: Salt-cured, air-dried beef fillet, served thinly sliced as an antipasto.

Bresaola: A cured and dried beef filet from Italy with a more delicate texture but stronger flavor than that of prosciutto. A Swiss version of this is called bundnerfleisch. This style is pressed into a rectangular shape and has a bit drier texture than bresaola. Both are served thinly sliced with bread and fruit or pickled vegetables.

Bretonne: An Espagnole sauce with onions.

Brewer's Yeast: The inactive yeast remaining after beer-making. It is used as a nutritional supplement for humans, providing high-quality protein, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and phosphorus. Brewer's yeast has no leavening power.

Brick Cheese: An all-American pale yellow cheese with a tangy flavor. The flavor and aroma become stronger as the cheese ages.

Brider: To tie poultry or meat

Brie Cheese: Made from cow's milk, this soft, creamy cheese has a delicate, slightly nutty flavor. The white rind is also edible. To select brie at its peak of ripeness, look for one that is plump and springy to the touch. It is acceptable for the rind to show some brown edges, but ripe brie should be used within a few days. When brie is past its prime, it will appear gray and have an ammonia smell.

Brine solution (food industry term): A water and salt solution used to clean lobsters, among other uses.

Brine: A salt water solution used to preserve foods.

Brine: Salt and water solution used for pickling and preserving.

Brinjal: [India] Eggplant.

Brioche: Yeast-leavened sponge dough.

Brioche: [French] A large light, very rich, yeast roll made with lots of butter and eggs. Brioche is baked in many shapes though the brioche e tete is best known. The dough can be flavored with nuts or candied fruit, as well as herbs and spices. It may also be used to wrap foods like coulibiac. Slices of toasted brioche are the perfect companion to foie gras and gravlax. Brioche is very similar to the Jewish Challah.

Brisket (food industry term): A meat cut sliced from the breast of an animal.

Brisket: A cut of beef (or mutton) taken from the breast section; sold without the bone and divided into two sections. The flat cut has minimal fat and is usually more expensive than the more flavorful point cut, which has more fat. Brisket can be boiled, braised, barbecued, stewed or used to make corned beef, which requires long, slow cooking.

Brisket: The chest portion of the beef, usually extending some distance back of the forelegs; flavorful but rather tough, thus best used for pot roasts and for braising.

Broadside (food industry term): An advertising term that refers to two facing newspaper pages in an ad.

Broccoli raab: Broccoli raab, or rape, is more bitter, and has more stems and leaves than head broccoli, which has more florets. It can be found from fall to spring in markets with specialty produce sections, and can be used in any broccoli recipe.

Broccoli Rabe: A member of the broccoli family which looks similar to its relative, but has thinner stalks and is harvested very young. The leaves and young flower heads can be eaten cooked as spring greens or raw in salads. The stems are also edible. The flavor is slightly bitter and becomes more so as it matures. Select young, crisp, leafy stalks (they may have some yellow flowers), and check the stalks for toughness. Avoid large, woody stalks or yellow, limp leaves. Also known as broccoli rab, raab, rape, rapini, Italian turnip and broccoletti.

Broccoli, Broccoflower, Purple broccoli, Chinese Broccoli: Broccoli is a relative of cabbage, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower. A head of broccoli is a bouquet of tiny flower buds. Each small green stalk is called a floret and contains hundreds of buds. It has a deep emerald-green color with a purple or blue haze, and comes in tight clusters of tiny buds that sit on stout, edible stems. Purple broccoli or purple cauliflower or broccoflower closely resembles broccoli in shape and flavor. Romanesco is a form of broccoli with a conical head formed of small peaks of buds in a wonderful chartreuse color. Chinese broccoli, also known as Chinese kale. It is closely related to both broccoli and our common kale.

Broccoli: This deep-green relative of cabbage and cauliflower is made up of tiny bunches of tightly closed green buds growing from a thick edible stalk. Peak season is from October through April, but broccoli can be found in supermarkets year-round. Choose bunches with tightly closed buds, crisp leaves and deep green, or green with purple tinges (considered the best), in color. If not being cooked right away, store unwashed broccoli in an airtight bag in the refrigerator for up to four days. Peel any tough stalks before cooking. Steam or boil briefly to preserve some of the crispness.

Brochette: Food cooked on a skewer

Brochette: [French] A skewer. Food cooked "en brochette" is cooked on a skewer.

Brodo: [Italian] broth.

Broil (food industry term): To cook over a flame or other direct source of intense heat.

Broil: To cook close to a direct heat source, such as a gas flame or an electric coil. Broiling cooks food in just a couple minutes with a nice browned exterior (especially good for tender steaks).

Broil: To cook by direct heat.

Broil: To place directly under or over a heat source while cooking.

Broiling Using heat radiating from an overhead source to cook food (many home ovens are equipped with a broiler function); a dry-heat cooking method

Broken case price (bcp) (food industry term): A price calculated by adding the cost of a product to the cost of labor to repack the product. See split case.

Broker (food industry term): An independent agent or representative of various noncompetitive products in a retail market who represents a manufacturer and presents products, sales and special deals to a retailer or wholesaler. See agent; field broker;manufacturer's representative; master broker.

Brokerage (food industry term): A manufacturer's commission paid to a broker for the volume of products he or she sells to retailers or wholesalers.

Broker's warehouse (food industry term): A warehouse stocked with products and represented by a broker. See wholesale broker.

Bromated Flour: Flour with potassium bromate added as an aging agent; the label must state that the flour is "bromated." Potassium bromate is currently under examination and is expected to be outlawed in the United States. Food regulations no longer permit its use in Europe and Canada.

Broth or Stock: A flavorful liquid that is the result of cooking vegetables, meat or fish and other seasoning ingredients in water.

Broth: Liquid in which meat, poultry or vegetables have been simmered. Closely related to stock.

Brown beans: Smaller and rounder than American beans, these are used in Scandinavian dishes. found in specialty stores or Scandinavian markets.

Brown Rice: Whole rice grain with only the very outer husk removed. The bran coating is left on, giving the rice a tan color and nutlike flavor. Brown rice is higher in fiber and more nutritious than white rice. However, brown rice is subject to rancidity because of the bran and has a shelf life of only about six months. Brown rice also requires a longer cooking time than regular white long-grain rice.

Brown sugar: Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color. May be produced by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form, then centrifuging the crystals until dry.

Brown Sugar: White sugar combined with Molasses.This soft refined sugar come in dark or light.

Brown sugar: Brown sugar is simply white sugar combined with molasses. Dark brown sugar has lots of molasses; light brown sugar contains less. To recreate brown sugar, add two tablespoons molasses to white sugar. Dark brown sugar contains more molasses than light brown sugar.

Brown: To give a cooked surface to a food (such as meat or flour) by applying high heat. Also occurs during baking and roasting.

Brown: To cook quickly over or under high heat at the beginning or end of meal preparation, often to enhance flavor, texture and eye appeal.

Browned flour: Wheat flour browned in an oven or skillet; favored by Mexican and pioneer cooks for gravies and stews.

Brownie: A bar cookie, usually made with chocolate.

Browning: Preparation method, usually in a skillet or pot on the stove top, which sears in the outer surface of meat to seal in the juices.

Brulee: [French] Finishing method applied to dishes such as cream custards finished with caramelized sugar glaze. Can be done with a torch or under the broiler.

Brunoise: French term for finely diced vegetables (1/8 inch dice)

Brunoise: A very fine dice usually applied to vegetables.

Bruschetta: Bread that is drizzled with olive oil, saltand pep, then heated and served warm. It can be topped with olives, tomatoes, garlic paste, basil or other garnishes.

Bruschetta: Grilled slices of bread brushed with olive oil and fresh garlic. This was the original garlic bread.

Brush: Using a pastry brush, to coat a food such as meat or bread with melted butter or glaze.

Brussels Sprouts: A vegetable of the cabbage family that grows in small cabbage-like heads or buds.

Brussels sprouts: Brussels sprouts look like miniature cabbages, and that's what they are. Many rows of sprouts grow on a single long stalk. They range from 1 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter; the smaller sprouts are more tender. Like cabbage, they must not be overcooked, or they become soggy and strong-flavored. Reject sprouts with yellow leaves, loose leaves, or those that are soft or not tightly packed. Generally, Brussels sprouts are a winter vegetable, found from September or October on.

Bucatini: Thin, straight, short, hollow pasta.

Bucatini: Long, narrow tubes of pasta usually served with a hearty meat sauce.

Buckwheat flour: A gluten-free flour made by grinding hulled buckwheat seeds. It is not a relative of wheat. Originating in Russia, buckwheat has a distinctive flavor and is used in pancakes and some baked goods, such as multi-grain breads. Russian blini are made with buckwheat flour. Groats and kasha also are produced from buckwheat.

Buckwheat: Despite common misconceptions, buckwheat is neither a wheat nor a grain. It is actually the triangular seeds of a plant related to rhubarb. Once the seeds are hulled and ground they are called groats. Groats (usually available in fine, medium and coarse grinds) can be cooked in a manner similar to rice.

Buckwheat: An herb whose seeds impart a distinctive nutty, slightly fermented flavor to pancakes and other baked goods, as well as to noodles and pasta; because of its low gluten content, it is mixed with other flours for baking.

Budin: Pudding; usually a souffle-like dish, made with carrots, spinach or zucchini.

Bufalo: [Spanish] buffalo.

Buffalo fish: This freshwater fish, which belongs to the sucker family, is similar to carp. It offers a coarse but sweet, low:fat flesh that lends itself to a variety of cooking methods.

Buffalo: Also know as the "bison," buffalo is presently raised on game farms. Buffalo meat is very tender and tastes somewhat like lean beef. It has no pronounced gamey flavor.

Buffet: A meal where a large array of hot and cold foods are set out on a table and guests serve themselves.

Buffet: A vast array of hot and cold foods, often elaborately garnished.

Bulb Baster: A kitchen device used to baste various foods; consists of a tapered tube made of metal or plastic and a rubber bulb at the wider end. Basting liquid is drawn into the tube by squeezing and releasing the bulb; the liquid pours over the food when the bulb is squeezed again.

Bulgur wheat: Processed wheat made from the whole kernel that has been cooked and dried, used a lot in Middle Eastern dishes. Most commonly used in breads and tabbouleh salad. Three grinds; fine, medium, and coarse. Find in fancy supermarkets or gourmet stores.

Bulgur, Burghul: Wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried and crushed. It has has a tender, chewy texture and is used in dishes like Tabbouleh and other Middle Eastern dishes.

Bulgur: Whole-wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried, and cracked. Bulgur may be soaked or cooked and added to baked goods. Bulgur also may be ground into flour.

Bulk produce (food industry term): Loose, unpackaged, fresh produce that customers select themselves.

Bulk product (food industry term): Unpackaged, fresh products displayed in bins in large quantitites and sold by the piece or the pound, such as grains, candy or snacks.

Bulletin (food industry term): A communication to distribute information among different segments of an industry.

Bullhead: A small, freshwater catfish that usually weighs in at under a pound. Its flesh is lean and mild in flavor.

Bundt Pan: A tube baking pan with fluted sides.

Bunker (food industry term): A refrigerated, open display case used to merchandise products, primarily in frozen food and dairy departments.

Bunuelo: A Mexican pastry that is fried than sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar.

Bunuelos: [Spanish] bungle; mess up; fritters; sweetened fry bread usually sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar.

Burbot: A freshwater cod with a lean white flesh and a delicate flavor. It is normally poached, baked, broiled or sauteed.

Burdock: A root that grows more than 3 feet deep but is rarely more than 1/2 inch wide. Like carrots it is a member of the parsley family, and the white flesh is mildly sweet. Young shoots and large soft leaves are slightly bitter and nice in salads. Japanese cuisine is fond of burdock, and always include it when in season in their mixed vegetable tempuras.

Burrito desayuno: [Spanish] breakfast burrito.

Burrito: Flour tortilla filled with cheese, salsa or chile sauce, refried beans and/or beef and rolled.

Burrito: Flour tortilla folded like an envelope around a filling.

Burros (Arizona) and burritos (New Mexico and Texas): Flour tortillas stuffed with meats, beans, cheeses and chile sauces or any combination thereof.

Business review (food industry term): A periodic meeting to review operational performance, goals and projections.

Butcher's knots: Butcher's knots are slip knots that make it possible to tighten and loosen string as needed when rolling a boned roast.

Butter Lettuce: Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce, this salad green has a loosely formed head and a characteristically sweet flavor.

Butter, Cultured: Cultured butter is butter churned from cultured cream (cream fraiche). Most butter produced in the U.S. before 1920 was cultured butter, but in the 20's, the U.S. Government guaranteed the sale of every pound of butter produced, so quality became a non-issue and sweet cream butter prevailed.

Butter: Butter is produced by churning cream into a semi-solid form. By U.S. standard definition, it is 80 percent milk fat, with the remaining 20 percent consisting of water and milk solids. Butter for baking may be salted or unsalted and is valued by most bakers for its irreplaceable flavor and ability to create flaky layers, crispness, tenderness, carry flavors, and provide golden-brown color.

Butter: A fatty substance produced by churning cream. It contains at least 80 percent milk fat and 20 percent water and milk solids.

Butter: a cooking and eating fat that is made from sweet or sour cream and, by federal law, must contain a minimum of 80% milk fat (butterfat). It comes salted and unsalted (sweet); it also comes whipped for greater volume and easier spreading. Butter absorbs odors easily and is highly susceptible to rancidity. To avoid either of these problems, store butter in the refrigerator no longer than 2 weeks. For longer storage, butter may be frozen for up to 9 months without deterioration.

Butterfish: This small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the "dollarfish," "Pacific pompano," and "pomfret."

Butterfly: To split food such as shrimp or pork chops down the center without cutting all the way through and then spread open like a butterfly or open book.

Buttermilk: 1. A thick and tangy milk made from fresh, pasteurized skim or lowfat cow's milk then cultured with bacteria; also known as "cultured buttermilk". 2. Traditionally, the liquid remaining after the cream was churned into butter.

Buttermilk: Originally a by-product of butter making, buttermilk is commercially produced by adding lactic acid culture to skimmed or partially skimmed milk. Liquid left after butter is churned solid.

Butternut Squash: A large, pear-shaped squash with a smooth yellow brown skin and orange flesh with a sweet flavor.

Butterscotch: 1. A flavor blend of brown sugar and butter, used for cookies, candies, sauces. 2. A hard candy with the flavor of butterscotch.

Button mushroom: This is the standard, white, cultivated mushroom. Button mushrooms work well in concert with "wild mushrooms," which are more intensely flavored, but also more expensive.

Buy one get one free (bogo) (food industry term): An offer that allows a customer to buy an item at regular price and get a second, identical item free.

Buy out (food industry term): See forward buy.

Buyer (food industry term): A wholesale or retail employee who analyzes, selects and buys an appropriate product mix in a category.

Buyer's slips (food industry term): A paper or electronic form that a purchasing department uses to indicate to other departments the selection, quantity and delivery date of products.

Buy-in allowance (food industry term): See distribution allowance.

Buying committee (food industry term): A management review committee that analyzes and selects new products, deals and special promotions. See advisory board; merchandising committee; plans committee.

Buying co-op (food industry term): A retailers' group formed to take advantage of lower prices on products, advertising and equipment through economies of scale.

Buying corporation (food industry term): A freelance company that resells products.

Buying group (food industry term): A group of noncompeting retailers who analyze, select and purchase products and services, such as advertising and equipment together. Also called chain-owned buying group; affiliated chain.

Buying habits (food industry term): A profile of consumers' purchasing patterns and habits derived from analyzing data.

Buying headquarters (food industry term): A central location, where executives or other employees analyze and approve a mix of products for retailers and wholesalers to sell.