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Cambodia Issues - 2024


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Disputes - international

Cambodia-Laos: Cambodia is concerned that Laos' extensive upstream dam construction will affect Cambodian waters downstream

Cambodia-Thailand: Cambodia and Thailand have agreed to maintain peace along the border regardless of the decision of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over territorial dispute near Cambodia's Preah Vihear Temple; the ICJ decision of 11 November 2013 determined that Cambodia had sovereignty over the whole territory of the promontory of Preah Vihear; the border disputes do not involve large amounts of territory, and most of the issues were settled by the Nov. 11, 2013 ICJ ruling

Cambodia-Vietnam: issues include casinos built in Cambodia near the border (gambling and prostitution); narcotics (criminals, crime, and abuse); trafficking of women and children, petrol smuggling into Cambodia from Vietnam, illegal logging, and illegal migration

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 75,000 (2022)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 3 — Cambodia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so, therefore, Cambodia remained on Tier 3; authorities took some steps to address trafficking, including continuing to investigate, prosecute and convict more traffickers, creating a special working group to investigate reports of large-scale cyber scam operations involving possible forced labor and identifying and assisting more victims; however, corruption and official complicity in trafficking, including by senior officials, remained widespread, leading to selective and politically motivated enforcement of laws while inhibiting law enforcement efforts; authorities did not investigate or hold accountable any officials involved in the large number of credible reports of complicity; officials did not effectively address forced labor in cyber scam operations nor equitably screen or assist foreign workers removed from cyber scam operations; the government inappropriately penalized victims for crimes committed as a result of being trafficked, including holding victims until they paid bribes to police for release or were repatriated by their home country (2023)

trafficking profile:

human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Cambodia, as well as Cambodian victims abroad; Cambodian adults and children migrate to other countries in the region or increasingly to the Middle East where traffickers force them to work in agriculture, fishing, construction, manufacturing, and domestic servitude or exploit them in sex trafficking; significant numbers of Cambodian men and boys are subject to forced labor on Thai ships in international waters and may experience physical abuse, nonpayment or underpayment of wages, and confinement at sea; brick kiln owners exploit thousands of Cambodians, including children, through debt-based coercion; children from poor families are vulnerable to forced labor, often with the complicity of their parents, in domestic servitude, forced begging, or street vending in Thailand and Vietnam; traffickers recruit Cambodian women and girls from rural areas under false pretenses, or sometimes through complicit parents, to travel to China to marry Chinese-national men where they are subject to sex trafficking or forced labor; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls who move from rural areas to cities and tourist areas are subjected to sex trafficking; media reports indicate Chinese national-organized crime syndicates fraudulently recruit men, women, and children from Cambodia and other countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America and force them into online gambling, Internet, cryptocurrency, and telephone scams, primarily in large commercial compounds in Cambodia (2023)

Illicit drugs

a significant transshipment country for Burma-sourced methamphetamine and heroin and a location for large-scale ketamine production; transnational criminal organizations (TCO’s) use Cambodia as both a transit and destination for illicit drugs; precursor chemicals from mainly China used at domestic clandestine laboratories operated by TCOs for the manufacturing of methamphetamine, ketamine, and other synthetic drugs


NOTE: The information regarding Cambodia on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Cambodia 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Cambodia 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.